And this evaluative framework has had a signii- cant role in this debate about speciicity and diference throughout the centuries. Rather, it is when adaptations make the move across modes of engage- ment and thus across media, especially in the most common shift, that is, from the printed page to performance in stage and radio plays, dance, opera, musical, ilm, or television, that they ind themselves most enmeshed in the intricacies of the medium-speciicity debates; so too when works are adapted from either print or performance to interactive media, with their multiple sensory and semiotic channels Ryan c: But a dance work, a musical, a television show each has its own composite conventions and, some would say, even its own grammar and syntax that all operate to structure meaning for the perceiving audience.
Like all formal conventions, this grid both constrains and enables; it both limits and opens up new possibilities. On the contrary, a novel, in order to be dramatized, has to be dis- tilled, reduced in size, and thus, inevitably, complexity. Most reviewers saw this cutting as a negative, as subtraction, yet when plots are condensed and concentrated, they can sometimes become more powerful. Another way to think about this distillation is in terms of narrative redundancy giving way to narrative pertinence, as in some ilm noir adaptations Cattrysse Sometimes even the novelist agrees on the beneits of changes in his or her work.
A cut has been made; a motivation inserted, and an artistic clarity is the result. In ilm, no such disguise will be toler- ated by the viewer. When we watch a man do something on screen, our guts much more than our brains will tell us the truth of the ges- ture. It cannot be fudged. Of course, ilm adaptations obvi- ously also add bodies, voices, sound, music, props, costumes, architec- ture, and so on. When Raymond Chandler adapted James M.
Additions in performance adap- tations might range from this kind of stylistic and even ethical material to inserting new characters or increasing suspense.
Most of the talk about ilm adaptation, however, is in negative terms of loss. Sometimes what is meant is simply a reduction of scope: of length, of accretion of detail, of commentary Peary and Shatzkin 2—8.
But at other times the change is perceived as less a question of quantity and more one of quality. Smith In other words, the customary theoretical general- izations about the speciicity of media need to be questioned by looking at actual practice. But irst let us look at these formal elements from the point of view of each of the three modes of engagement open to adaptations.
Film adaptations of almost any medium are themselves open to re- novelization today: K. When we work in the other direction—that is, from the telling to the showing mode, especially from print to performance—a deini- tional problem potentially arises. In a very real sense, every live stag- ing of a printed play could theoretically be considered an adaptation in its performance. Miller 48 ; it is up to the director and actors to actualize the text and to interpret and then recreate it, thereby in a sense adapting it for the stage.
A visual and aural world is physi- cally shown on stage—be it in a play, a musical, an opera, or any other performance piece—created from verbal and notational signs on the page. But most theories draw the line here and claim that only some dramatic productions merit the designation of adaptation. Although it is not only stage and ilm directors like Peter Brook though he is infamous for doing this who edit a printed play text heavily, rearrange plot events, reassign lines, or cut characters, radical reinterpretations- in-performance like his usually qualify as adaptations in the sense that they are extended critical and creative engagements with a particular text.
But when most of us consider the move from print to performance, it is usually the common and familiar phenomenon of the adaptation of novels that comes to mind. In the move from telling to showing, a performance adapta- tion must dramatize: description, narration, and represented thoughts must be transcoded into speech, actions, sounds, and visual images.
Conlicts and ideological diferences between characters must be made visible and audible see Lodge — In the process of dra- matization there is inevitably a certain amount of re-accentuation and refocusing of themes, characters, and plot. Because of the required changes, the epistolary novel would seem to present the most obvious diiculties for dramatization.
But when Roger Vadim had adapted and updated the novel inhe had used the more literary device of a voice-over narration for some of the letters. When theorists talk of adaptation from print to performance media, the emphasis is usually on the visual, on the move from imagination to actual ocular perception.
But the aural is just as important as the visual to this move. Soundtracks in movies there- fore enhance and direct audience response to characters and action, as they do in videogames, in which music also merges with sound efects both to underscore and to create emotional reactions. In opera, music is arguably as important a narrating component as are the words; this function is in addition to its manifest afective and even mimetic power. Adapting a novel into a radio play brings the importance of the aural to the fore, for the aural is everything in this case.
Yet there were formal attempts to incorpo- rate the complexity of temporal and ontological states: the stage version used a large diagonally split movie screen at the back to present both historical scenes and magic realist ones. Yet, that is not how this point is usually made. More often we are told that the camera limits what we can see, eliminating the action on the periphery that might have caught our attention when watching a play on stage.
