Mosquitos - Mosquitos (CD)


You may also call the District at for additional information. David Hoel, Executive Director. For more information call LCMCD hosted an aerial workshop for pilots and other aerial applicators in the mosquito control profession. The workshop was filled with informative presentations and awesome demos showcasing current practices in mosquito control.

Thank you to all of the instructors Their larvae only possess a pit-eye ocellus. The compound eyes of adults develop in a separate region of the head. During the first phase of growth, this leads to individual ommatidia being square, but later in development they become hexagonal. The hexagonal pattern will only become visible when the carapace of the stage with square eyes is molted. The head also has an elongated, forward-projecting, stinger-like proboscis used for feeding, and two sensory palps.

In typical bloodsucking species, the female has an elongated proboscis. The thorax is specialized for locomotion. Three pairs of legs and a pair of wings are attached to the thorax. The insect wing is an outgrowth of the exoskeleton. Males beat their wings between and times per second. The abdomen is specialized for food digestion and egg development; the abdomen of a mosquito can hold three times its own weight in blood. The blood is digested over time, serving as a source of protein for the production of eggs, which gradually fill the abdomen.

Typically, both male and female mosquitoes feed on nectaraphid honeydew, and plant juices, [35] but in many species the mouthparts of the females are adapted for piercing the skin of animal hosts and sucking their blood as ectoparasites. In many species, the female needs to obtain nutrients from a blood meal before it can produce eggs, whereas in many other species, obtaining nutrients from a blood meal enables the mosquito to lay more eggs.

A mosquito has a variety of ways of finding nectar or its prey, including chemical, visual, and heat sensors. When a female reproduces without such parasitic meals, it is said to practice autogenous reproduction, as in Toxorhynchites ; otherwise, the reproduction may be termed anautogenousas occurs in mosquito species that serve as disease vectors, particularly Anopheles and some of the most important disease vectors in the genus Aedes.

In contrast, some mosquitoes, for example, many Culexare partially anautogenous: they do not need a blood meal for their first cycle of egg production, which they produce autogenously; however, subsequent clutches of eggs are produced anautogenously, at which point their disease vectoring activity becomes operative.

Among humans, the feeding preferences of mosquitoes typically include: those with type O bloodheavy breathers, an abundance of skin bacteria, high body heat, and pregnant women. Female mosquitoes hunt their blood host by detecting organic substances such as carbon dioxide CO 2 and 1-octenol mushroom alcoholfound in exhaled breath produced from the host, and through visual recognition.

Mosquitoes prefer some people over others. The preferred victim's sweat smells more attractive than others' because of the proportions of the carbon dioxide, octenoland other compounds that make up body odor. Of 72 types of odor receptors on its antennae, at least 27 are tuned to detect chemicals found in perspiration. First, the mosquito exhibits a nonspecific searching behavior until the perception of a host's stimulants, then it follows a targeted approach.

Most mosquito species are crepuscular dawn or dusk feeders. During the heat of the day, most mosquitoes rest in a cool place and wait for the evenings, although they may still bite if disturbed. Prior to and during blood feeding, blood-sucking mosquitoes inject saliva into the bodies of their source s of blood. This saliva serves as an anticoagulant ; without it the female mosquito's proboscis might become clogged with blood clots.

The saliva also is the main route by which mosquito physiology offers passenger pathogens access to the hosts' bloodstream. The salivary glands are a major target to most pathogens, whence they find their way into the host via the saliva. A mosquito bite often leaves an itchy weala raised bump, on the victim's skin, which is caused by histamines trying to fight off the protein left by the attacking insect.

Mosquitoes of the genus Toxorhynchites never drink blood. These mosquito eaters have been used in the past as mosquito control agents, with varying success. Many, if not all, blood-sucking species of mosquitoes are fairly selective feeders that specialise in particular host species, though they often relax their selectivity when they experience severe competition for food, defensive activity on the part of the hosts, or starvation.

Some species feed selectively on monkeys, while others prefer particular kinds of birds, but they become less selective as conditions become more difficult. For example, Culiseta melanura sucks the blood of passerine birds for preference, and such birds are typically the main reservoir of the Eastern equine encephalitis virus in North America.

Early in the season while mosquito numbers are low, they concentrate on passerine hosts, but as mosquito numbers rise and the birds are forced to defend themselves more vigorously, the mosquitoes become less selective of hosts. Soon the mosquitoes begin attacking mammals more readily, thereby becoming the major vector of the virus, and causing epidemics of the disease, most conspicuously in humans and horses.

