Le langage est une force, un savoir qui donne cette force. Odin donne ce pouvoir aux hommes. Le Dieu biblique le leur refuse. Les noms de guerre sont nombreux. Il meurt dans MP3) pire des souffrances.
Est-il ivre de la guerre, rendu ivre par la guerre? Je ne le pense pas. Reprenons la description de Goliath. Le porte- bouclier marchait devant lui. Ce fait est essentiel. On a ici un affrontement cosmique entre deux civilisations. La parole est alors fondamentale. Et surtout les Valkyries sont des anges dans la vision biblique. Tout le mal vient de Loki.
La vengeance contre Loki sera dure mais inefficace. Thor attaque Jormungandr. Surt alors met le feu au monde. Eternel recommencement. The contributions cover different areas of digital culture, but they all en- dorse a material understanding of digital artefacts by situating their objects of research in a dispositif that comprehends the dynamic connections between dis- courses, social appropriation, and technological design Kessler Processor, memory, network, screen, keyboard Together the chapters in this book will give an overview of, and at the same time develop a theoretical approach to, digital cultures as material practices — material practices as performed and experienced in daily life as well as configured in tech- nology.
They show how the idea of a digital materiality can be grasped and theo- rized within the field of new media studies, drawing on the diverse backgrounds and research objects, ranging from wireless technologies, software studies, com- puter graphics and digital subcultures to Internet metaphors and game-play.
As computer components, they seem to refer primarily to hardware objects, yet it should be stressed that they all need software to work. Moreover, none of the components can function indepen- dently. Metaphorically, each component provides access to a different configura- tion of digital material, as each reflects another assemblage of the versatile re- search ground that new media studies entail.
MEMORY refers to devices for storage and retrieval; metaphorically it stands for history, recurring patterns and persistent ideas.
The NETWORK en- ables connections, transmissions, and extensions; as a metaphorical book section it interrogates how the social-cultural assemblages of contemporary machinery are connected to society and daily life. The SCREEN represents how the machinery reflects and re- fracts its users, how their activities are channeled, and how hardware, software, and visual culture are related.
It specifically pays attention to how and by whom they are executed and created, whether in terms of ideology, participatory culture or design. In his chapter Serious games from an apparatus perspective, Joost Raessens draws our attention to so-called serious gaming when he engages in a critical discussion about educational games that are meant to incite learning through playing.
In Empower yourself, defend freedom! Nieborg de- monstrates that the global dissemination of this game among youth culture may weaken the purpose of recruitment, but at the same time endows it with a more implicit persuasive power that has its own ideological value. In her contribution Digital objects in e-learning environments: The case of WebCT, Erna Kot- kamp argues that a different approach to the design of e-learning environments such as WebCT and Blackboard is needed when educational tools change their objectives towards user interaction rather than content transference.
The first is needed for execution and calculation, the second for sto- rage and retrieval of data. In accordance, the MEMORY section of this book com- prises chapters that deal with how digital machinery stores and retrieves data, thereby producing, reproducing and negotiating cultural artefacts. As Michel Serres famously noted in his conversation with Bruno Latour Serres and Latourthings are only contemporary by composition, and some parts are always related to memory and the past.
Digital materials should correspondingly be seen as assemblages that hold various temporal references, tapping from previously stored and inscribed cultural resources. The chapters in this section examine in different ways how contemporary digital technologies relate to inscriptions of other times.
Imar de Vries draws our attention to a temporal dimension of new media when he discusses utopian discourses surrounding mobile devices. In The vanishing points of mobile communication, he ascertains that just like discussions in the early s about the Internet, utopian visions about mobile communication embody an age-old quest for ideal communication. Yet, as Laf-O - The Dawn Of Incarnation (File Vries shows, such utopian discourses of progress are incongruent in certain respects with how mobile tech- nologies are experienced in everyday life.