Not only is the kind of attention and focus diferent in a theatrical production but plays also have diferent conventions than ilms or television shows. Neither performance medium, however, has an easy time trans- coding print texts. Telling is not the same as showing. Both stage and screen adaptations must use what Charles Sanders Peirce called indexical and iconic signs—that is, precise people, places, and things— whereas literature uses symbolic and conventional signs Giddings, Selby, and Wensley 6.
Graphic novels are perhaps adapted more easily to ilm for this reason. If those manuals written for screenwriters are to be believed, realist ilm requires cause-and-efect motivation, basically linear and resolved plot development, and coherent characterization. When Luchino Visconti transfers this character to the screen in Morte a Venezia, he only allows viewers to see his contradic- tions progressively Carcaud-Macaire and Clerc He also makes him into a composer, whose musical creativity is arguably easier or at least more potentially interesting to represent aurally and visually than that of a cerebral and verbal writer.
Avant-garde ilm, of course, ofers other means to the adapter, and interestingly these devices have been exploited most in the transfer of poetic texts to the screen. Poems simply set to music are also adaptations from the telling to the showing mode when they are then performed. But this adaptation is only an ampliication of the long Lieder tradition of poems set to music and sung to piano or orchestra accompaniment.
When operas and musicals adapt literary works, the move to the showing from the telling mode has the usual formal consequences, because condensation is crucially necessary for both plays and novels.
Librettos are usually shorter than the texts of ordi- nary dramas [not to mention novels] …. Repetitions are frequently called for …. A French stage farce, La cage aux folles, became a ilm director: Edouard Molinaroand then had two movie sequels and before becoming a Broadway musical in and then being remade as an American story he Birdcage .
But both ilm and television are relatively realist media. What happens when a manifestly artiicial performance form like an opera or a musical is adapted to the screen? All but two of the characters are played by nonsinging actors, and the prerecorded music is lip-synched—but never perfectly. Using Bre- chtian alienation efects, Syberberg refuses to coordinate sound and image. He also casts two actors as Parsifal—a woman Karin Krick and a man Michael Kutterbut retains only one voice the male one of Rainer Goldberg.
More naturalistic than either the John van Druten play I Am a Camera  or the Har- old Prince-directed musical book by Joe Masterof and John Kander; music by Fred Ebb the ilm allows only one major plot char- acter to sing and that is Sally Bowles—because she is a singer by trade, like the MC—and even then, she only sings at the Kit Kat Klub, where her singing can be realistically explained.
Television shares with cinema many of the same naturalistic conven- tions and therefore the same transcoding issues when it comes to adap- tation.
However, in a television series, there is more time available and therefore less compression of the adapted text is required.
When Tony Kushner adapted his own plays from the s, Angels in America, for television inthe running time was approximately the same six hours for the series as for the plays, and the verbal text and dramatic scenes were not altered substantially. In contrast, the novel had taken its time to describe places and characters and to give biographical information about relationships in order to set up the two very diferent worlds of the two protagonists; the television version did The Car Chase - Roy Budd - Get Budd - The Soundtracks (CD) very quickly and efectively.
Less intuitively obvious is the fact that television has also provided adaptations for the operatic stage, most controversially with Jerry Springer—he Opera music by Richard homas; libretto by Steward Lee. In a inal ironic twist, a televised version of the opera adaptation was broadcast by the BBC inbut not without considerable outrage from the public who found its anti-Christian allegory inappropriate for an opera on television!
In the adaptation, 48 ilm characters are reduced to 16 singing parts, and the multiplotted, difuse, and chaotic because improvised screen story is focused more narrowly.
Hybrid forms that provide sung music for existing ilms often silent are partial remediations that also function as adaptations. Miller People appear to sing in the open air, but the sound we actually hear is that of a concert hall or recording studio.
Of course, the miniaturization that occurs with video or DVD viewing of these ilms reverses the efects of this gigantism of the close-up on the big screen. All the media discussed above are performance media. Not all showing is the same.
Computerized gaming, however, is the most frequent form taken by this particular adapting process. Buzz Lightyear to the Rescue is the PlayStation game adaptation both of this ilm, with Buzz being a character, and of the game in which the open- ing sequence of the ilm itself is supposed to be taking place Ward As with the various forms of hypermedia, it is process, not inal or inished product, that is important.
But interactivity also makes for diferent formal techniques: the sense of coherence is spatial and is created by the player within a game space that is not just imagined or even just perceived but also actively engaged Tong and Tan In addition, game programming has an even more goal-directed logic than ilm, with fewer of the gaps that ilm spectators, like read- ers, ill in to make meaning. Digital games may draw on televisual, photographic, and cinematic devices, tropes, and associations, but they always have their own logic King and Krzywinska b: 2.
