Bring back my happiness. Britney Spears - Toxic. Britney Spears - Ask For More. Britney Spears - Do somethin'. Britney Spears - Everytime.
Britney Spears - I'm not a girl not yet a woman. Britney Spears feat Madonna - Me againts the music. Britney Spears-Toxic Remix. Britney Spears. Britney Spears - Everytime rmx Edit. Britney Spears - My Prerogative Edit. Britney Spears - Overprotected. Brother Louie New Version. Bryan Adams Feat. Chickane - Dont Give Up. Bryan Adams Have you ever really loved.
Bu Gece. Bu Sarkilar Da Olmasa. Bu Sarkilar Da Olmasa2. Bubblin' -Blue feat. Link'up French Version. Budet den. Burning Up. Bush - Solutions. Busta Rhymes - Break Ya Neck. Buynov Aleksandr - Vse Dela. BWO - Conquering America remix. BWO - Gone. BWO -- Gone Edit. BWO - Conquering America. By Myself. Catch - I can lose my heart tonight. Catch - Silence feat.
Catch - Strangers By Night. CATCH feat. Stone - Infinity. Mind Mix. Cabal Energy flow. Cabbalero - Na Na Ja. California Dreaming Benny Benassi Remix. California Dreaming Tek House Mix. Calogero feat. Passi - Face a'la mer. Calyx - Diablo. Cam and Anz - Hot Dog. Camilla Brinck - Bye Bye Forever.
Can You Feel The Bass. Can't Come Down. Candy Girls feat. Candy Perfume Girl. Capella - Tell Me The Way. Cappella - U got 2 let the music. Captain Holywood-more. Carapicco - Tic tac. Cardigans - My Favourite Game. Carolina Marquez - The killers song. Cascade - retrode. Kelly - Hotel. Cassandra - Rien Ne Va Plus.
Cassidy feat. Mashonda - Get No Better. Castaway Feat. Sandy Original Version. Celik Gariban. Celine Dion - A new day has come. Celine Dione - I drove all night. Celine Dione - You And I. Centory - The Spirit. Cerena - Rosso. Cerrone - X-Xex. Challa gurain. Chaoz - Oedipus. Chay s barankami. Chemical Brothers - Block Rockin Beats. Chemical brothers - Buddha. Chemical brothers - Get on. Chemical brothers - Hey boy's hey girl's. Chemical Brothers - Under The Influence.
Chemikal attraction feat. Cherry Line - Cath The Cat. Chestniy vor. Chihuahua Remix. Chilly - Sacrifice. Chilly We Are The Popkings. Chris Cowie - House Of God. Chris Isaak - Wicked Games. Chris Rea - Road To Hell. Chris Rea - The Blue Cafe. Chris Rea - Thinking Of You. Christina Aguilera What a girs want. Church on sunday. Cirrus - 07 - Rock The Funky Joint.
Cl McSpadden - Mach 7. Clinic - DP. Clock - In The House. Club Caviar - I Wish. Club Dance. Clubheads - Let The Party Begin radio mix. Clubland feat. Zemia Hamilton - Peace Of Luv. Collective Minds - Sahara. Colonia - C'est la vie.
Colonia - Deja Vu. Colour of love metaphor version. Colour of love original. Colour of love single mix. Come Cover Me. Come Into My World. Come on baby Crystal method remix. Come on baby. Confide In Me.
Coolio - Gangsta's paradise. Corona - Baby, Baby. Corona - Rhythm Of The Nigth. Craig David - 7 Days. Crazy Frog - Axel F Accapella. Crossing The Deadline. Cult of Snap! Ballroom mix. Culture beat - Anything.
Culture Beat - Inside Out. Cure for theitch. Cutting Crew - Died in your arms tonight. Cybersecrecy - Herzstillstand. D Product - Faithless.
Da Buzz - Dangerouz. Dad d - Crime. Dance Avec Moi!. Asia Edit. Dancing DJ's vs. Roxette - Fading like a flower Hardino radio edit. Danuta - Touch My Heart. Danzel - Put your hands up in the air. Danzel-Pump it up Remix. Danzel - He Ho Samba Edit. Darren Hayes - I Miss You. Darren Hayes - Insatiable.
Darren Hayes - Popular. Davay pogovorim. David Guetta feat. JD Davis - The world is mine. David Usher - Black black heart. Daze - Tamagoci. De-Phazz - Roses. Dead beat. Dee D Jackson - Sos. Deep Dish - Moscow cd 1 - Thank you. Deep Spirit - Lonely Edit. Delegation - Searching. Demis Rousos - From souvenirs to souvenirs. Den gneva. Den kak den. Depeche Mode - Dream On. Depeche Mode - Freelove. Des'ree - You Gotta Be. Despina Vandi - Come alone now english.
Dess Ree - Life. Deuce - Call It Love. Devochka - poputchitca. Devochka pay. Devochka-pay 2. Diams - dj. Diana Ross - Say you'll never. Diana Ross I will survive. Dido - Don't think of me. Dido - Life for rent. Dido - White flag radio edit. Die Another Day. Digital nation - digita nation. Digital nation - breathe.
Digital nation - chain of thought. Digital nation - crucifixion. Digital nation - hysteria. Digital nation - night train. Disco Queen - Let's all chant. Dizl - Motions of Hell. Dj List- Leto Topchiy - Track 1. DJ Aligator - Screw You. DJ Aligator - Yallah Yallah! DJ Aligator Project feat. DJ Alligator - 01 - Intro. DJ Alligator - 03 - Doggy style original mix. DJ Alligator - 04 - I like to move it feat Dr.
Dj Bobo - Chihuahua. DJ Bobo - Freedom. DJ Dado - X-files. Dj Dan - Step off. DJ Dan. DJ Facs - Lessons. Dj Groove - Vstrecha K. Dj Jean - Lift me up. DJ Lazy - 01 - Track 1. DJ Lazy - 02 - Track 2. DJ Lazy - 03 - Track 3. DJ Lhasa - Giulia. DJ List Dark Mix - Dj Mov - Insomnia.
DJ Pete Tong - Close my mind. DJ Pete Tong - Come to you. DJ Pete Tong - Mama. DJ Pete Tong - N. DJ Pete Tong - Robotics. Dj Peter - Axel F. DJ Rad - Round and round Radikal radio mix. DJ Red - Killahertz. DJ Rob Boskamp - Pump it. DJ Shushukin. DJ Skydreamer - Untitled - Berretta Bros - Shake da Break (Vinyl). Dj Speedstar - Axel F. DJ TeeBee - Bioform. DJ TeeBee - Fingerprints. DJ TeeBee - Lifepod. DJ TeeBee - Spaceage. Dj Thoka Vs.
DJ Tiesto - Flight DJ Tiesto - Lethal Industry. DJ Tiesto - Magik Journey. DJ Tiesto - Obsession. DJ Tiesto - Suburban Train. DJ Tonka-Phun-ky. DJ Valium - Bring the beat back.
DJ Visage - Thunder radio mix. DJ Wild Child-E. DJ Ross - Lonely Edit. Do This Anymore. Do you see the light original. Do you see the light Snap! Dobraya glupaya davnyaya. Dobrogo puti. Don Amor Dale Don Dale. Don Cartel - The party Floor control radio edit. Don't Leave Me.
Don't Tell Me. Donovan - Sealed with a kiss. Dont let you go. Dont Stay. Doroga v aeroport. Doroga v nebo. DPablos animals-french. Alban - It's my life. Dre - Guilt Conscience. Dre - Still D. E feat Snoop Dogg.
Kucho - Belmondo Rulez 2. Dream Team - Public Enemy. Dream Your Dream. Dreams radio mix. Drowned World-Substitute For Love. Drunkenmunky - E New Edit. Drunkenmunky feat Usher - Yeah.
Duderstadt - Taking Over. Dudu Ozan Colakoglu Remix. Dudu Ozgur Buldum Remix. Dune - Can't Stop Raving video mix. Dune - Hand In Hend video mix. Dune - Million Miles From Home. Dune - Rainbow To The Stars video mix. Dune vs Trubblemaker - Hardcore vibes radio edit. Dynamo feat Lexander - Elettricadanza Edit. E Nomine Denn Sie wissen E-Rotic - Sex Me.
E-Rotic Fred come to red. E-Type - Here Igo. E-Type - Princess Of Egypt. E-Type - Rain. E-Type - Russian lulabuy. Eagles - Hotel California. Earphones - Birds. Earphones - Primetime sexcrime. Easier To Run. Easl feat. DJ Asia mix vinyl. East 17 - It's Alright.
East 17 - Steam. Echomen - Perpetual. Eddy Wata - In Your Mind. Eddy Watta - La Bomba Edit. Eiffel 65 - Cosa restera. Eleven O - Pump The Base. Elton John - Original sin. Elvis - Track Elvis Presley - Rubberneckin rmx Edit. Emi - Anima Libera Edit. Eminem - Just lose it. Eminem - Kill You. Eminem - Sing for the moment. Eminem - Stan. Eminem - The Real Slim Shady. Eminem - Without Me Dirty.