Even more dramatically, in most of its range in North America, the main vector for the Western equine encephalitis virus is Culex tarsalisbecause it is known to feed variously on mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians.

Even fish may be attacked by some mosquito species if they expose themselves above water level, as mudskippers do. In it was reported that some species of anautogenous mosquitoes would feed on the haemolymph of caterpillars. Mosquito mouthparts are very specialized, particularly those of the females, which in most species are adapted to piercing skin and then sucking blood. Apart from bloodsucking, the females generally also drink assorted fluids rich in dissolved sugar, such as nectar and honeydew, to obtain the energy they need.

For this, their blood-sucking mouthparts are perfectly adequate. In contrast, male mosquitoes are not bloodsuckers; they only drink sugary fluids.

Accordingly, their mouthparts do not require the same degree of specialization as those of females. Externally, the most obvious feeding structure of the mosquito is the proboscis. More specifically, the visible part of the proboscis is the labiumwhich forms the sheath enclosing the rest of the mouthparts. When the mosquito first lands on a potential host, its mouthparts are enclosed entirely in this sheath, and it will touch the tip of the labium to the skin in various places.

Sometimes, it will begin to bite almost straight away, while other times, it will prod around, apparently looking for a suitable place. Occasionally, it will wander for a considerable time, and eventually fly away without biting. Presumably, this probing is a search for a place with easily accessible blood vessels, but the exact mechanism is not known.

It is known that there are two taste receptors at the tip of the labium which may well play a role. The female mosquito does not insert its labium into the skin; it bends back into a bow when the mosquito begins to bite. The tip of the labium remains in contact with the skin of the victim, acting as a guide for the other mouthparts.

In total, there are six mouthparts besides the labium: two mandiblestwo maxillaethe hypopharynxand the labrum. The mandibles and the maxillae are used for piercing the skin. The mandibles are pointed, while the maxillae end in flat, toothed "blades". To force these into the skin, the mosquito moves its head backwards and forwards. On one movement, the maxillae are moved as far forward as possible.

On the opposite movement, the mandibles are pushed deeper into the skin by levering against the maxillae. The maxillae do not slip back because the toothed blades grip the skin. The hypopharynx and the labrum are both hollow.

Saliva with anticoagulant is pumped down the hypopharynx to prevent clotting, and blood is drawn up the labrum. To understand the mosquito mouthparts, it is helpful to draw a comparison with an insect that chews food, such as a dragonfly. A dragonfly has two mandibles, which are used for chewing, and two maxillae, which are used to hold the food in place as it is chewed. The labium forms the floor of the dragonfly's mouth, the labrum forms the top, while the hypopharynx is inside the mouth and is used in swallowing.

Conceptually, then, the mosquito's proboscis is an adaptation of the mouthparts that occur in other insects. The labium still lies beneath the other mouthparts, but also enfolds them, and it has been extended into a proboscis.

The maxillae still "grip" the "food" while the mandibles "bite" it. The top of the mouth, the labrum, has developed into a channeled blade the length of the proboscis, with a cross-section like an inverted "U".

Finally, the hypopharynx has extended into a tube that can deliver saliva at the end of the proboscis. Its upper surface is somewhat flattened so, when the lower part of the hypopharynx is pressed against it, the labrum forms a closed tube for conveying blood from the victim. For the mosquito to obtain a blood meal, it must circumvent the vertebrate 's physiological responses. The mosquito, as with all blood-feeding arthropodshas mechanisms to effectively block the hemostasis system with their saliva, which contains a mixture of secreted proteins.

Mosquito saliva acts to reduce vascular constrictionblood clottingplatelet aggregation, angiogenesis and immunityand creates inflammation. Mosquito saliva also contains enzymes that aid in sugar feeding, [65] and antimicrobial agents to control bacterial growth in the sugar meal.

It is now well recognized that feeding tickssandfliesand, more recently, mosquitoes, have an ability to modulate the immune response of the animals hosts on which they feed.

The mechanism for mosquito saliva-induced alteration of the host immune response is unclear, but the data have become increasingly convincing that such an effect occurs. T cell populations are decidedly susceptible to the suppressive effect of mosquito saliva, showing increased mortality and decreased division rates. Studies in humanized mice bearing a reconstituted human immune system have suggested potential impact of mosquito saliva in humans.

Work published in from the Baylor College of Medicine using such humanized mice came to several conclusions, among them being that mosquito saliva led to an increase in natural killer T cells in peripheral blood; to an overall decrease in ex vivo cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs ; changes to proportions of subsets of PBMCs; changes in the Mosquitos - Mosquitos (CD) of T cell subtypes across organs; and changes to circulating levels of cytokines.