Equally interactive, though in diferent ways, are theme parks, where we can walk right into the world of a Disney ilm, and virtual reality experiences, where our own bodies are made to feel as if they are entering an adapted heterocosm. Much virtual art presents mythic con- texts in an illusionistic manner through a polysensory interface Grau My alternate choice of theoretical focus—on the shifts among telling, showing, and interacting modes of engagement—is what has moti- vated my seeming mixing of categories.
Of this long list, it is precisely such elements as interior monologue, point of view, relection, comment, and irony, along with such other issues as ambiguity and time, which have attracted the most attention in the critical and theoretical work on the move from the printed page to any form of performance and from there to the participatory.
As we have seen and as any basic book on storytelling or for that mat- ter any advanced book on narratology will conirm, telling a story is not the same thing as showing a story. Critics difer on whether the modern novel owes a debt to ilm or vice versa in its use of multiple points of view, ellipses, fragmenta- tion, and discontinuity Elliott —14; Wagner 14— Because ilm could rep- resent visual and dramatic narrative so vividly, the novel retreated to interiority Elliott It is as if ilm versions were the response to that attempt at literary prognostication, Scheherazade, or the Future of the English Novel.
But precisely how would these future Scheherazades tell their stories on ilm or on stage? Are performance media limited to a third-per- son point of view? Or can the intimacy of the irst-person narrator be achieved in performance? Do techniques like voice-over or a soliloquy work? It is thus not sur- prising that Bapsi Sidhwa insisted on voice-overs in the ilm adaptation of her novel, Cracking Indiadirected by Deepa Mehta released as Earth or that this insistence made the director distinctly uneasy Sidhwa Attempts to use the camera for irst-person narration—to let the spectator see only what the protagonist sees—are infrequent.
From the other direction, novelizers of ilms have to decide what point of view to take to repli- cate the eye of the camera, and their task can be just as diicult. Most ilms use the camera as a kind of moving third-person narrator to rep- resent the point of view of a variety of characters at diferent moments Stam Even without the use of virtual reality, which really is an embodied irst-person perspective, computer animation allows for more vari- ety than is usually acknowledged.
Games ofer either a third-person or a irst-person shooter position, with multiplayer options. Arguably, modernist ic- tion exacerbated the division between print literature and cinema, in particular, by giving new signiicance to the inner life of characters, to psychic complexity, thoughts, and feelings. In the ilm version of the story, internalized guilt, more than the birth of artistic creativity, becomes the central theme. Presumably the audience has, by this time, been taught and learned this diary-code, even though the voice-over returns at the end just to make sure.
It is decidedly the case that elaborate interior mono- logues and analyses of inner states are diicult to represent visually in performance, but as Strick shows in Portrait, sound and avant-garde ilm devices can work to signal interiority nonetheless. Without that inside information, we would miss the essence of the character. Yet ilm can and does ind cinematic equivalents, as we have seen already.
Certain scenes, for example, can be made to take on emblem- atic value, making what is going on inside a character comprehensible to the spectator. External appearances are made to mirror inner truths. In other words, visual and aural correlatives for interior events can be created, and in fact ilm has at its command many techniques that verbal texts do not. Although it is a naturalistic medium in most of its uses, ilm can also create visual, externalized analogues to subjective elements—fantasy or magic realism—by such techniques as slow motion, rapid cutting, distortional lenses ish-eye, telephotolighting, or the use of various kinds of ilm stocks Jinks 36— Flashbacks and lashforwards can contribute to a sense of unreality, as can sound efects and music, of course.
Dream-like states, in fact, have come to have their own visual and auditory conventions in ilm. It is not for nothing, therefore, that the Dada and surrealist poets saw ilm as a privileged mode of convey- ing the unconscious. Many years later novelist and ilmmaker Alain Robbe-Grillet would corroborate this notion from the reverse angle, arguing that the French New Novelists, as they were known, were not attracted to the objectivity of the camera as an analogy for their work, but rather to its possibilities in the domain of the subjec- tive, of the imaginary Characters in an opera or a musical may appear two-dimensional because of that necessary compression of their stories, but their music has been likened to their unverbalized subconscious.
Only the audience hears the rest of the music; only the audience has access to its level of meaning Abbate In fact, however, opera also has a ixed convention for rep- resenting interiority: the aria. We hear the arias, but do not see them physically sung. Although this action is cinematically realistic she is check- ing to see if she is still beautiful or whether she looks illit is also a self-relexive way of both letting us into her mind and also showing us how she has internalized the objectifying male gaze.