Hence, living in a connected culture entertains a paradoxical relationship with utopian ideals of perfect communica- tion. In The design of world citizenship: A historical comparison between world exhibitions and the web, Berteke Waaldijk examines historical dimensions of digital practices by comparing 19th-century world fairs with the Internet.
She shows that the promise of seeing everything on the web bears clear similarities to the promise of seeing Laf-O - The Dawn Of Incarnation (File world at world exhibitions. In both cases there is a disparity between ideolo- gical promises of seeing and the vulnerability of being watched and controlled as well as an oscillation between global and local positionings of citizenship.
Thus situated in a twilight zone, these subcultures replay and reshape sounds and voices from the past in a contemporary digital and technological setting. The parts of our metaphorical computer can never function separately, but need to be connected to other parts to work properly. In the NETWORK section of this book, this facet is highlighted as attention shifts to how digital material should be conceived as being part of a more widespread network.
How the parti- cipatory role of the user should be acknowledged as part of a network is ad- dressed in the first two chapters of this section. In Participation inside? Though user appropriation of such file-sharing technologies challenges the established media industry whose business models rely on controlling the distri- bution of media objects, user activities should not be conceived as unequivocally subversive.
Marinka Copier plays up another dimension of networking technologies in de- scribing how playing on-line games like World of Warcraft becomes a part of daily practice. Instead, she proposes treating games like World of Warcraft as networks that are anchored in our everyday life. In Renaissance now! He foresees a new digitized world of playing in which we can be active agents in producing the stories that make the world go round, thus generating new narrative networks by controlling the buttons and breaking hegemonies.
In the SCREEN section, contributions focus on how screens function as a membrane or locus of passage that hybridize and connect different realms and categories. He claims that debates about the real or authentic quality of recorded images has shifted since the emergence of new media, where an image is no longer necessarily pre-recorded and data become more mutable.
Pervasive games intentionally mingle with daily life and therefore need a theoretical framework that takes this into account. Hence Nieuwdorp calls for an interfacial approach to perva- sive games that allows us to acknowledge the connection between its fantastical dimensions and daily life.
In the following chapter Grasping the screen: Towards a conceptualization of touch, mobility and multiplicity, Nanna Verhoeff analyzes the interface in another manner, when discussing the Nintendo DS as a particular new screen practice, that is at the same time mobile, tactile and making use of a double screen. Like Raessens, she proposes using the concept of dispositif.
In the last chapter of this section, Sybille Lammes analyzes cartographical screens in strategy games. In Terra incognita: Computer games, cartography and spatial stories, she discusses the use of cartography in such games. She particularly fo- cuses on the mutable qualities of digital maps that are visible on the computer screen and how they are intertwined with landscapes that players have to master.
Lammes shows that the distinction between tour and map as theorized by De Certeau needs to be revised in order to culturally comprehend the spatial functions of such games.
The main perspective changes here towards the user of the computer, whether writer, reader, player, or artist. In the first chapter Thomas Poell discusses the user as reader and writer parti- cipating in public debates on the Internet. In Conceptualizing forums and blogs as public sphere, he explores whether and how the concepts of public sphere and mul- tiple public spheres can be used to understand the role of web forums and blogs in public debate. She unravels these material metaphors as con- densed icons that absorb and conceal their indexical relations to software and hardware processes.
Similar to Kessler, she discusses computer icons as Peircian indexical signs, but also as Heideggerian tools. While Van den Boomen discusses the user as an operator of sign-tools, Ann- Sophie Lehmann speaks about the user as artist.
She shows how media artists make use of similarly complex and custom-made tools as artists in the pre-industrial age, but contrary to representations of the painter at work, the practice of making digital art is rendered invisible. Just like the parts of the metaphorical computer that structure this book, each chapter in this book highlights different constituents of the digital machine, map- ping out how new media can be traced as digital material.
One prevalent manner of doing so is by showing how technology is interwoven with culture and history. This tradi- tion stands in sharp contrast to definitions of media based solely upon a supposi- tion of their technological, sociological, semiotic or aesthetic specificity. Our re- search is a quest for what may be termed the dynamics of media dispositifs, that is, tracing constellations of factors, including discursive formations, economic strategies, socio-cultural functions, as well as technological affordances and ap- propriation by users.