Most species of mosquito require a blood meal to begin the process of egg development. Females with poor larval nutrition may need to ingest sugar or a preliminary blood meal before their ovarian follicles can reach their resting stage.

Once the follicles have reached the resting stage, digestion of a sufficiently large blood meal triggers a hormonal cascade that leads to egg development. This membrane keeps the blood separate from anything else in the stomach. However, like certain other insects that survive on dilute, purely liquid diets, notably many of the Hemipteramany adult mosquitoes must excrete unwanted aqueous fractions even as they feed. See the photograph of a feeding Anopheles stephensi : Note that the excreted droplet patently is not whole blood, being far more dilute.

As long as they are not disturbed, this permits mosquitoes to continue feeding until they have accumulated a full meal of nutrient solids. As a result, a mosquito replete with blood can continue to absorb sugar, even as the blood meal is slowly digested over a period of several days.

These are used as building blocks for the synthesis of vitellogeninwhich are the precursors for Mosquitos - Mosquitos (CD) yolk protein. In the mosquito Anopheles stephensitrypsin activity is restricted entirely to the posterior midgut lumen. No trypsin activity occurs before the blood meal, but activity increases continuously up to 30 hours after feeding, and subsequently returns to baseline levels by 60 hours.

Aminopeptidase is active in the anterior and posterior midgut regions before and after feeding. In the whole midgut, activity rises from a baseline of approximately three enzyme units EU per midgut to a maximum of 12 EU at 30 hours after the blood meal, subsequently falling to baseline levels by 60 hours. A similar cycle of activity occurs in the posterior midgut and posterior midgut lumen, whereas aminopeptidase in the posterior midgut epithelium decreases in activity during digestion.

Aminopeptidase in the anterior midgut is maintained at a constant, low level, showing no significant variation with time after feeding. Alpha-glucosidase is active in anterior and posterior midguts before and at all times after feeding.

In whole midgut homogenates, alpha-glucosidase activity increases slowly up to 18 hours after the blood meal, then rises rapidly to a maximum at 30 hours after the blood meal, whereas the subsequent decline in activity is less predictable. All posterior midgut activity is restricted to the posterior midgut lumen. After blood meal ingestion, proteases are active only in the posterior midgut. Trypsin is the major primary hydrolytic protease and is secreted into the posterior midgut lumen without activation in the posterior midgut epithelium.

Aminopeptidase activity is also luminal in the posterior midgut, but cellular aminopeptidases are required for peptide processing in both anterior and posterior midguts. Alpha-glucosidase activity is elevated in the posterior midgut after feeding in response to the blood meal, whereas activity in the anterior midgut is consistent with a nectar-processing role for this midgut region.

Mosquitoes are cosmopolitan world-wide : they are in every land region except Antarctica [62] and a few islands with polar or subpolar climates.

Iceland is such an island, being essentially free of mosquitoes. The absence of mosquitoes in Iceland and similar regions is probably because of quirks of their climate, which differs in some respects from mainland regions. At the start of the uninterrupted continental winter of Greenland and the northern regions of Eurasia and America, the pupa enters diapause under the ice that covers sufficiently deep water. The imago emerges only after the ice breaks in late spring.

In Iceland however, the weather is less predictable. In mid-winter it frequently warms up suddenly, causing the ice to break, but then to freeze again after a few days. By that time the mosquitoes will have emerged from their pupae, but the new freeze sets in before they can complete their life cycle.

Any anautogenous adult mosquito would need a host to supply a blood meal before it could lay viable eggs; it would need time to mate, mature the eggs and oviposit in suitable wetlands. These requirements would not be realistic in Iceland and in fact the absence of mosquitoes from such subpolar islands is in line with the islands' low biodiversity; Iceland has fewer than 1, described species of insects, many of them probably accidentally introduced by human agency.

In Iceland most ectoparasitic insects live in sheltered conditions or actually on mammals; examples include lice, fleas and bedbugs, in whose living conditions freezing is no concern, and most of which were introduced inadvertently by humans.

Some other aquatic Diptera, such as Simuliidaedo survive in Iceland, but their habits and adaptations differ from those of mosquitoes; Simuliidae for example, though they, like mosquitoes, are bloodsuckers, generally inhabit stones under running water that does not readily freeze and which is totally unsuited to mosquitoes; mosquitoes are generally not adapted to running water.