Eminem feat Limp Bizkit - Our House. Emma Bunton - Maybe. Endi Ne odnu. Ennio Morricone - Cockey's Song. Enrique Iglesias - Hero. Enrique Iglesias - Heroe. Enrique Iglesias - Not in love. Enya - Caribian blue. Enya - May it be lord of the rings. Enya - Shepherd moons. Enya - Watermark.
Enya - Who can saw Eraption - One way ticket. Eric Clapton - I Get Lost. Eric Clapton - My Father's Eyes. Eric Prydz - Call on me. Erika - I don't know. Erika - Relations. Erika - Right or Wrong. Erika - Save my heart. Eros Ramazzotti - Fuoco Nel Fuoco. Eros Ramazzotti Piu che puoi. Eruption - Mr.
Pilot Man. Eruption - One Way Ticket. Eruption - Raising my family. Eruption-One Way Ticket' Eternal Rhapsody. Eto imya. Eurhytmics - I Saved the World Today. Eurogroove - Move Your Body. Europe - The Final Countdown. Eurythmics - Sweet Dreams. Evanescence - My immortal. EVE feat. Evers 8 - Get Ready A1. Every Single Day Feat. Dhany Original Version. Everything but the girl - Missing Toss Terry Remix. Everything But The Girl - Missing. Everytime you touch me. Evfemizm o proshlom.
Evissa - Move Your Body. Extreme ways. In the most stringent testing procedures, the levels of cocaine found in the wash residue are then subtracted from the levels found in the cleansed hair sample, which further reduces the chances of external contamination causing a false positive. Got a question about today's news? Ask the Explainer. These tapes—which were not released until —contain numerous references to explosions heard just before the buildings fell.
Nicholas DeMasi, a firefighter formerly with Engine Company in Queens, was quoted in a book saying that he was there when federal agents made the discovery.
Another first responder corroborated his account. Do other professions marshal their own expertise to poke holes in the official story? Explainer thanks Mike Berger of Truth. It's been around for five years already! Launched in as an invitation-only e-mail service, the Google product now has more than million users. What gives? Beta releases also tend to be more buggy than the final version.
Neither of these qualities accurately describes Gmail although there was a worldwide service outage in February ; the label is just a way for Google to signal users that they're still tweaking the e-mail service and adding new features. Google has decided to leave its product in beta rather than issuing updates in the familiar system of numbered software versions—1. Those distinctions make more sense when tech consumers are purchasing software on CDROMs or downloading it onto their hard drives.
Of course, the end of Gmail's beta era won't signify the end of feature updates, so for anyone who isn't on the Gmail product team at Google, the distinction means very little. In fact, it may just be a marketing ploy to give Gmail a cutting-edge feel. A lengthy beta phase is not exclusive to Gmail. Google News was in beta from its launch in April until January When the Google News creator, Krishna Bharat, announced the change, he noted that the news team had successfully made the product more personal, with e-mail alerts and the option to create personalized pages.
Beta lag is not exclusive to Google, either: Flickr launched in February as a beta product and retained the label even after Yahoo acquired it in Apple deploys the beta label in a more traditional fashion. In Marchfor example, the company made iPhone 2. That July, it officially rolled out the update for the general public. And Google doesn't always let its products dither in beta for years on end.
The company dropped the beta label from its Chrome browser after just 14 weeks; and the Google search engine spent less than two years in beta after being released in The tech community is divided on the issue of protracted beta releases.
Explainer thanks Jason Freidenfelds of Google. Do the North Koreans have more information about their test launch than we do? The U. Northern Command, which monitored the launch using a global network of radars, satellitemounted spy cameras, and satellites equipped with infrared sensors, concluded that the satellite fell into the Pacific Ocean.
The North Koreans insist that the satellite achieved orbit and is broadcasting patriotic music to the world. Do they have better data than we do, since it's their missile?
Not really. The only unique information the Democratic People's Republic of Korea may have had was performance data broadcast from the missile, more useful in determining why a test failed than whether it failed.
For the North Koreans to verify a successful delivery of the satellite into orbit, they would need to observe the skies just like everyone else. Since Pyongyang has access to tracking equipment only within North Korean borders, its view is far more limited than those of other countries—the North Koreans would not have known that the satellite was safely in place until it had passed overhead few times in a stable trajectory over a span of several hours.
The United States, by contrast, gathers information from ground- and sea-based radar devices around the world and could have spotted the satellite within a matter of minutes, no matter where it entered orbit. On the other hand, the North Koreans may have had some data on the launch that the West is missing.
Broadcasting devices installed on the missile itself send back status reports as the test flight unfolds. But whatever problem caused the missile to fail might have arisen after it had traveled out of reach of the North Korean receivers. The United States may also have been able to intercept and decode the transmitted data. Many are tiny church pageants with casts of 12 disciples, a Jesus of Nazareth, and perhaps a couple of Roman centurions, all wearing bed sheets with nylon ropes tied around their waists.
Others, such as the musical Tetelestai in Columbus, Ohio, and the Topeka Passion Play in Kansas, are semiprofessional events that hosting churches have perfected over the course of multiyear runs. But the most well-attended are Bible spectaculars that would make Cecil B.
DeMille swoon, featuring immense casts and crews who pull off gritty depictions of firstcentury capital punishment and Vegas-y musical numbers. Like The Passion of the Christ, these productions most of which predate Mel Gibson's film focus on the severity of Jesus' suffering in death.
The moments of beating and crucifixion are sparse in the Gospel accounts, but modern Passion plays match our culture's taste for visual realism. The audience viscerally experiences each of the 39 lashes delivered onto Jesus' body and each of the four stakes driven into his limbs. Christians have long dwelled on the details of the suffering of Christ, but with Copyright Washingtonpost.
LLC today's theater techniques, nothing has to be left to the imagination. It's about spiritual violence: the larger story of the forces of good vs. Like some early medieval Passion plays, according to Columbia University's James Shapiro, The Thorn captures the whole sweep of the Bible, seasoned with Paradise Lost—we see the fall of Lucifer, the creation, the fall of man, even a bit of the plagues in Egypt and the exodus of the Hebrews.
Then baby Jesus arrives and is presented like Simba into the Circle of Life. Muscular angels and demons clash on the margins of center stage, and the outcome of Jesus' journey seems to hang in the balance. At moments, the experience rivals Cirque du Soleil: Everywhere you look, there are flaming swords, pyrotechnics, and barrelchested bodies dancing, leaping, flipping across the stage, and swirling down from the rafters. The scale is epic. And with its scenes of the creation of the universe and the fall of Lucifer, so is the story.
But is the Gospel narrative truly an epic tale? If some church Passion plays suggest so, their creators might have mingled their beloved Scriptures with their beloved stories.
Christians cherish a lot of contemporary epics because they are Christ-type stories. The epic and its basic components—good battling evil, foes of near-equal strength, the whole world at stake— resonate naturally with biblical themes. Many a Sunday sermon has been illustrated with an epic-movie clip. But it's one thing for an epic to evoke the Jesus story.
It's another altogether to make the Jesus story an epic. Epics are audaciously bigger than life, but does any reader of the Gospels get that epic feeling? The elliptical, talky New Testament doesn't present itself in that way—if it did, there might be less discussion about whether its events actually occurred.
If, as Christians believe, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John were historians, then perhaps plays based on the Gospels should be realistic about more than just blood. Why aim for verisimilitude in violence but not in other historical points? Churches should also consider other approaches to storytelling. Their ur-story should be not just epic but multiform. And there are also other Jesus stories to tell—including the ones Jesus shared.
Augustine co-opted the phrase, making it a theological basis for state-sponsored acts against heretics. It's Easter. Spring is here, though the calendar doesn't quite match the weather in many places. With the fast of Lent over, churches hoping to share their beliefs could take Jesus' parable as a suggestion: Throw a dinner. Make it lavish. What kind of story would that tell? A historical perspective. Pilate was a historical figure, the Roman procurator of Judea; he was referred to in other sources of the time and even mentioned in an inscription found at the site of ancient Caesarea in Israel.
Linking Jesus' death with Pilate represents the insistence that Jesus was a real person, not merely a figure of myth or legend. More than this, the phrase also communicates concisely some pretty important specifics of that historical event. LLC For one thing, the statement asserts that Jesus didn't simply die; he was killed. This was a young man's death in pain and public humiliation, not a peaceful end to a long life.
Also, this wasn't a mob action. Jesus is said to have been executed, not lynched, and by the duly appointed governmental authority of Roman Judea. There was a hearing of some sort, and the official responsible for civil order and Roman peace and justice condemned Jesus. This means that Pilate found something so serious as to warrant the death penalty. But this was also a particular kind of death penalty. The Romans had an assortment of means by which to carry out a judicial execution; some, such as beheading, were quicker and less painful than crucifixion.
Death by crucifixion was reserved for particular crimes and particular classes. Those with proper Roman citizenship were supposed to be immune from crucifixion, although they might be executed by other means. Crucifixion was commonly regarded as not only frighteningly painful but also the most shameful of deaths. Essentially, it was reserved for those who were perceived as raising their hands against Roman rule or those who in some other way seemed to challenge the social order—for example, slaves who attacked their masters, and insurrectionists, such as the many Jews crucified by Roman Gen.