Yet Robert Bresson valiantly attempted the latter, as we have seen. But are ilm adaptations necessarily always better at conveying exteriority than the novels themselves? Characters may be described once and in signiicantly selected detail in a novel, but are seen over and over in a movie, so the signiicant particularities of their appearances are lost with repetition and naturalization. In a novel like Great Expectations —61Dickens was obsessed with both the naturalistic and symbolic value of dress and appearance, but he speciically chose not to describe Jaggers in any detail.
With animation in ilm, video, interactive iction, or videogames, exterior action is not captured at 24 frames per second by a camera, but is created frame by frame. Likewise the supernatural world of wizardry and monsters of the Harry Potter stories can be made visible—and realis- tic—through computerized media.
Is this the reason why the animated worlds of videogames can be used to create both interiority and exteriority, the latter either with uncanny naturalistic accuracy or as total fantasy? If Lessing were correct in calling literature an art of time and painting an art of spacewe might expect the telling mode, as in an extended narrative iction, to be the best at depicting time, thus creating particu- lar problems for adaptation to other modes.
Again, however, the tru- isms of theory need testing against the realities of practice. Prose iction alone, by this logic, has the lexibility of time-lines and the ability to shift in a few words to the past or the future, and these abilities are always assumed to have no real equivalents in performance or interactive media.
Yet, unlike the stage, the cinema is indeed capable of lashbacks and lashforwards, and its very immediacy can make the shifts potentially more efective than in prose iction where the narrating voice stands between the characters immersed in time and the reader. Performance tropes do exist, in other words, to fuse and interrelate past, present, and future. With the time-lapse dissolve, not only time and space but also cause and efect are synthesized Morrissette 18— Likewise, visual and aural leitmotifs can function in a movie to suggest the past through memory—with the memory of the audience replicating that of the characters, though on another level of narration.
In ilm, people appear within a setting in action all at once, with no mediating assistance for the spectator. But the kind of shot long, medium, close-up; angles; reversesnot to mention the dura- tion of the shot, is in fact always dictated by the dramatic importance of what is being ilmed, not by any naturalistic timing or pacing of the actual action.
Unlike a live performance on stage that occurs in real time and in which sounds and images are correlated exactly, in a ilm the relation between sound and image is a constructed one. Visual frames and diferent soundtracks dialogue, voice-overs, music, noises can be combined, as the ilm editor manipu- lates time and space relations. Cinematic adapters, in other words, have at their disposal a veri- table wealth of technical possibilities and now learned and accepted conventions to tackle the move from print to screen, even with texts that are temporally complex or resolutely interiorized.
However, this does not mean that there will be no problems. Time and timing clearly present a real challenge for the adapter to a diferent medium. An adaptation has to take into account not only changes in time in the story but also the technicalities of, for example, the time needed to change scenes. Kracauer points out that staged operas have added temporal problems: arias in efect stop time. Neither is it just a play with music laid on.
It is a dramatic action viewed through poetry and music, animated and controlled by its music, which is continuous. A special adaptation problem occurs in all media: how to represent or thematize the unfolding of time—something that can be done so easily in prose iction. Classical ilms resorted to images of calendar pages turning to cue spectators to time passing. In a novel, characters can become bored; we can read of time passing, of mounting boredom, yet not become bored ourselves.
In a graphic novel we can actually see this numbing occur, without succumbing to it in our own right. Yet it is also the case that a leap forward of-screen is also a cinematic convention that spectators understand. Television adaptations usually have more time at their disposal, of course, and therefore more lexibility. But this move entails other temporal constraints, such as the need to divide the narrative into a speciied number of blocks of equal duration.
Although the writer needs to think about this precise tim- ing, it is the editor, of course, who in the end must achieve it. But this is where another kind of time constraint appears: as a medium television is conventionally faster paced than ilm, for instance, and an adapter has to take this pace into account even when working with inevitably slower paced literary works.
In the second classical movie versions created by animation artist Jennifer Shiman, the stories are decon- structed, reconstructed, and reshown, as acted out by serious, earnest bunny characters. Videogames based on ilms, of course, go one step further and immerse us in the time and pace of real life while still maintaining this cinematic illusion. But electronic technology in general ofers various new adaptation possibilities, not least when it comes to representing the temporal.