Or better, as matters of concern, since matters of fact should never be taken for granted. While highly uncertain and loudly disputed, these real, objective, atypical, and above all, interesting agencies are taken not exactly as object but rather as gatherings.
For more information, see newmediastudies. Cybertext: Perspectives on ergodic literature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Bakardjieva, Maria. Internet society: The Internet in everyday life.
London: Sage. Barbrook, Richard, and Andy Cameron. The Laf-O - The Dawn Of Incarnation (File ideology. Mute 1 3. Barlow, John Perry. A declaration of the independence of cyberspace. Bolter, Jay David, and Richard Grusin. Remediation: Understanding new media.
Brown, Bill, ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Copier, Marinka, and Joost Raessens, eds. Level up: Digital games research conference. Utrecht: Utrecht University. De Certeau, Michel. The practice of everyday life. Berkeley: University of California Press. Fuller, Matthew. Media ecologies: Materialist energies in art and technoculture. Software studies: A lexicon.
Heim, Michael. The essence of VR. In The metaphysics of virtual reality, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Virtual ethnography. Huizinga, Johan. Homo ludens: Proeve eener bepaling van het spel-element der cultuur. Haar- lem: Tjeenk Willink. Kessler, Frank. Notes on dispositif. Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chi- gago Press. Latour, Bruno. Technology is society made durable. In A sociology of monsters: Essays on power, technology, and domination, ed.
John Law, London: Routledge. We have never been modern. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network-theory.
Oxford: Oxford Univer- sity Press. Laurel, Brenda. Computers as theatre. Reading: Addison-Wesley. Lievrouw, Leah A. Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou. Manovich, Lev. The language of new media. Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. The communist manifesto. Moscow: Progress Publishers. Mitchell, William J. What do pictures want? The lives and loves of images. Chicago: Uni- versity of Chicago Press. Negroponte, Nicholas. Being digital. New York: Knopf. Raessens, Joost, and Jeffrey Goldstein, eds.
Handbook of computer game studies. Ryan, Marie-Laure, ed. Cyberspace textuality: Computer technology and literary theory. Bloo- mington: Indiana University Press. Bastard culture! User participation and the extension of cultural indus- tries. Serres, Michel, and Bruno Latour. Conversations on science, culture, and time. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Taylor, Paul A. Digital matters: The theory and culture of the matrix.
New York: Routledge. Wunderlich, Antonia. Bielefeld: Transcript. Such a tool is im- portant because, to date, much of the debate on serious games has merely been framed in terms of effectiveness without paying attention to their political-ideolo- gical interest.
In the first and second paragraph, I will define the concept of the gaming ap- paratus and discuss the possible political-ideological tendencies of the playing of serious games.
These tendencies may or may not be actualized, depending on the different ways in which the player of the game is positioned in or by the gaming apparatus. As I will argue in paragraph four and five, questions about the political-ideological meaning of a specific se- rious game can, thus, only be answered by taking into account all the elements of the gaming apparatus.
We will see this in my analysis of Food Forcea game I consider to be quintessentially serious. As a starting point I will analyze the poli- tical-ideological tendencies of the specific unconscious desires at play when play- ing serious games. These three reactions are charted in the following table.
They are not oppositional, but mutually constitu- tive. This is the case when a player is clicking and moving a mouse, and tapping the keys of the keyboard. This is the case when the player observes how an avatar on the screen acts. Whether such a critical distance exists or needs to exist is a crucial question, as we will see in the next paragraph, in the debate about the political-ideological impact of se- rious games. At first sight this argument seems to be contradicted by those studies which show that we can learn from playing games as such Lieberman ; Ritterfeld and Weber Elements of the games-as-pain-relievers argument see Table 2 can be traced back to the work of Mark Prensky The games-as-replicas-of-non-virtual-life argument see Table 2 deals with those theories in which the Oedipal narrative is continued by other means.