Vespasian in the Jewish rebellion of That would do to get yourself crucified by the Romans. Urging people to be kind to one another, or advocating a more flexible interpretation of Jewish law, or even condemning the Temple and its leadership—none of these crimes is likely to have led to crucifixion. For example, first-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus tells of a man who prophesied against the Temple.
Instead of condemning him, the governor decided that he was harmless, although somewhat deranged and annoying to the Temple priests. So, after being flogged, he was released. The royal-messiah claim would also help explain why Jesus was executed but his followers were not. This wasn't a cell of plotters. Jesus himself was the issue. Furthermore, Pilate took some serious flak for being a bit too violent in his response to Jews and Samaritans who simply demonstrated vigorously against his policies.
Pilate probably decided that publicly executing Jesus would snuff out the messianic enthusiasm of his followers without racking up more Jewish bodies than necessary. Many scholars, including E. Sanders in Jesus and Judaism, conclude that the Temple leaders were likely involved in Jesus coming to the attention of Pilate.
After all, the high priest and his retinue held their posts by demonstrating continuing loyalty to Rome. If they judged that Jesus represented some threat to Roman rule, they were obliged to denounce him.
Also, it is not so difficult to grant a certain likelihood to the Gospels' claim that the Temple authorities were at least partly motivated by a resentment of Jesus' criticism of their administration of the Temple, as may be reflected in the account of Jesus overturning the tables of the money-changers who operated in the premises under license from the high priest. But Jewish leaders didn't crucify Jesus. It's rather clear what St. As Martin Hengel showed in Crucifixion in the Ancient World and the Folly of the Message of the Cross, Roman-era writers deemed crucifixion the worst imaginable fate, a punishment of unspeakable shamefulness.
Celsus, a Roman critic of Christianity, ridiculed Christians for treating as divine someone who had been crucified.
Some early Christians tried to avoid reference to Jesus' crucifixion, while others preferred one or another alternate scenario.
In one version, in a Christian apocryphal text, the soldiers confuse a bystander with Jesus, crucifying him instead, while Jesus is pictured as laughing at their folly. This idea is likely also reflected later in the Muslim tradition that a person from the crowd was mistakenly crucified as Jesus escaped. Many devout Muslims believe that Jesus was a true prophet, so it is simply inconceivable that God would have allowed him to die such a shameful death. Clearly, at least some early Christians felt the same way.
In fact, Jesus' crucifixion posed a whole clutch of potential problems for early Christians. It meant that at the origin and heart of their faith was a state execution and that their revered savior had been tried and found guilty by the representative of Roman imperial authority. This likely made a good many people wonder if the Christians weren't some seriously subversive movement. It was, at least, not the sort of group that readily appealed to those who cared about their social standing.
LLC Jesus' crucifixion represented a collision between Jesus and Roman governmental authority, an obvious liability to early Christian efforts to promote their faith.
Yet, remarkably, they somehow succeeded. Centuries of subsequent Christian tradition have made the image of the crucified Jesus so familiar that the offensiveness of the event that it portrays has been almost completely lost. By Michael Lukas Wednesday, April 8,at AM ET For thousands of years, skeptics and believers alike have debated whether the events described in the Passover story—the parting of the Red Sea, the 10 plagues, and the burning bush—actually took place.
Let everyone believe at his own discretion. As Exodus describes it: And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.
Although the event is plausible, Nof estimated that the likelihood of such a storm occurring in that particular place and time of year is less than once every 2, years.
While scientists agree that wind set-down effect could have caused the Red Sea to part as described in the Bible, most biblical scholars and archeologists insist that the Israelites' crossing did not take place at the Red Sea at all. So where's the Sea of Reeds? It depends whom you ask. In the somewhat specious History Channel documentary Exodus Decoded, Simcha Jacobovici aka the Naked Archaeologist places the Israelites' crossing in the Bitter Lakes, a reedy marshland north of the Gulf of Suez that was subsumed during the construction of the Suez Canal.
The Nile turns to blood, all the fish die, frogs are brought forth abundantly, and so on. Marr believes the plagues were a series of natural disasters and diseases triggered by a bloom of water-borne organisms called dinoflagellates. The dinoflagellates turned the Nile red and killed the frog-eating fish, which in turn caused a population explosion among frogs. The tainted water eventually killed the frogs, causing lice and flies to run rampant, which lead to a number of animal diseases including African horse sickness and an outbreak of boils fancy glanders.
This reign of disaster and disease continued through hail, locusts Schistocerca gregaria, to be preciseand sandstorms until the death of the firstborn sons, which Marr thinks was caused by grain infected with mycotoxins.
Others, building on Marr's domino theory, argue that the plagues were triggered by the eruption of the Greek island of Santorini, causing a string of disasters such as those that occurred at Lake Nyos, Cameroon, in Although not quite as impressive as the plagues or the parting of the Red Sea, Moses' encounter with the burning bush is a pivotal moment in the Passover story and has, for a long time, been the source of much scientific speculation.
Others have pointed to the work of Norwegian physicist Dag Kristian Dysthe and his article on the subsurface combustion of organic material in Mali, saying the bush could have combusted spontaneously. As for the voice of God, Hebrew University psychology professor Benny Shanon proposes that Moses was tripping at the time on a hallucinogenic substance similar to ayahuasca.
Shanon argues further that the presentation of the Ten Commandments might have been a mass hallucination. But not all the explanations of the Passover story are motivated by such ardent secularism.
Return to the corrected sentence. By Christopher Hitchens Monday, April 6,at AM ET Even before President Barack Obama set off on his visit to Turkey this week, there were the usual voices urging him to dilute the principled position that he has so far taken on the Armenian genocide. April is the month in which the Armenian diaspora commemorates the bloody initiation, inof the Ottoman Empire's campaign to erase its Armenian population.
The marking of the occasion takes two forms: Armenian Remembrance Day, on April 24, and the annual attempt to persuade Congress to name that day as one that abandons weasel wording and officially calls the episode by its right name, which is the word I used above. But every year, the deniers and euphemists set to work again, and there are usually enough military-industrial votes to tip the scale in favor of our Turkish client.
Of late, Turkey's opportunist military alliance with Israel has also been good for a few shame-faced Jewish votes as well. President Obama comes to this issue with an unusually clear and unambivalent record. Infor example, the U. I intend to be that president. In addition, we have just learned of shattering corroborative evidence from within the archives of the Turkish state. The Ottoman politician who began the campaign of deportation and extermination, Talat Pasha, left enormous documentation behind him.
His family has now given the papers to a Turkish author named Murat Bardakci, who has published a book with the somewhat dry title The Remaining Documents of Talat Pasha. There are those who try to say that the Armenian catastrophe was a regrettable byproduct of the fog of war and of imperial collapse, and this might be partly true of the many more Armenians who were slaughtered at the war's end and after the implosion of Ottomanism.
But this is an archive maintained by the government of the day and its chief anti-Armenian politician, and it records in the very early days of World War I a population Copyright Washingtonpost. LLC decline from 1, toIt is very seldom that a regime in its private correspondence confirms almost to an exactitude the claims of its victims. So what will the deniers say now? The usual routine has been to insinuate that if Congress votes to assert the historic truth, then Turkey will inconvenience the NATO alliance by making trouble on the Iraqi border, denying the use of bases to the U.
Air Force, or in other unspecified ways. This same kind of unchecked arrogance was on view at the NATO summit last weekend, where the Ankara government had the nerve to try to hold up the appointment of a serious Danish politician, Anders Rasmussen, as the next secretary-general of the alliance, on the grounds that as Denmark's prime minister he had refused to censor Danish newspapers to Muslim satisfaction!
It is now being hinted that if either President Obama or the Congress goes ahead with the endorsement of the genocide resolution, Turkey will prove uncooperative on a range of issues, including the normalization of the frontier between Turkey and Armenia and the transit of oil and gas pipelines across the Caucasus. When the question is phrased in this thuggish way, it can be slyly suggested that Armenia's own best interests are served by joining in the agreement to muddy and distort its own history.
Yet how could any state, or any people, agree to abolish their pride and dignity in this way? And the question is not only for Armenians, who are economically hard-pressed by the Turkish closure of the common border. It is for the Turks, whose bravest cultural spokesmen and writers take genuine risks to break the taboo on discussion of the Armenian question.
And it is also for Americans, who, having elected a supposedly brave new president, are being told that he—and our Congress too—must agree to collude in a gigantic historical lie. A lie, furthermore, that courageous U. This falsification has already gone on long enough and has been justified for reasons of state. Update: In my last column, it seems I may have done an injustice to the government and people of Canada in the matter of George Galloway's canceled visit to that country.
For elucidation, please consult the following blog post. After all, if George W. Bush refused to provide Israel with the bunker busters and refueling capacity to take out Iran's nukes inthe chance that Barack Obama will give Israel the green light anytime soon seems quite remote—this being the same President Obama who greeted North Korea's recent missile launch with a speech outlining his plan to dismantle America's nuclear arsenal on the way to realizing his dream of a nuclear-free world.