Lev Manovich argues that in computerized ilms, for instance, time and memory can actually be spatialized through montage: he logic of replacement [of one image by another, illing the screen], characteristic of cinema, gives way to the logic of addition and co- existence.
Time becomes spatialised, distributed over the surface of the screen. In spatial montage, nothing is potentially forgotten, nothing is erased.
Just as we use computers to accumulate endless texts, messages, notes and data, and just as a person, going through life, accumulates more and more memories, with the past slowly acquiring more weight than the future, so spatial montage can accu- mulate events and images as it progresses through its narrative.
We experience time passing as in a ilm, but we also control time in the game parts, making for an intriguing hybrid temporal dimension. But they are joined by another loose grouping of issues around verbal and narrative complexity, and these too need testing against actual practice.
InEdmund Wilson provoked, even if he did not begin, what has proved to be a seemingly endless scholarly debate about how to interpret this enigmatic text. Yet, it has proved quite the contrary. Allen When what we hear does not match what we see, the resulting suggestiveness can be more potent than the actual appearances of the ghosts. Each of the brief, separate scenes that compose the opera is linked to the one before by a repeated musical theme with variationswhose intervals rotate in screw-like fashion Whittall Here the ghosts do appear, but their eerie and exotic music makes clear they are from a diferent realm, even if their malign but seductive power over the children is palpable—and audible.
Verbal and narrative ambiguities do indeed need to be dramatized in performance media, but that task is far from impossible. And something can be gained as well as lost. So he goes to work anticipating a quick job with easy money at the end of it, and possibly a bit of glory. He is soon disabused of these prideful assumptions. It becomes apparent to him that what he has at his disposal is The Car Chase - Roy Budd - Get Budd - The Soundtracks (CD) an ordered suc- cession of dramatic pictures.
With these he must do the work he once did with all the ininite resources of the English language at his back. Even in ilm, with its naturalistic demands, edit- ing can manage to suggest metaphoric comparison by linking disparate images together.
Verbal irony presents a particular challenge for adaptation to perfor- mance media, not in dialogue, obviously, but when used in the showing mode. But is this necessarily the case? In the next section, I test this truism against an extended example of an adaptational practice that not only addresses this particular point but also engages en route almost all of the issues around mode and medium speciicity that this chapter has been addressing. Although the killing could have been seen as an accident, the sole witness, Captain Vere, chooses not to save the popular and good young man, but rather to give into his professional fears that this act could be seen as the irst step to a possible mutiny.
But others have been less charitable, if more accurate, in their evalu- ation of these changes. In the opera, mutiny is a threat only after Billy, so beloved by the crew, is executed. But what if that confusion were intentional? For an outline of the Librivox audiobook production process, please see The LibriVox recording process. We require new readers to submit a sample recording so that we can make sure that your set up works and that you understand how to export files meeting our technical standards.
We do not want you to waste previous hours reading whole chapters only to discover that your recording is unusable due to a preventable technical glitch. A book coordinator commonly abbreviated BC in the forum is a volunteer who manages all the other volunteers who will record chapters for a LibriVox recording.
Metadata coordinators MCshelp and advise Book Coordinators, and take over the files with the completed recordings soloists are also Book Coordinators in this sense, as they prepare their own files for the Meta coordinators. The files are then prepared and uploaded to the LibriVox catalogue, in a lengthy and cumbersome process.
LibriVox is a hope, an experiment, and a question: can the net harness a bunch of volunteers to help bring books in the public domain to life through podcasting? LibriVox volunteers record chapters of books in the public domain, and then we release the audio files back onto the net. We are a totally volunteer, open source, free content, public domain project. LibriVox volunteers narrate, proof listen, and upload chapters of books and other textual works in the public domain.
These projects are then made available on the Internet for everyone to enjoy, for free. There are many, many things you can do to help, so please feel free to jump into the Forum and ask what you can do to help! Britten was a paciist and spent the war years just before he wrote this opera in the United States.
Captain Vere in the end may have devel- oped the passion sometimes latent under an exterior stoical or indif- ferent.
But the equivocation and ambiva- lence that Melville achieves by his mix of silence and speculation are indeed recreated in the showing mode—and in a most imaginative way. In the libretto, Vere is said to disappear into the room in which Billy is being kept; there is no further action on stage. Instead, the audience hears only a sequence of 34 clear, triadic chords, each of them harmonizing on a note of the F major triad and each scored difer- ently.
Other showing-mode adaptations of the story have not been this reticent. Coxe and R. Billy openly asks Vere to help him understand his sentence. Although critics have argued for years about whether this scene in the novella works or not, what this stage version does is efectively elimi- nate its ambiguity.
