The hyoid is the only bone in the body that does not form a joint with any other bone—it is a floating bone. The malleus, incus, and stapes—known collectively as the auditory ossicles —are the smallest bones in the body. Found in a small cavity inside of the temporal bone, they serve to transmit and amplify sound from the eardrum to the inner ear. Twenty-six vertebrae form the vertebral column of the human body.
They are named by region:. With the exception of the singular sacrum and coccyx, each vertebra is named for the first letter of its region and its position along the superior-inferior axis. For example, the most superior thoracic vertebra is called T1 and the most inferior is called T The sternum, or breastbone, is a thin, knife-shaped bone located along the midline of the anterior side of the thoracic region of the skeleton.
The sternum connects to the ribs by thin bands of cartilage called the costal cartilage. There are 12 pairs of ribs that together with the sternum form the ribcage of the thoracic region.
The pectoral girdle connects the upper limb arm bones to the axial skeleton and consists of the left and right clavicles and left and right scapulae. The humerus is the bone of the upper arm.
It forms the ball and socket joint of the shoulder with the scapula and forms the elbow joint with the lower arm bones. The radius and ulna are the two bones of the forearm. The ulna is on the medial side of the forearm and forms a hinge joint with the humerus at the elbow. The radius allows the forearm and hand to turn over at the wrist joint.
The lower arm bones form the wrist joint with the carpals, a group of eight small bones that give added flexibility to the wrist. The carpals are connected to the five metacarpals that form the bones of the hand and connect to each of the fingers. Each finger has three bones known as phalanges, except for the thumb, which only has two phalanges. Formed by the left and right hip bones, the pelvic girdle connects the lower limb leg bones to the axial skeleton.
The femur is the largest bone in the body and the only bone of the thigh femoral region. The femur forms the ball and socket hip joint with the hip bone and forms the knee joint with the tibia and patella. Commonly called the kneecap, the patella is special because it is one of the few bones that are not present at birth. The patella forms in early childhood to support the knee for walking and crawling.
The tibia and fibula are the bones of the lower leg. The fibula is mainly a muscle attachment point and is used to help maintain balance. The tibia and fibula form the ankle joint with the talus, one of the seven Living In The Skeleton Af A Happy Memory - Pageninetynine* - Document #7 (Vinyl bones in the foot. The tarsals are a group of seven small bones that form the posterior end of the foot and heel. The tarsals form joints with the five long metatarsals of the foot.
Then each of the metatarsals forms a joint with one of the set of phalanges in the toes. Each toe has three phalanges, except for the big toe, which only has two phalanges.
Living bone cells are found on the edges of bones and in small cavities inside of the bone matrix. Although these cells make up very little of the total bone mass, they have several very important roles in the functions of the skeletal system.
The bone cells allow bones to:. All of the bones of the body can be broken down into five types: long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid. The long bones of the body contain many distinct regions due to the way in which they develop. At birth, each long bone is made of three individual bones separated by hyaline cartilage. According to Baddeley and Hitch, a central executive part of LP supervises or controls the flow of information to and from the three short-term systems.
In the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, stimuli from the environment are processed first in sensory memory : storage of brief sensory events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes.
It is very brief storage—up to a couple of seconds. We are constantly bombarded with sensory information. We cannot absorb all of it, or even most of it. And most of it has no impact on our lives. For example, what was your professor wearing the last class period? As long as the professor was dressed appropriately, it does not really matter what she was wearing. Sensory information about sights, sounds, smells, and even textures, which we do not view as valuable information, we discard.
If we view something as valuable, the information will move into our short-term memory system. One study of sensory memory researched the significance of valuable information on short-term memory storage. Stroop discovered a memory phenomenon in the s: you will name a color more easily if it appears printed in that color, which is called the Stroop effect. Try an experiment: name the colors of the words you are given in Figure 2. Do not read the words, but say the color the word is printed in.
Figure 2. The Stroop effect describes why it is difficult for us to name a color when the word and the color of the word are different. Short-term memory STM is a temporary storage system that processes incoming sensory memory; sometimes it is called working memory. Short-term memory takes information from sensory memory and sometimes connects that memory to something already in long-term memory. Short-term memory storage lasts about 20 seconds. George Millerin his research on the capacity of memory, found that most people can retain about 7 items in STM.
Some remember 5, some 9, so he called the capacity of STM 7 plus or minus 2. Think of short-term memory as the information you have displayed on your computer screen—a document, a spreadsheet, or a web page. Then, information in short-term memory goes to long-term memory you save it to your hard driveor it is discarded you delete a document or close a web browser. This step of rehearsalthe conscious repetition of information to be remembered, to move STM into long-term memory is called memory consolidation.
Figure 3. Work through this series of numbers using the recall exercise explained LP to determine the longest string of digits that you can store. Note the longest string at which you got the series correct. Recall is somewhat better for random numbers than for random letters Jacobs,and also often slightly better for information we hear acoustic encoding rather than see visual encoding Anderson, Long-term memory LTM is the continuous storage of information.
Unlike short-term memory, the storage capacity of LTM has no limits. It encompasses all the things you can remember that happened more than just a few minutes ago to all of the things that you can remember that happened days, weeks, and years ago.
In keeping with the computer analogy, the information in your LTM would be like the information you have saved on the hard drive. Not all long-term memories are strong memories. Some memories can only be recalled through prompts. A prompt, such as that the restaurant was named after its owner, who spoke to you about your shared interest in soccer, may help you recall Living In The Skeleton Af A Happy Memory - Pageninetynine* - Document #7 (Vinyl name of the restaurant.
Posted by inmemoryofthom at AM No comments:. Wednesday, June 24, Kitchen Songs. I've given myself a deadline for "Leaving" to be finished. It might get me to actually finish it. I have on song left. There is something different about the way I've done this one.
Then I spend the next few weeks, months or even in some cases years going back to the sessions to layer or subtract. So the last song on "Leaving" was written in a day or two while playing around with some loops I recorded a quick version with basic melody, some lyrics and some ideas for layers, I sat and listened to it for a week or so and decided I want to build it from the ground up again, so essentially it has become the first "demo".
I've also been spending quite a bit of time playing acoustic guitar in my kitchen. I like what I have been playing, it might be the wide open space and the tile floor that gives it a different vibe. I've also been writing in more "song" friendly structures. So these few jams might eventually make up the quiet 7" i've been planning for awhile. For the songs to actually have the feel it needs I'll probably do most of the tracking in my kitchen, with maybe some overdubs done in the dungeon.
It'll be real basic, acoustic guitar, vocals, organ, maybe some percussion. I may even record it to my 4 track cassette recorder if I ever get a new LP for it.
Posted by inmemoryofthom at PM No comments:. Labels: catching up. I've finally programmed drums for the song and plan on recording it this weekend.
It's alittle different from the live version, but it should still be rad. Monday, May 18, Pattern Against User. I feel like I need a hobby that doesn't revolve around spending money.
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