Israel's performance in the war in Lebanon was widely depicted as catastrophic, and with Israel's diplomatic standing hitting new lows after the stomach-turning images of destruction from Gaza, the diplomatic consequences of a successful attack on Iran might be worse than the prospect of military failure. There is also the fact that no one knows exactly where Iran's nuclear assets are. Many perfectly reasonable people chalk up the rhetorical excesses of both parties to the hot desert sun and assume that nothing particularly awful will happen whether Iran becomes a nuclear power or not.
From a U. What the nuclear optimists miss is that it is not the United States that is directly threatened by the Iranian nuclear program but Israel—and the calculations that drive our Middle Eastern client state are very different from those that guide the behavior of its superpower patron.
Less sanguine types—who think that Israel isn't bluffing— generally fall into two camps: those who think that the Israelis are crazy and require the firm hand of America to restrain them and those who think that the Iranian leadership lives on a different planet and will use nuclear weapons against Israel. Yet it is not necessary to stipulate that either party is crazy in order to see why an Israeli attack on Iran makes sense. From the standpoint of international relations theory, the scariest thing about recent Israeli rhetoric is that an attack on Iran lines up quite well with Israel's rational interests as a superpower client.
While Israeli bluster is clearly calculated to push America to take a more aggressive stance toward Iran, that doesn't mean the Israelis won't actually attack if President Obama decides on a policy of engagement that leaves the Iranians with a viable nuclear option. In fact, the more you consider the rationality of an Israeli attack on Iran in the context of Israel's relationship with its superpower patron, the more likely an attack appears. Given Iran's recent technological triumphs, like the launch of the Copyright Washingtonpost.
LLC Omid communications satellite earlier this year and the lack of ambiguity about the aims of the Iranian nuclear program, it is hardly apocalyptic to expect an attack within the next year— assuming that the Russians continue to dither about delivering S surface-to-air missiles to protect Iranian nuclear sites.
A stepped-up delivery date for large numbers of S missiles could lead to an earlier attack. The fact that U. While America's embrace of Israel is partially motivated both by shared values and by the lobbying power of an influential minority group, neither Israel's creaky democratic polity nor the hidden persuasive powers of AIPAC can claim much credit for the billions of dollars in American military credits that Israel enjoys—a vast corporate welfare program that benefits Pentagon defense contractors as much as it benefits Israel's military.
The key fact of the American-Israeli alliance that most commentators seem eager to elide is that Israel is America's leading ally in the Middle East because it is the most powerful country in the Middle East.
Critics of the American-Israeli relationship love to conflate American support for Israel before with America's support since then by citing statistics for tens of billions of dollars in U. In fact, Israel's rise to becoming a regional superpower was accomplished without any significant help from United States. Israel's surreptitious program to build nuclear weapons was accomplished with the aid of the British and the French, who joined with Israel to seize the Suez Canal from Egypt's rabblerousing President Gamal Abdel Nasser, and who were then forced to give it back by Dwight D.
Congress did not appropriate a single penny to help Israel accommodate an overwhelming influx of Holocaust survivors and poor Jewish refugees from Yemen, Iraq, Egypt, and other Arab countries until —25 years after the founding of the state. By shattering the old balance of power in the Middle East with its spectacular military victory in the Six Day War, Israel announced itself to America as the reigning military power in the region and as a profoundly destabilizing influence that needed to be contained.
The parallels between Israel's rise to superpower-client status in the s and s and the Iranian march toward regional hegemony over the past decade are quite striking. Yet where Iran is a non-Arab country with a population of more than 70 million, Israel was and is a tiny non-Arab, nonMuslim country whose small population and seat-of-the-pants style of leadership made even the country's modest colonial ambitions seem like a stretch.
In the absence of any fixed plan of expansion, or any long-term plan for dealing with its neighbors, Israel decided to use its excess military power and captured lands as a chit that it could exchange for resources provided from outside the region by its wealthy American patron. Israel earned its role as an American client with a series of daring military victories won by a tiny embattled country with a shoestring budget and its back against the sea: the capture of the Suez Canal from Nasser inthe audacious victory in Untitled - Berretta Bros - Shake da Break (Vinyl), and the development of a nuclear bomb.
Yet the terms of the bargain that Israel struck would necessarily relegate such accomplishments to the history books. Israel traded its freedom to engage in high-risk, high-payoff exploits like the Suez Canal adventure or the Six Day War for the comfort of a military and diplomatic guarantee from the wealthiest and most powerful nation in the world.
As a regional American client, Israel would draw on the military and diplomatic power of its distant patron in exchange for allowing America to use its control over Israel as leverage with neighboring Arab states. With each American-brokered peace treaty—from Camp David to the Madrid Conference to Oslo and Annapolis—the United States has been able to hold up its leverage over Israel as both a carrot and a stick to the Arab world.
Do what we want, and we will force the Israelis to behave. The client-patron relationship between the United States and Israel that allows Washington to control the politics of the Middle East is founded on two pillars: America's ability to deliver concrete accomplishments, like the return of the Sinai to Egypt and the pledge to create a Palestinian state, along with the suggestion that Washington is manfully restraining wilder, more aggressive Israeli ambitions.
The success of the American-Israeli alliance demands that both parties be active partners in a complex dance that involves a lot of play-acting—America pretends to rebuke Israel, just as Israel pretends to be restrained by American intervention from bombing Damascus or seizing the banks of the Euphrates.
The instability of the U. An Israel that runs roughshod over its neighbors is a liability to the United States—just as an Israel that lost the capacity to project destabilizing power throughout the region would quickly become worthless as a client. A corollary of this basic point is that the weaker and more dependent Israel becomes, the more Israeli interests and American interests are likely to diverge. Stripped of its ability to take independent military action, Israel's value to the United Copyright Washingtonpost.
LLC States can be seen to reside in its ability to give the Golan Heights back to Syria and to carve out a Palestinian state from the remaining territories it captured in —after which it would be left with only the territories of the pre state to barter for a declining store of U. The untenable nature of this strategic calculus gives a cold-eyed academic analyst all the explanation she needs to explain Israel's recent wars against Hezbollah and Hamas, its assassinations of Iranian nuclear scientists and engineers, and its attack on the Syrian nuclear reactor.
Israel's attempts to restore its perceived capacity for game-changing independent military action are directed as much to its American patron as to its neighbors. Israel's current strategic posture was established by former Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, who alternated strong, unpredictable military actions like Operation Defensive Shield and the final isolation of Yasser Arafat with invocations of the importance of peace and surprising concessions, such as the unilateral Israeli withdrawal from Gaza in Sharon also took care to balance his close relationship with President Bush with a program of diplomatic outreach to second-tier powers like Russia and India.
An attack on Iran might be risky in dozens of ways, but it would certainly do wonders for restoring Israel's capacity for gamechanging military action. The idea that Iran can meaningfully retaliate against Israel through conventional means is more myth than fact.
Even without using nuclear weapons, Israel has the capacity to flatten the Iranian economy by bombing a few strategic oil refineries, making a meaningful Iranian counterstroke much less likely than it first appears. If the Lebanon war showed the holes in Israel's ability to fight a conventional ground war, it also showed the ability of the Israeli air force to destroy long-range missiles on the ground. Israel's response to fresh barrages of missiles from Hezbollah and Hamas while engaged in a shooting war with Iran would presumably be even less restrained than it has been in the past.
Short of an Iranian-hostage-rescue-mission-type debacle in which a small Israeli tactical force crashes in the Iranian desert, or a presidential order from Obama to shoot down Israeli planes on their way to Natanz, any Israeli air raid on Iran is likely to succeed in destroying masses of delicate equipment that the Iranians have spent a decade building at enormous cost in time and treasure.
It is hard to believe that Iran could quickly or easily replace what it lost. Whether it resulted in delaying Iran's march toward a nuclear bomb by two years, five years, or somewhere in between, the most important result of an Israeli bombing raid would be to punctuate the myth of inevitability that has come to surround the Iranian nuclear project and that has fueled Iran's rise as a regional hegemon. As the only army in the region able to take on Iran and its clients, Israel has effectively become the hired army of the Sunni Arab states tasked by Washington with the job of protecting America's favorite Middle Eastern tipple—oil.
The parallels between Israel's rise to superpower client status after and Iran's recent rise offer another strong reason for Israel to act—and act fast. The current bidding for Iran's favor is alarming to Israel not only because of the unfriendly proclamations of Iranian leaders but because of what an American rapprochement with Iran signals for the future of Israel's status as an American client.
While America would probably benefit by playing Israel and Iran against each other for a while to extract the maximum benefit from both relationships, it is hard to see how America would manage to please both clients simultaneously and quite easy to imagine a world in which Iran—with its influence in Afghanistan and Iraq, its control over Hezbollah and Hamas, and easy access to leading members of al-Qaida—would be the partner worth pleasing.
Bombing Iran's nuclear facilities is the surest way for Israel to restore the image of strength and unpredictability that made it valuable to the United States after while also eliminating Iran as a viable partner for America's favor. The fact that this approach may be the international-relations equivalent of keeping your boyfriend by shooting the other cute girl he likes in the head is an indicator of the difference between high-school romance and alliances between states—and hardly an argument for why it won't work.