You are doing yours. Others read the chords thematically as realizing musically the passions involved or as implying a positive or even idealized form of homosexual afection that, at the time, could not be spoken of openly for fear of legal prosecution.
For still others the meaning is symbolic or metaphysical. He goes on to suggest that the harmony may be used here as a way of expressing interiority. In fact, we are deprived of visual as well as verbal clues. Not surprisingly, audiences are often puzzled by this scene: they think it is a prelude to the encounter between Billy and Vere and so may become restless. But the impact of those chords is such that the un-represented can be made to be more powerful than the represented.
As we watch and listen, we do not free associate; instead, we ill in the gaps, with the combined guidance of the dramatic set up of the encounter in the previous scene and those 34 chords in their inefable and suggestive ambiguity.
Like realist ilm, only perhaps more so, staged opera is not self- evidently a medium conducive to representing ambivalence, equivoca- tion, and absence. However, the combination in this scene of a refusal to stage or to verbalize with the addition of the estranging music can render a version of that complexity. Need we necessarily trust such a view?
Should we perhaps listen to the adapter for a change? Like the book-writer of a big musical, or the screenwriter of a ilm, I would be referring constantly to the designer, the movement director, the composer and every other member of the creative team.
I would be working with the producer and the director, both united in the form of Nick Hytner. And I would be working with Philip Pullman. In the case of a musical or an opera adaptation, however, matters become more complicated. Or must it be both? Obviously, the move to a performance or interactive mode entails a shift from a solo model of creation to a collaborative one.
Given that this group is known for its collaborative and improvisatory ethos and its challenge to theater as individual property, both the ironies and the problems of adaptation as a collaborative prac- tice became evident in this legal encounter see Savran In interactive digital installations and Internet-connected work, a collective model of creation best describes the web of interlinkages that are constantly being reorganized by the various participants both before and during the interaction itself.
Film and television are perhaps the most complicated media of all from this point of view. Although this seems the most obvious answer in one sense—as Noel Baker would agree—it is not the one most people would ofer. Who then is the adapter? On the question of whether the actors can be considered as adapters, the case is no simpler. As in staged works, the performers are the ones who embody and give material existence to the adaptation. Although clearly having to follow the screenplay, some actors admit that they seek background and inspiration from the adapted text, especially if the characters they are to play are well-known literary ones.
But does this make them conscious adapters? But in a more literal sense, what actors actually adapt in this sense is the screenplay Stam b: Yet none of these artists—screen- writer, composer, designer, cinematographer, actor, editor, and the list could go on—is usually considered the primary adapter of a ilm or television production: It is hard for any person who has been on the set of a movie to believe that only one man or woman makes a ilm.
But as far as the public is concerned, there is always just one Sun-King who is sweepingly credited with responsibility for story, style, design, dramatic tension, taste, and even weather in connec- tion with the inished product. When, of course, there are many hard-won professions at work. Ondaatje xi hat Sun-King, of course, is the director. All that this Prospero knows, he has learned from books; therefore, the magic world he creates is a very bookish—and painterly—one.
Using the Paint Box and Japanese Hi-Vision videotape technologies then available, Greenaway electronically manipulates images, animating the books of the title. But no matter how much he or she is the magus and controller, the director is also a manager, an organizer of other artists upon whom he or she must rely to produce The Car Chase - Roy Budd - Get Budd - The Soundtracks (CD) new work.
Performance arts like ilm are, in fact, resolutely collaborative: as in the building of a Gothic cathedral, there are multiple makers and therefore arguably multiple adapters. By the end the ilm may be very far from both the screenplay and the adapted text in focus and emphasis. Adaptation for performance on stage can be almost as complex as this process, but without the structuring intervention of the ilm edi- tor, it is the director who is held even more responsible for the form and impact of the whole.
In these cases, the directors make the adaptation very much their own work: Fellini Satyricon is 80 per- cent Fellini and 20 percent Petronius, according to the director himself qtd. It is what one theorist calls a reservoir of instructions, diegetic, narrative, and The Car Chase - Roy Budd - Get Budd - The Soundtracks (CD), that the adapter can use or ignore Gardies 68—71for the adapter is an interpreter before becom- ing a creator.
French writer Michel Vinaver calls his own adapting process one of substitution—of his intentions for that of the prior text Films are like operas in that there are many and varied artists involved in the complex process of their creation. Nevertheless, it is evident from both studio press releases and critical response that the director is ulti- mately held responsible for the overall vision and therefore for the adap- tation as adaptation.