The meaning of the fourth argument — games-as-dramatic-stages-for-reality- construction see Table 2 — becomes clear when we compare the playing of se- rious games to playing with a tamagotchi. When we play a serious game, according to Pelletier, the same two characteristics emerge as when we play with a Tama- gotchi.
On the other hand, playing serious games always incorporates a mo- ment of disavowal — of distancing — specific to games. In this paragraph I will give a short description of these different ele- ments. In paragraph four I will analyze which of the four unconscious desires of the gaming apparatus are at the basis of Food Force. What is most striking about the technical basis of a serious game such as Food Force — a web-based, single-player PC game — is that the game player is immobi- lized yet highly active: she is sitting in a chair behind her PC with both hands occupied, one clicking and moving a mouse, the other tapping the keys of the keyboard.
By using a keyboard and a mouse, the player controls the in-game ac- tions. We also have to take into account how the player of the game is addressed or positioned both by the game text itself Casetti and the institutional context Odin in which the game is played.
Extrinsic film pragmatist Roger Odin, on the other hand, is of the opinion that a film spectator is primarily subjected to social institutions.
Last but not least, we also have to take into account the cultural settings in which games are made Jenkins. At the same time, there has been an alarming concentration of the ownership of mainstream commercial media, with a small handful of multinational med- ia conglomerates dominating all sectors of the entertainment industry Jenkins Virtual tendencies in Food Force Food Forcewww.
The game, which takes approximately thirty minutes to play, tells the story of a food crisis on the fictitious island of Sheylan. This means that both the games-as- sensual-temptation argument and the games-as-pain-reliever argument turn out to be foreign to the seriousness of these games. The games-as-sen- sual-temptation argument makes clear that not only the playing of the game but also the reflection on the gaming experience are an important component of learning as well.
I will discuss this element later on in this chapter. According to Lakoff, metaphors frame our under- standing of the world. Secondly, to analyze the interpassive aspects of playing Food Force, we have to focus on the moment of disavowal — or distancing — that is specific to games, according to Pelletier.
We need to answer the question of whether playing serious games entails a critical, reflexive relation towards these games. Or they may understand these frames by demystifying or deconstructing the assumptions or frames that are built into the simulation si- mulation MP3).
Or they can completely disavow the social and political importance of these kinds of games simulation denial. These three strategies do, indeed, determine the reactions of players and critics of both games.
An educational game that rocks! Informative, well produced and very enjoyable to play with. Go United Nations! Simulation denial and under- standing are clearly in the minority.
But looking through and exposing the hidden, naturalized, ideolo- gically colored rules of serious games is, however, not commonplace. Because Food Force is a web-based, single-player PC game, it does not offer multi-user environments in its game play, maybe because of finan- cial restrictions. Secondly, I would like to look at player positioning by text.
In the beginning of the game, this young rookie is briefed by a man called Carlos on a humanitarian crisis on the fictitious island Sheylan in the Indian Ocean see Figure 1. Guided by a team of experts, in a race against the clock, the player has to accomplish six missions or mini-games in a linear order, delivering food to an area in crisis. In the first mission, for example, the player has to pilot a helicopter over a crisis zone in Sheylan to locate the hungry see Figure 2.
The basic rule of Food Force is an ideologically motivated one: players win the game by completing the six missions and, in doing so, help to fight hunger. This is more than just a game. Good luck! At those moments, the game sig- nals the presence of the player. If the mission fails, the player is encouraged to try again. Though the game does not have real-life consequences for the player, he is constantly reminded of the fact that in real life the WFP missions have huge consequences for these hungry people.
Three aspects of this institutional context or cultural setting are important. Firstly, the game is played in the context of a website that provides the player with background information about the social issues these games deal with. Players can help by giving money to the WFP, by teaching others about famine, and by organizing fundraising activities at school or at home. Apple Books Preview. Publisher Description. Customer Reviews. More Books by Jean Gill.
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