Shorn of its nuclear program and unable to retaliate against Israel through conventional military means, Iran would be shown to be a paper tiger—to the not-so-secret delight of America's Sunni Arab allies in the Gulf. Iran's local clients like Syria and Hamas would be likely to distance themselves from an over-leveraged Persian would-be hegemon whose ruined nuclear facilities would be visible on Google Earth. The only real downside for Israel of an attack on Iran is Washington's likely response to the anger of the Arab street and the European street, both of which are likely to express their fierce outrage against Israel and the United States.
The price of an Israeli attack on Iran is therefore clear to anyone who reads Al Ahram or the Guardian: a Palestinian state. It seems fair to say that both Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Ehud Barak see the establishment of some kind of Palestinian state as inevitable and also as posing real security risks to Israel. Yet, in a perverse way, the idea that the price of an attack on Iran will be the establishment of a Palestinian state makes the logic of such an attack even clearer.
Israel's leaders know that the security threats inherent in giving up most of the West Bank will Copyright Washingtonpost. LLC be greatly augmented or diminished depending on how a Palestinian state is born.
A Palestinian state born as the result of Israeli weakness is a much greater danger to Israel than a state born out of Israeli strength. Ariel Sharon was able to withdraw from Gaza because he defeated Arafat and crushed the second intifada. Desperate to rid themselves of the bad PR and the demographic threat posed by maintaining Israel's hold over the West Bank, Sharon's successors have been unable to find a victory big enough to allow them to retreat.
Nor are they able to reconcile themselves to the threat posed by images of a defeated Israel being forced to withdraw from Hebron and Nablus by triumphant Palestinian militias backed by Iran. The inevitability of a future Palestinian state is the most powerful argument for the inevitability of an Israeli attack on Iran—unless the Iranian nuclear program is stopped by other means. Taking out the Iranian nuclear program is the one obvious avenue by which Israel can turn the debilitating dripdrip-drip of territorial giveaways and international condemnation into a game-changing military victory.
Destroying a respectable number of Iranian centrifuges will end Iran's march to regional hegemony and eliminate Israel's chief rival for America's affections while also allowing Israel to gain the legal and demographic benefits of a Palestinian state with a minimum of long-term risk.
Israel's version of a nuclear grand bargain that brings peace to the Middle East may be messier and more violent than what the Obama administration imagines can be accomplished through sanctions, blandishments, and the invocation of Barack Obama's magic middle name. But who can really argue with the idea of trading the Iranian nuclear bomb for a Palestinian state?
Saudi Arabia would be happy. Egypt would be happy. Bahrain, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates would be happy. Jordan would be happy. Iraq would be happy.
Two-thirds of the Lebanese would be happy. The Palestinians would go about building their state, and Israel would buy itself another 40 years as the only nuclear-armed country in the Middle East. Iran would not be happy.
But who said peace won't have a price? It was violated symbolically by the International Criminal Court, which sought and failed to find a simple remedy to a complicated problem, thus making it even more complicated.
One sobering lesson can be drawn from these two incidents: In Sudan, as in the Wild West, if you want to shoot, shoot. Talk will get you nowhere. The stories have already been told by the media: Israel sent airplanes to destroy convoys traveling through Sudan that were carrying weapons headed to Palestinian radicals in Gaza. The ICC issued an arrest warrant against Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir—the first such warrant against a sitting head of state— charging him with war crimes and crimes against humanity related to the ongoing crisis in the Darfur region.
Israel's grievances were solved, at least temporarily, by the use of force. Al-Bashir has already established the ineffectiveness of the ICC warrant by traveling to a host of countries and, more importantly, by demonstrating his ability to retaliate against the core goals of those wanting to bring him to justice: He expelled several aid groups from Darfur and threatened to eliminate all international aid to the war-stricken population within a year.
Nothing less than this reaction should have been expected. While many tend to forget this, preventing genocide involves the most blatant of all international actions: ignoring the sovereignty of a country and imposing a code of conduct on its government. In most cases, the offending party is a government that believes its actions will be crucial to the survival of the regime or the state.
Convincing, cajoling, or pressuring is hardly enough when survival—even a false belief that survival is involved—is at stake. If it publicly shuns attempts to bring al-Bashir to justice, it will upset the activists hoping to finally take a stand against evil and will make a mockery of the idea of justice. LLC President Obama is doing and saying now with millions of lives at stake? Only a fool, or someone who is extremely naive, believes everything a candidate says.
No doubt Obama was sincere when he spoke out about Darfur— but his predecessor, President George Bush, was just as sincere and just as committed to the cause. He was also just as ineffective. That's because at the core of the crisis is a question that very few are brave enough, sober enough, or cynical enough to answer properly. The answer both presidents have given is devastatingly similar: not much.
Washington will occasionally be willing to act against genocide when it has no other urgent matters to deal with Clinton in Bosnia in the s but will not act when the president is too busy with other foreign-policy crises George W. Bush in Iraq or when he has to weigh the battle against genocide against other important U.
This is still much better than what most other countries do—but it's far from enough. Look at the price tag the Obama administration would be asked to pay: Arab nations oppose all the measures meted out against al-Bashir and his government, as was shown in statements that came out of the Arab League summit in Doha, Qatar, last week.
Some say they hold this position because they fear they could be next in line; some believe it's because they are concerned about the future stability of the already fragile country. The appalling result is Arab support for a despotic government. But the Obama administration has vowed to improve relations with the Arab world—and hunting down alBashir is hardly a good start. Then there's the issue of China. This is not an encouraging trajectory. But the risk involved in making China more cooperative doesn't seem to be one that Washington is willing to take.
Not for a while, anyway. Once upon a time, Vice President Joe Biden supported this path. I think it's time to put force on the table and use it.
Just not U. Back in Augustthe New Republic's Richard Just wrote a long, masterful piece explaining the failure of the campaign to save Darfur. Many were uncomfortable with the use of force. In the wake of the Iraq debacle, the idea of sending U. It was military action that they could endorse without opening a dissonance in their worldview.
It's a way for activists to keep their consciences clean, perhaps, more than a serious attempt to stop genocide. And the ICC warrant is no different. Same with the special envoys and global condemnation. It is time to admit that genocide will be stopped in some cases, but only when the United States has no other urgent tasks to deal with.
Hot Pursuit 2 draws primarily from the gameplay and style of Need for Speed III: Hot Pursuit ; its emphasis was on evading the police and over-the-top tracks featuring lengthy shortcuts.
The game allows players to play as the police, where the goal is to arrest speeders. A variety of methods may be used to arrest a speeder, including rammingcalling for assistance backup by other police cars and utilizing spike strips to immobilize a speeding vehicle. However, in timed races it is more effective to use less time-consuming, actual police tactics, such as spinning the offending driver.
Races take place in four environments which differ in atmosphere, with a handful of tracks per environment. The different tracks in an environment are formed by different roads being connected or separated by road blocks. A fictional tropical island, reminiscent of Hawaii, is the most varied environment; the track traverses a city, volcano, waterfall, beach, forest, and two villages.
The coastal forest environment, reminiscent of the Washington coast, sometimes has foggy weatherbut this does not effectively limit visibility during races.
The Mediterranean coast and so-called Alpine environments are more homogeneous, with little variation except the occasional short cut. For the multiplayer mode of the PC version, players can host a game server for local area network LAN or internet based playing. In addition to this, the GameSpy internet matchmaking system can be used to publish and locate such servers.
Hot Pursuit 2 is also the first in the series to lack an in-car view that was available in preceding Need for Speed titles. There is one race however on the Playstation 2 version, with a Ferrari, in which the player drives with this in-car view.
Also, it did not feature a career mode allowing car customization. Instead, there is a point system where cars are purchased from winning races. Points are determined by laps led and finishing position.
For example, a sprint see section below would give points if awarded the gold, for silver, and for bronze, etc. Points would give types of tracks to race on, cars, police cars, etc.
If the tree is completed, extra bonus races are unlocked. These races include the hardest AI and the hardest courses. You only get 3 opponents in hot pursuit mode, however. All types of modes can only have a certain class of cars to be used. A regular race, with a specified number of laps.
In the PS2 version, there is the option to change weither or not certain songs are played in normal races, hot pursuit races, the game menues, or if they are not to be played at all. The soundtrack is not available on CD anymore. The track order and lengths given here are those given by last. They match the track order and length to a few seconds of. The file names given are those of the PC version. All races take place in a generic city at night though the city bears some resemblance to New YorkSan Francisco and Los Angeles.
Instead of hundred-thousand dollar exotics, Underground featured vehicles associated with the Import Scene. This, plus the increasingly arcade -like controls, became points of controversy for Need for Speed fans. Despite this, Underground was commercially very successful, and inspired a sequel. In addition, vehicles do not have damage models.
The player starts straight into the action, at a circuit race driving a uniquely styled Honda Integra Type R with wide body kiteasily winning over his opponents…only to be woken up by Samantha from his daydreaming.