Yet someone else usually writes the screenplay that begins the process; someone else irst interprets the adapted text The Car Chase - Roy Budd - Get Budd - The Soundtracks (CD) paraphrases it for a new medium before the director takes on the task of giving this new text embodied life.
For this reason, as in a musi- cal in which the composer and the book-writer share authorship e. Why Adapt? Given the large number of adaptations in all media today, many art- ists appear to have chosen to take on this dual responsibility: to adapt another work and to make of it an autonomous creation. Giacomo Puc- cini and his librettists were expected to do so in their operas; Marius Petipa was lauded for doing so in his ballets.
But when ilmmakers and their scriptwriters adapt literary works, in particular, we have seen that a profoundly moralistic rhetoric often greets their endeavors. However, there is another even more important question that this use of pejorative terms poses for me: why would anyone willingly enter this moralistic fray and become an adapter? Why would they risk censure for monetary opportunism? Like jazz variations, adaptations point to individual creative decisions and actions, yet little of the respect accorded to the jazz improviser is given to most adapters.
Need a prospective adapter therefore be a masochist, as well as having all the other qualities said to be ideal: humility, respect, compassion, wit, and a sharp razor as listed by J.
Hall 1 and Sheila Benson in Brady 2? Although the monetary appeal cannot be ignored, perhaps there are a few other attractions. It is obvious that on one level they are attempts to cash in on the success of certain movies and vice versa, as the popularity on ilm ; of the Tomb Raiders game character, Lara Croft, has shown.
From another economic angle, expensive collaborative art forms like operas, musicals, and ilms are going to look for safe bets with a ready audience—and that usually means adaptations. Operas are usually commissioned by an opera company well in advance, but a Broadway musical has to survive in a commercial market. Producers raise money from outside investors, readings and workshops are held, out-of-town tryouts follow, and then there are pre- views before a paying public see Lachiusa Films and televi- sion series, likewise, have restricted budgets: When you are writing a TV script, it is like sitting in a taxi; the meter is always running, and everything has to be paid for.
You can always see the price turning over everywhere you go, or the diiculties of performance and production; that is the art of writing for the medium. But the novel has the meter switched of; you can write what you like, have Buenos Aires, have the moon, have what- ever you want.
Film option fees for novels are small, because so few works are actually made into ilms. It is no surprise that economic motivation afects all stages of the adaptation process. However, he was also working with limited means in the economically depressed Germany of — Adaptations are not only spawned by the capitalist desire for gain; they are also controlled by the same in law, for they constitute a threat to the ownership of cultural and intellectual property.
As screenwriter Baker puts it: he contract lets you know where you the writer stand in brutally frank legal language. You can be ired at any time.
Your credit can be taken away from you. What does the law protect when it comes to adaptations? How- ever, if a novelist can argue inancial damage through unauthorized or unremunerated appropriation, there is some hope. But on the con- trary, often a ilm version boosts sales of the novel, as publishers know. Parodies have legal access to an additional argument that adaptations cannot really invoke as adaptations: the right to comment critically on a prior work.
But is this really any diferent from Claude Monet or Andy Warhol or Pablo Picasso appropriating images from other artists? And, of course, he showed this piece in the context of his Banality series. Koons, F. When it comes to theme parks or even digital media, the law is ever vigilant about ownership: do not try to adapt anything from the Dis- ney domain without permission. On the other hand, there are some companies that allow players to expand their videogames on their own the irst was Doom in and share their new constructions with others through a common library e.
Given the per- ceived hierarchy of the arts and therefore media examined in Chap- ter 1, one way to gain respectability or increase cultural capital is for an adaptation to be upwardly mobile. Film historians argue that this motivation explains the many early cinematic adaptations of Dante and Shakespeare. One of the largest markets for these works includes students of literature and their teachers, keen to appeal to the cinematic imaginations of those they teach.
Although adaptation remained common nonetheless, the choice of adapted works was more limited. Personal and Political Motives It is obvious that adapters must have their own personal reasons for deciding irst to do an adaptation and then choosing which adapted work and what medium to do it in.
Forster, for example, are intended and received as almost reverential treatments. InRTE, Channel 4, Tyrone Pro- ductions, and the Irish Film Board sponsored 19 short ilm adaptations of the work of Samuel Beckett by directors either experienced with or inluenced by the playwright. But in the name of idelity, the Beckett estate would allow no changes to the texts whatsoever.