Eggs of species of mosquitoes from the temperate zones are more tolerant of cold than the eggs of species indigenous to warmer regions. In addition, adults of some species can survive the winter by taking shelter in suitable microhabitats such as buildings or hollow trees. Several flowers are pollinated by mosquitoes, [87] including some members of the Asteraceae, Roseaceae and Orchidaceae. In warm and humid tropical regions, some mosquito species are active for the entire year, but in temperate and cold regions they hibernate or enter diapause.

Arctic or subarctic mosquitoes, like some other arctic midges in families such as Simuliidae and Ceratopogonidae may be active for only a few weeks annually as melt-water pools form on the permafrost.

During that time, though, they emerge in huge numbers in some regions and may take up to ml of blood per day from each animal in a caribou herd.

Worldwide introduction of various mosquito species over large distances into regions where they are not indigenous has occurred through human agencies, primarily on sea routes, in which the eggs, larvae, and pupae inhabiting water-filled used tires and cut flowers are transported.

However, apart from sea transport, mosquitoes have been effectively carried by personal vehicles, delivery trucks, trains, and aircraft. Man-made areas such as storm water retention basinsor storm drains also provide sprawling sanctuaries. Sufficient quarantine measures have proven difficult to implement.

In addition, outdoor pool areas make a perfect place for them to grow. In order for a mosquito to transmit a disease to the host there must be favorable conditions, referred to as transmission seasonality. Climatology and the study of mosquito-borne disease have been developed only over the past years; however historical records of weather patterns and distinct symptoms associated with mosquito-borne diseases can be utilized to trace the prevalence of these diseases in relation to the climate over longer time periods.

Two types of models are used to predict mosquito-borne disease spread in relation to climate: correlative models and mechanistic models. Correlative models focus primarily on vector distribution, and generally function in 3 steps.

First, data is collected regarding geographical location of a target mosquito species. Next, a multivariate regression model establishes the conditions under which Mosquitos - Mosquitos (CD) target species can survive. Finally, the model determines the likelihood of the mosquito species to become established in a new location based on similar living conditions.

The model can further predict future distributions based on environmental emissions data. Mechanistic models tend to be broader and include the pathogens and hosts in the analysis. These models have been used to recreate past outbreaks as well as predict the potential risk of a vector-borne disease based on an areas forecasted climate.

Mosquito-borne diseases are currently most prevalent in East Africa, Mosquitos - Mosquitos (CD) America, Southeast Asia, and India ; however, emergence of vector-borne diseases in Europe have recently been observed. One statistical model predicts bythe climate of southern Great Britain will be climatically suitable for malaria transmission Plasmodium vivax for 2 months of the year.

By it is predicted that the same will be true for southern Scotland. Mosquitoes can act as vectors for many disease-causing viruses and parasites.

Infected mosquitoes carry these organisms from person to person without exhibiting symptoms themselves. Potential transmission of HIV was originally a public health concern, but practical considerations and detailed studies of epidemiological patterns suggest that any transmission of the HIV virus by mosquitoes is at worst extremely unlikely. Various species of mosquitoes are estimated to transmit various types of disease to more than million people annually in Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico, Russia, and much of Asia, with millions of resultant deaths.

At least two million people annually die of these diseases, and Mosquitos - Mosquitos (CD) morbidity rates are many times higher still. Methods used to prevent the spread of disease, or to protect individuals in areas where disease is endemic, include:. Since most such diseases are carried by "elderly" female mosquitoes, some scientists have suggested focusing on these to avoid the evolution of resistance.

Many measures have been tried for mosquito controlincluding the elimination of breeding places, exclusion via window screens and mosquito netsbiological control with parasites such as fungi [] [] and nematodes, [] or predators such as fish, [] [] [] copepods[] dragonfly nymphs and adults, and some species of lizard and gecko. They are lethally efficient at sucking blood from one individual and mainlining it into another, providing an ideal route for the spread of pathogenic microbes.

Insect repellents are applied on skin and give short-term protection against mosquito bites. The chemical DEET repels some mosquitoes and other insects. Others are indalone, dimethyl phthalatedimethyl carbateand ethyl hexanediol. Electronic insect repellent devices that produce ultrasounds intended to keep away insects and mosquitoes are marketed, however, no scientific research based on studies by the EPA as well as many university studies has ever provided evidence that these devices prevent a human from being bitten by a mosquito.

Mosquito bites lead to a variety of mild, serious, and, rarely, life-threatening allergic reactions. These include ordinary wheal and flare reactions and mosquito bite allergies MBA.

The MBA, also termed hypersensitivity to mosquito bites HMBare excessive reactions to mosquito bites that are not caused by any toxin or pathogen in the saliva injected by a mosquito at the time it takes its blood-meal.