Eddie and his orange-metallic Nissan Skylineis the leader of the Eastsiders and current top racer of the streets, and Melissa is his girlfriend. Time passes, races are won. The player meets other racers, and eventually gathers a small list of nemeses who continually challenge him and are defeated. TJ takes the junked car for himself after the event. When the player comes close to reaching 1 in all kinds of races, Eddie tries to once again get rid of his rival. The player returns the car to Samantha to make amends, and she gives the player a choice of a wide body kit for his car.
Right after the touching moment, Eddie challenges the player and loses, like everyone else who ever challenged the player so far. Before any victory can be sung, a mysterious, legendary silver Nissan Z challenges the player for a last run through the Market Street circuit. Circuit is a standard race that involves racing with up to four opponents cars around a loop track for two laps or more, and is the main mode of the game.
For about the last 4 races of underground mode, the number of players decreases to only 1 rival, and the number of laps reach up to seven Endurance Race. In the case of UndergroundKnockout sessions have a maximum of three laps for four racers. Sprint mode is a variation on the Circuit mode, where the contestants race in a point-to-point track instead of loop tracks.
Drifting is the most challenging and technical aspect of the game. Drift mode consists of one player in a short loop track, where the objective is to collect as many points as possible by drifting along the track.
The player competes with three other contestants, who appear to accumulate scores along with the player during the drift session. The player would be required to beat these scores in order to obtain top positions. Bonuses are awarded for players who drift in the outer borders of the track, drift vertically, or perform chained-drifting continuous drifting by constantly steering the vehicle during drifts to maintain speed ; if the player succeeds in ending a drift without collisions onto the sides of the track, the collected points are added into the score, otherwise, the collected points are cancelled.
Drift mode is the only type of racing where time taken to complete the track does not matter, since players are given the freedom to complete the allocated number laps at their own pace. This may explain the absence of nitrous oxide in this mode, since it serves no apparent purpose in this situation. In the Car Customization menu, cars such as the pictured Nissan Skyline R34 GT-R can be altered with performance upgrades and visual upgrades, such as paint colors and body kits.
Drag racing is the second most technical form of race in the game. It involves racing against one or three cars on typically straight tracks, and attempting to obtain top positions to win.
In order to master Drag mode, players must employ good timing and reflexes for gear shifting, redliningovertaking, and the use of nitrous oxide boosts;Because the player is going to put the engine to its limits the mode places particular emphasis in monitoring the tachometer during races, which is enlarged and situated on the leftmost portion of the screen.
Steering in this mode is simplified to simply allow for lane changes, while the computer handles the steering along the lanes, and the player focuses more on maintaining an optimum speed for the car.
Some of the landmarks seen here are later seen in Bayviewused in Need for Speed: Underground 2. It is also possible that the game takes place in Texas, as billboards depicting a picture of the shape of Texas are visible. Critics generally liked the game [ 1 ]despite primary complaints of repetitive tracks [ 2 ]unbalanced rubberband AIexcessive use of random traffic, and lack of an online feature in the GameCube and Xbox versions [ 3 ].
The game was one of the best-selling of all time, selling 15 million copies worldwide. The series was originally developed by the Canadian based company Distinctive Softwarewhich became known as EA Canada.
Initially, the series was exclusive to the fifth generation consoles and was featured in all of the seventh generation video game consoles by The games consist mainly of racing with various cars on various tracks, and to some extent, include police pursuits in races.
In Japan, the series was released as Over Drivin. After the release of Need for Speed: High Stakesit adopted the western name. Since Need for Speed: Undergroundthe series has integrated car body customization into gameplay.
The Need for Speed and its sequels are racing games that employ the same fundamental rules and mechanics.
The player controls a race car in a variety of races where they look to win the race. Before playing each race, the player chooses a vehicle to race in and has the option of choosing the transmission of the vehicle, which includes automatic and manual transmission. Although the games share the same name the series switched focus, in one form or another. For example in some games the cars can suffer mechanical and visual damage, while in other games the cars cannot be damaged at all, some games have physics, that is the way the software simulates a real car behavior, that are reminiscent of a real car while others games have forgiving physics ie going through some curves at top speed.
An important shift happened with Need for Speeed Underground which is influenced by the film The Fast and the Furious and reaches up to the latest game. In one aspect where that difference can be seen is on the majority of cars available on earliers games ie sports cars versus the new cars ie compact cars.
Almost all the games in the franchise included the game mode of police pursuitthat started with the first game in the series The Need for Speed and returned with Need for Speed: Hot Pursuit. On the first game, the player races against the X-Man, the objective is to beat him without getting arrested.
From the third game onwards, the player can play as the felon or the cop; as in a real police pursuit, the player must elude the police, or if playing as the cop, must pursue the felon.
Like an ordinary street race, the player must finish first to win the race, though if the player crashes into an obstacle, the race ends. The idea of car tuning evolved with each new game and it focused mainly on the mechanics of the car rather than the looks of it.
The more the player knows how the car behaves to each setting, the easier to get the right setup which in turn helps to win races. Every game has some form of car tuning that can be set by toggling options on and off ie abs, traction controladjusting options ie front downforce, rear downforce, brake bias, gear ratios or upgrading parts ie engine, gearbox.
From Underground to the current game, customization of vehicles is based on the film The Fast and the Furious. The two categories in which the player can choose to modify his cars are visual and performance.
When a car has a high visual rating, the player is told that their vehicle is eligible to be on the cover of a magazine; thereafter, the player must drive to a specific location to take the photo of the vehicle. Like all racing games, the Need for Speed series features an extensive list of cars that are available for the player to use.
The vehicles included in the game are modeled and named after actual cars in real life. Cars in the franchise are divided into four categories, the exotic carsthe muscle carsthe tunersand special vehicles. The special vehicle category refers to the police cars that are available for use in the game. Originally the series took place in international settings, such as race tracks in AustraliaEuropeand Africa among other settings.
Starting with Undergroundtraffic is a fixed obstacle added during a race. The Need for Speed series was originally developed by Distinctive Softwarea video game studio based in VancouverCanada.
The company capitalized on its experience in the domain when it began developing the Need For Speed series in late When V-Rally was released init was developed by the European based company, Eden Studiosand had nothing in common with the preceding Need for Speed games. V-Rally 2 however, followed the same formula as the other Need for Speed titles. The game however, was later confirmed that it would be included into the Need for Speed franchise and the spin-off series was never produced.
There have been sixteen games released in the Need for Speed series. The franchise debuted with the release of The Need for Speed in Need for Speed: Pro Streetpublished inhas been the series most recent release. For a list of those games, see List of Need for Speed titles. Most cars and tracks are available at the beginning of the game, and the objective is to unlock the remaining locked content by winning tournaments.
The initial version also featured an obnoxious opponent who taunted the player if the computer won the race or the player is arrested if the player is ticketed several times. The first installment of the NFS was one of only two serious attempts by the series to provide a realistic simulation of car handling and physics without arcade elements the other being Porsche Unleashed.
Need for Speed II featured some of the rarest and most exotic vehicles ever available, including the Ford Indigo concept vehicle, and features country-themed tracks from North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. A new racing mode was also introduced in NFS II dubbed Knockoutwhere the last racers to finish laps will be eliminated until the only leading racer remains, and wins. This game also is the first in the series to allow the downloading of additional cars from the official website.
As a result, modding communities have sprung up to create more vehicles which would otherwise be unavailable to the game. Getaway requires the player to outrun a pursuing police vehicle for a given time period. Career mode incorporates a monetary reward system that allowed a player to purchase vehicles and performance upgrades while earning cash by racing in a chronological set of tournaments.
Vehicles which have been involved in accidents featured visibly crushed car bodies and suffered from performance penalties.
After a race in Career mode, the player is given the option to purchase repairs. The mode also allows players, for the first time, to upgrade cars, although the feature simply consists of switching between three upgrade levels for each car. The PlayStation version of the game, released some months before the PC version, features improved gameplay. Also, The Aston Martin DB7 was in the game at release while the PC version required that you would need to download it online to put it in the game.
Porsche Unleashed North America and Latin America titlePorsche European title or simply Porsche in Germany is different from the previous versions because it featured only Porsches and featured a wealth of information regarding them.
The vehicle handling is considered the most realistic in any NFS game, and there is an in-depth catalogue of different Porsche parts that span throughout the years. The player had to win races in the Evolution career mode to unlock cars in chronological order from to Porsche Unleashed also featured a Factory Driver mode, where the player had to test Porsches with various stunts and move on with his career.
The game is also the first in the series since the first NFS game to not feature a split screen mode. However, the game did contain a well constructed LAN multiplayer feature. It features historical videos and many pictures of old photos of Porsche vehicles. The Factory Driver was also a different kind of unlocking, except to do with performing and excelling in certain slaloms, speed races, deliveries, etc.
Many of the missions were considered to be really difficult. In addition, the graphics of the game were relatively impressive for the time the game was released. Motor City Online officially shutdown and went offline on August 29th, Hot Pursuit 2 draws primarily from the gameplay and style of NFS III ; its emphasis was on evading the police and over-the-top tracks featuring lengthy shortcuts.
Races take place fully at night, and police pursuits were also forgone—characteristics that were reused in the sequel Need for Speed: Underground 2. Instead of hundred-thousand dollar exotics, Underground featured vehicles associated with import tuner culture.
This, plus the increasingly arcade-like controls, became points of controversy for longtime NFS fans. Despite this, Underground was commercially very successful. This limitation could be overcome with the use of third party utilities. Need for Speed: Underground 2the sequel to the commercial hit Need for Speed: Undergroundwas released on November 15 Underground 2 also introduces several SUVswhich could be customized as extensively as other Underground 2 vehicles and used to race against other SUV racers.
The customization features in the game was significantly expanded to modifications that have no actual effect on vehicle performance. The sound systems, for example, could be put in the trunk of cars, but served no purpose other than sheer flash.
In terms of design, the game is largely similar to the Underground series, allowing users to select and drive purchased cars from a garage, as well as customizing the vehicles with body kits, vinyls, etc. In addition to cars from the import tuner scene, Rivals features several American muscle cars, including those not featured in previous Need for Speed: Underground games, such as the Dodge Chargerthe Ford Mustangand the Chevrolet Corvette C5.
Need for Speed: Most Wanted was released on November 15, and is one of the first games released for the Xbox Police chases make a comeback and represent a significant body of the gameplay, and includes the Grand Theft Auto -like free-roaming of Underground 2but with less extensive vehicle customization features than in the Underground series.
The story mode is presented in a significantly different style from Undergroundwith CGI effects mixed with live action. The mode also features the Blacklist, a crew consisting of 15 racers that the player must beat one-by-one, the top dog of which is Razor, the guy who cheated you out of your awsome car, you must beat the blacklist to unlock parts, cars, and tracks. The player has to meet certain requirements before he can take on the next Blacklist rival. Need for Speed: Carbon sees the return of nighttime-only racing, and a selection of cars similar to that of Most Wantedincluding compact cars and sports cars associated with import cultureAmerican muscle carsand supercars.
Drift events returned to the series in Carbon. The game was released on November 1for Windows-based personal computers, followed by video game consoles and handheld game consoles. Key features of the game include realistic damage, a return to realistic racing instead of the arcade-like racing of previous titles [ 13 ] [ 14 ]modeling, burnouts and more.
The game also lacks the free roam mode in which players can roam the streets. Instead, all of the races are on closed race tracks that take place on organized race days. However sales were poor and critics bashed the game because of its awkward, unrealistic physics engine, boring single player career mode and unresponsive controls.
The game has a significantly longer development cycle than previous games. The development of this title started after Need for Speed: Undercover. The name is not yet known. Starting with Need For Speed Undergroundthe series has ventured to immerse the player deeply in movie-like stories. Since Underground 2these characters have been played by popular real world actresses and models, and were also given distinct cars of their own.
There will be the return of many ways of racing in Need for Speed Undercover. Sprint, Circuit, there will be no drifts unlike other NFS games, Highway Battles a new mode involving racing on a highway with heavy civilian and police traffic [ 11 ]missions where the player performs specific missions usually involving the Tri-City Police Department.
The map is huge it takes 18 minutes to get from one side to the other as it is a fictional city based on the American West Coast cities.
The police vehicles will be drivable by the player namely in certain campaign missions. Amoung the various missions, one will involve stealing cop cars and taking them back to your safehouse. Another is about racing criminals to help the cops bring them down and put them away for a long time. You are undercover but you still have chases because you break every law to bring down criminals. There is lots of action packed fun awaiting for the users to enjoy and explore different places.
One team, the robbers will have to deliver a package to a drop point numerous times while another team, the cops will try to stop the transportation of that package. Each team will take it in turns to be both cops and robbers. There will also be regular racing online modes from previous NFS games such as sprint, circuit and point to point along with the brand new Highway Battle mode.
The customization of cars will be similar to Need for Speed: Prostreet and has been enhanced on the level of graphics and detail. They will also have aftermarket parts like Need for Speed: Carbon did. Players will take on dangerous jobs and compete in races in order to infiltrate and take down a ruthless international crime smuggling syndicate of street racers and car thieves.
Another named police officer is Lt. Recently EA revealed some new plot details of Undercover. The player was aided by detective Chase Linh. The game will feature international movie star Maggie Q[ 19 ] as detective Chase Linh, one of the lead characters of the game, and also singer and actress, Christina Milianas Carmen. Police chases from Untitled - Berretta Bros - Shake da Break (Vinyl) installments will also return, as well a new Highway Battle mode.
He has stated Undercover has a considerably longer development cycle than its predecessors since the Need for Speed development team is now split up into two teams, both of which will work on a two-year development cycle with future titles, alternating releases between them. When this change was implemented in mid-summerone team started working on Undercover giving it only a Riccitiello also stated Undercover is taking inspiration from action films such as The Transporterwith a large embedded narrative.
It will have an all new damage system. It was developed by EA Black Box. The game is based around tuning cars for street races, resuming the Need for Speed: Underground storyline. Brooke Burke is the voice of Rachel Teller, the person who guides you through the story.
On the Nintendo DS installment, users are able to design custom decals to adorn any vehicle in the game. The driver, who has a unique scythe tattoo, makes a call confirming the accident, and the flashback fades out. Fast forward to the present day, where we see the player arriving in Bayview via airplane, with a note from Samantha referring him to her friend Rachel Voiced over by Brooke Burkewho will set the player up there.
The player then has the option to complete a few races in the car before inevitably returning it to the car lot, where Rachel will allow him to choose his first vehicle.
It is then that the player embarks on a quest to become the top racer in Bayview and eventually take down the man who sabotaged his ride in the flashback, who turns out to be Caleb. The gang has the same vinyl, paint, and rim set.
Rachel tells the player that Caleb has been manipulating the sponsorship deals throughout Bayview towards him. The reward for beating the game is all cars and parts. Bayview is the fictional city that the racing and free-roaming takes place in. Its located on the west coast and features racing in all from high hills to industrial land.
To enter a race, you must first find the race in this huge city. As you win races and earn reputation new parts of the city will be unlocked and new events and shops will be to find. The city can only be explored at night. The city has a great amount of skyscrapers, neon lights and casinos; each of these is placed strategically to remind the player of Las Vegas. Bayview is similar to the place where you can travel by subway or car in Canada called Bayview Station in subway.
In-game Need for Speed: Underground 2 screenshot, in which races are roughly similar to that of Underground and still revolve around import culture. In addition to the racing modes included in the previous Underground game Circuit, Sprint, Drag and Drift races4 new variations of races have been provided in Underground 2.
One racing mode was dropped, this being the Knockout competitions. Still, a Lap Knockout option is available when racing Circuit in non-career races. A circuit race is a standard race that involves up to three AI cars driving around a track that loops back to the start line of itself.
A circuit race is typically a maximum of four laps and minimum of 2 laps. A sprint race is just like a circuit race except that the track does not loop back to the start line.
It involves a maximum of four AI cars. Drifting is one of the easier types of racing depending on difficulty level in Need for Speed Underground 2. One difference to the drifting mode compared to the original Need for Speed Underground is that you are drifting with the other competitors at the same time. Players race against a maximum of three competitors.
Points are awarded when the player successfully slide the car and finishes the drift without hitting any walls. Like the Street X mode in Underground 2, no nitrous oxide is allowed. There are also some special drift races where the player starts at the top of a hill and has to slide down from top to bottom, a drifting equivalent of a sprint race from point A to point B.
In these races, there are no other racers, however there is normal city traffic. Players increase their points by sliding past city cars. Drag racing is a point-to-point race that forces players to use a manual transmission. Steering in this mode is simplified to simply allow for lane changes, while the game handles the steering along the lanes, and the player focuses more on maintaining an optimum speed for the car.
The Nitrous Oxide meter is enlarged and displayed on the bottom right of the screen. While cruising around the city, players can challenge other cruising opponents in a one-on-one race.
This racing formula is similar to that of Tokyo Xtreme Racer and Wangan Midnight video games, which uses health bars instead of distance to determine the winner. Once a certain amount of victories have been won by player in certain levels, the player is awarded a unique part free of charge by another racer. In this mode, players could modify, tune, and drive SUVs in the same manner as they could with normal cars.
Like cars, users are able to add on parts to SUVs to increase their performance and handling, however, the added weight of SUVs makes them much harder to maneuver, especially at higher speeds.
Street X involves bumper to bumper racing against three other opponents on a short and small circuit based on the Drift tracks from Need for Speed: Undergroundexcept these tracks no longer induce excessive drifts. Instead, this mode emphasizes precise braking and gear-shifting in order to obtain shorter lap times and win races. Like the Drift mode, no nitrous oxide is allowed. The URL is a set of tournaments which takes place in a specific set of closed tracks outside city streets — either actual racing circuits or airport runways.
URL tournaments typically consist of one to three races, with the player racing against five opponents. In tournaments with two or more races, a points system is used. At the end of each race, drivers receive a specific amount of points according to their standing in a race. The total score at the end of these races determines the winner of the tournament. The online servers for PlayStation 2 are not up, and EA has shut down servers for Xbox and PC, making this feature disabled, as well as causing disappointment to many loyal fans of the game.
As in Need for Speed: UndergroundUnderground 2 continues to offer similar vehicles for purchase and modification, most of which consist of Japanese models, with a sizable number of European and American models. In addition, Underground 2 is the only game in the Need for Speed series to date to offer three SUVs as racing vehicles, which may be modified more extensively than their compact counterparts.