Rather, they are allergic hypersensitivity reactions caused by the non-toxic allergenic proteins contained in the mosquito's saliva. These include Aedes aegyptiAedes vexansAedes albopictusAnopheles sinensisCulex pipiens[] Aedes communisAnopheles stephensi[] Culex quinquefasciatusOchlerotatus triseriatus[] and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. It is therefore assumed that these allergic responses may be caused by virtually any mosquito species or other biting insect. The mosquito bite allergies are informally classified as 1 the Skeeter syndromei.

Visible, irritating bites are due to an immune response from the binding of IgG and IgE antibodies to antigens in the mosquito's saliva. Some of the sensitizing antigens are common to all mosquito species, whereas others are specific to certain species. There are both immediate hypersensitivity reactions types I and III and delayed hypersensitivity reactions type IV to mosquito bites. Immediate reactions develop within a few minutes of the bite and last for a few hours.

Delayed reactions take around a day to develop, and last for up to a week. Several anti-itch medications are commercially available, including those taken orally, such as diphenhydramineor topically applied antihistamines and, for more severe cases, corticosteroidssuch as hydrocortisone and triamcinolone.

Aqueous ammonia 3. Both topical heat [] and cool [] may be useful to treat mosquito bites. Ancient Greek beast fables including "The Elephant and the Mosquito" and "The Bull and the Mosquito", with the general moral that the large beast does not even notice the small one, derive ultimately from Mesopotamia. The peoples of Siberia have origin myths surrounding the mosquito. Capungjuga dikenal sebagai elang nyamuk merupakan agen pengawal yang berkesan.

Larva capung naiads memakan jentik-jentik dalam penampungan air sementara capung dewasa pula memburu dan memakan nyamuk dewasa, terutama nyamuk harimau asia yang terbang pada Mosquitos - Mosquitos (CD) siang. Penyemburan nyamuk bisa memperburuk keadaan dan meningkatkan populasi nyamuk dalam tempo jangka masa panjang sekiranya penyemburan itu melenyapkan capung dan pemangsa alami yang lain.

Sebagian nyamuk mampu menyebarkan penyakit protozoa seperti malariapenyakit filaria seperti kaki gajahdan penyakit bawaan virus seperti demam kuningdemam berdarah dengueencephalitisdan virus Nil Barat. Virus Nil Barat disebarkan secara tidak sengaja ke Amerika Serikat pada tahun dan pada tahun telah merebak ke seluruh negara bagian di Amerika Serikat. Berat nyamuk hanya 2 hingga 2,5 mg. Pengusir nyamuk biasanya mempunyai kandungan aktif berikut: DEETsulingan minyak Catnip - NepetalactoneCitronella atau sulingan minyak eucalyptus.

Nyamuk selalu dapat menemukan sasarannya dengan tepat karena mereka melihat dengan gerakan, panas tubuh, dan bau tubuh. Sewaktu nyamuk hinggap di tubuh dia menempelkan mulutnya yang mirip sedotan disebut juga probosis. Lalu terdapat pisau yang akan merobek kulit korban maju mundur hingga menemukan urat darah, setelah itu baru darah yang ada diisap. Dalam prosesnya nyamuk juga mengeluarkan air liur yang mengandung antikoagulan untuk mencegah darah yang ia isap membeku.

Proses ini berlangsung cepat dan seolah-olah proses yang terjadi adalah nyamuk menusuk tubuh padahal tidak begitu, nyamuk membedah kita seperti layaknya dokter bedah yang cepat dan akurat. Setelah nyamuk kenyang dia akan mencabut probiosis dan terbang. Air liur nyamuk yang tertinggal di kulit korban akan merangsang tubuh layaknya ada benda asing yang mengganggu, terjadilah proses yang dikenal dengan alergidan yang terjadi adalah bentol-bentol dan gatal.

Terdapat beberapa tanaman yang dapat menangkal nyamuk: [2]. Artikel bertopik serangga ini adalah sebuah rintisan. Anda dapat membantu Wikipedia dengan mengembangkannya. Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas. Artikel ini membutuhkan rujukan tambahan agar kualitasnya dapat dipastikan. Mohon bantu kami mengembangkan artikel ini dengan cara menambahkan rujukan ke sumber tepercaya. Pernyataan tak bersumber bisa saja dipertentangkan dan dihapus. Meigen[1]. Daftar isi. Brunhes, J.

Interactive identification guide to mosquitoes of North Africa, with database of information on morphology, ecology, epidemiology, and control. Pathogenesis of invertebrate microbial diseases. Montclair, N. ISBN Jahn, G. Journal of the Florida Anti-Mosquito Association. The Auk. JSTOR

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