It is part of the Need for Speed series of games. The Black Edition features additional races, bonus cars and other additional content. The Black Edition also comes with a special feature DVD that contains interviews and videos about the game. Following Mia Townsend played by Josie Maranthe player proves his driving prowess as he is pursued by a veteran police officer named Sergeant Crosswho vows to take down the player.
She then helps the player by assisting the player in acquiring a new car and working his way up the Blacklist. Rivals are defeated one by one, and the player is rewarded with reputation, new rides, and ride improvements with every Blacklist member taken down.
The final challenge for the 1 spot on the Blacklist pits the player in a race against Razor, with the player emerging as the victor, thus reclaiming the BMW. When Razor refuses to relinquish ownership of the car and attacks Mia after she confiscates the keys from Razor, she subdues him, and in doing so she reveals herself to be an undercover police officer. Mia throws the keys to the player, and orders him to escape the incoming police force. Razor is taken into custody and the player is pursued by the entire Rockport Police Department under the command of Cross.
The player manages to slip away from Cross and abandons Rockport City by launching the BMW over an old incomplete bridge that Mia points out to the player in her last phone call. The cut scenes in the game are live-action videos shot with real actors and set pieces, and CGI effects are added to car exteriors and environments for extra visual flair.
The videos are presented in a significantly different style from the Underground series, and this presentation of cut scenes is used again in Carbon and Need for Speed: Undercover.
Most Wantedlike other Need for Speed games, is essentially a driving and racing gamewhere the player selects one car and races against a time limit or other racers to reach a destination. As players take control of faster cars and increasingly rely on nitrous oxide speed booststhe oxide meter now refills automatically for the first time since its introduction in Undergroundand driving sequences become fast-paced and intense similar to the Burnout series.
Three distinct regions are offered in the city of Rockport, along with cycling weather. There is no racing at night; all events take place between sunrise and sunset. A Grand Theft Auto -like Free Untitled - Berretta Bros - Shake da Break (Vinyl) mode is provided as in Need for Speed: Underground 2but is still limited to Career mode, as well as pursuit-based events in other modes.
The game provides players with three game modes. The Quick Race mode allows the player to select a car and an event and immediately start racing. The available cars and events are unlocked as the player progresses through the storyline in the Career mode.
In the Xbox version, the player is awarded with Achievement Points each time a Blacklist opponent is defeated. New cars and parts are also unlocked as the player progresses through Career mode by beating Blacklist racers.
The pre-tuned cars used in each Challenge is fixed, ranging from mostly Career cars with poor handling to traffic vehicles such as a cement truck or police cars. Additional bonus cars may be unlocked as the player progresses through Challenge mode. In terms of actual variations of races, Most Wanted inherits several racing modes prevalent in Untitled - Berretta Bros - Shake da Break (Vinyl) Underground predecessors.
Meanwhile, Most Wanted see the introduction of two new racing variations, which places emphasis on speed. Accumulated speed is reduced over a period of time after an opponent crosses the finish line first. This screenshot also depicts the use of simulated not actual HDRR on the sunny sky and surface lighting. In Career mode, police pursuits may occur during a race or during free roaming through the city, depending on the frequency of the police units in the area and the offenses players have committed.
Pursuits can also be initiated by selecting an appropriate Challenge in Challenge mode. Traffic offenses committed by the player are known in game as Infractions. The police pursuit system is significantly more complex than its previous Hot Pursuit incarnations. Heat levels, which increase with the length of a police pursuit and the amount of damage caused by the player during the pursuit, add a twist to the pursuit.
Players will have to be careful in pursuits as a higher wanted level may prompt Cross to join the pursuit in a Chevrolet Corvette C6 with customized paintwork. In Career mode, pursuits are integrated into the game in such a way that it is necessary to challenge Blacklist racers. Players are provided with several additional features which are useful during pursuits. This allows the player a limited amount of time to quickly maneuver the car out of difficult situations, or assess an escape route through a road block or spike strip blockade.
In one example, if a player smashes through a gas stationthe roof of the station falls crushing unlucky police units following them. Cooldown spots, hiding spots where players may park in, are also scattered around the city in places like underground carparks, helping to shorten the Cooldown period and end pursuits quickly.
However, certain hiding spots may still be exposed and may be discovered by searching police units. While the game features police cars, including those in the form of fictional police cruisers, Pontiac GTOsChevrolet Corvette C6sand fictional SUVsMost Wanted does not allow players to play as a pursuing police in chases. However, players may drive several police cars in Challenge mode, but are solely used in checkpoint races and police pursuits, where the police are still pursuing the player.
A decision was made not to include online play for the PlayStation 2 version including the Black Edition, despite fan requests [ who? However, the PlayStation Portable version of the game would support this feature.
EA eased support to the Windows version of the game very early in its life cycle, The latest patch for the Windows version 1. S The depiction between all of the versions graphics-wise are not much different. The PSP version also known as Need for Speed: Most Wanted:which is in this page has a lower frame rate as well as most other games, due to hardware restrictions.
The Microsoft Windows version, of course, varies by hardware. The recommended hardware or above has a similar frame rate to the PlayStation 2 and Xbox versions. It should also be noted that game makes heavy use of the HDRR and motion blur effects to give a more realistic feel.
There are a wide range of cars available for the main Career mode of this game, ranging from the tuners of Underground 2to the roots of Need For Speedexotic cars, as well as several Muscle cars. Cars can be purchased at car lots in stock condition with no enhancement whatsoever.
Not all of them are available or affordable for purchase at the beginning stages of Career mode and must be Untitled - Berretta Bros - Shake da Break (Vinyl) by defeating a certain Blacklist member. Additionally, players are allowed to assume a sleeper appearance for cars without penalty in Most Wanted.
Additionally, Paul Linford provided interactive scores for police pursuit sessions. Need for Speed: Most Wanted: is a PlayStation Portable port of Most Wantedreleased on the same day as its console and personal computer counterparts.
For other uses, see Grand Theft Auto disambiguation. The gameplay consists of a mixture of actionadventuredrivingand occasional role-playingstealth and racing elements and has gained controversy for its adult nature and violent themes. The series focuses around many different protagonists who attempt to rise through the criminal underworld, although their motives for doing so vary in each game.
The antagonist in each game is commonly a character who has betrayed them or their organization or someone who has the most impact impeding their progress.
The series began in and currently has nine stand-alone games with a tenth one on the way, and two expansion packs for the original. The name of the series and its games are derived from grand theft autoa term referring to motor vehicle theft. As of 26 Marchthe franchise has sold over 70 million copies worldwide; according to Take-Two Interactive. The games allow people to take on the role of a criminal in a big city, typically a individual who rises in the ranks of organized crime over the course of the game.
Various missions are set for completion by the figureheads of the city underworld, generally criminal, which must be completed to progress through the storyline. In later titles, notably those released after Grand Theft Auto 2the player is given a more developed storyline, in which they are forced to overcome an event where they are either betrayed and left for dead or experienced an unfortunate event, which serves as motivation for the character to advance in the criminal ladder, and eventually leads to the triumph of the character by the end of the storyline; specific examples of this are the plots for Grand Theft Auto III and Grand Theft Auto: Vice City.
Unlike most traditional action games, which are structured as a single track series of levels with linear gameplayin GTA the player can determine the missions they want to undertake, and their relationships with various characters are changed based on these choices. The cities of the games can also be roamed freely at any point in the game, offering many accessible buildings and minor missions.
There are exceptions: missions follow a linear, overarching plot, and some city areas must be unlocked over the course of the game. Grand Theft Auto III and subsequent games have more prevalent voice acting, and radio stationswhich simulate driving to music with disc jockeysradio personalities, commercialstalk radiopop musicand American culture. The use of vehicles in an explorable urban environment provides a basic simulation of a working city, complete with pedestrians who obey traffic signals.
The main character can commit a wide variety of crimes and violent acts while dealing with only temporary consequences, including the killing of policemen and military personnel. Opponents of violent video games, such as Jack ThompsonSenator Hillary Rodham Clinton and Julia Bosemanbelieve that players will try to emulate this behavior, while proponents believe it provides an emotional outlet, as such actions in real life would have serious consequences. The Grand Theft Auto series may be divided into canonsbased on the inclusion of a numbering after the recognizable title name e.
The original Grand Theft Auto. A reduced Game Boy Color port was later released. Subsequently, two expansion packs were offered, set in s London.
A reduced Game Boy Color port was also produced. Graphics were also updated with a new 3D game engine. Multiplayer was discarded third party mods were later released, allowing for multiplayer gameplaybut GTA III improved in many other areas such as voice-acting and storyline in previous GTA s, there was speech only in short animated cut scenes between levels, other communication was simply subtitles running on the bottom of the screen. This game was set in in Vice Citywhich was based on Miami.
Vice City was the first game to introduce fully functional flying vehicles that could be used by the player, such as sea planes and helicopters. Grand Theft Auto: San Andreasreleased in Octoberhad its setting infocusing on California gang life and the awakening of the drug epidemic brought on by crack cocaine.
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