Adap- tations of Shakespeare, in particular, may be intended as tributes or as a way to supplant canonical cultural authority. Hence the casting of the very marketable at the time pair, Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton. An adaptation can obviously be used to engage in a larger social or cultural critique. It can even be used to avoid it, of course: the attempt to sidestep imperialist politics in the version of A. Postcolonial dramatists and anti-war television producers have likewise used adaptations to articulate their political positions.
What still remain suspect are other kinds of more per- sonal and thus idiosyncratic motivations, despite the increased focus on individual agency in feminist, postcolonial, ethnic, and queer studies. Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein read, were moved by, and then adapted C. All this information seems to me to be of both interest and importance to our understanding of why and how an adaptation comes into being.
Yet in literary studies, this dimension of response has been sidelined. As a narrative, their story is certainly interesting, but not so obviously compelling or historically relevant as to have warranted being told and retold in the forms of the novella, ilm, stage play, and opera over a year period of time. Mur- ray 62— Murray However, the story was well known in Cath- olic circles and indeed had come to form part of the mythology around the Revolution and especially the end of the Reign of Terror.
In the novella, called Die Letzte am Schafott literally, he Last on the Scafoldthe writer later claimed that she had wanted to explore two matters: as her eponymous choice of surname for her character suggests, her own fears that her new-found faith would never be up to the kind of test demanded of the nuns and her terror about the rise of totalitarian- ism in her native country see Gendre ; S.
Yet history was not simply the backdrop for the story The Car Chase - Roy Budd - Get Budd - The Soundtracks (CD) the fearful young Blanche, as some have suggested Bush xv. Die Letzte am Schafott, later translated into English as he Song at the Scafold, is an epistolary novella, narrated in large part by M. Haunted by the excesses of the Revolution, he tries to ind meaning in the horror of the past.
He knows Blanche and her milieu well and so is particularly well positioned to recount her fate with sympathy. He tells of how, outside the convent, which Blanche has entered as a refuge, the forces of Revo- lution gather and gradually triumph, but inside she feels safe.
In this novella, Blanche lees the convent after claiming that she too will take the vow. Despite being the instigator of the vow, Marie is ordered by her spiritual leader not to go back and thus sacriice herself, but to live on. Suddenly, when only one voice is left that of the oldest nunBlanche appears and takes up the song. Pale but totally fearless, she sings the rest of the hymn before the mob of women kill her on the spot.
Blanche, however, is the real focus of the story, and Baroness von le Fort later made clear that this character had both personal and political signiicance for her: She never lived in the historical sense, but she took the breath of her trembling being exclusively from my own inner self and she will never be able to be freed from this, her origin.
For what appear to be complicated interpersonal reasons, there is no copy of this scenario in the public domain, so I rely here on citations and outlines in S. Murray 43—92 and Gendre — Father Bruckberger later claimed to have been attracted to the ele- ments of what he saw as a great classical tragedy in the novella; spe- ciically, he was attracted to what he called the insurmountable conlict between two universes and two irreconcilable mysticisms, that of Car- mel and that of the Revolution — Nevertheless, when he came to write the scenario, it was the possibilities of spectacular action—and not mysticism—that really attracted him as a potential ilmmaker, especially in presenting the scenes of the French Revolu- tion.
He cut what he felt were extraneous characters and scenes and freely invented others. But he too kept the focus always on Blanche, who was almost constantly on camera, and thus on her fear of death. To this end, he made much of a scene that had taken up about ten lines in the novella and actually never took place: the deathbed of the irst Prioress, Madame de Croissy.
In actual fact, this nun died on the scafold with the others; in the novella, she is said to be ill when Blanche joins the order and is reputed to be afraid of dying. For this reason she feels a certain sympathy for the always frightened Blanche. Blanche, hearing her dying groans, is dismayed that God could let such a holy woman sufer so much.
Bernanos was a most appropriate, indeed brilliant, suggestion. Not only was the theme of the story, as developed by both the novella and the scenario, totally consonant with that of his own novels, but Bruckberger had, in fact, himself given Ber- nanos a copy of the French translation of the novella in and the novelist had taken it with him to Brazil where he had reread it often Kestner But at the moment he was approached to write the ilm dialogues, the iercely French, iercely Royalist, and iercely politi- cal Bernanos was iercely depressed.
Disappointed with the Fourth Republic and the technocratic and materialist society that he felt post- war France had become, he moved to North Africa in disgust.
Even more signiicantly, however, at this moment inhe knew that he was seriously ill—in fact, he was dying from cancer. Murray 17—19Albouy —30and Leclerc — Murray 24—42, Bernanos also gives to the Prioress a well-docu- mented trait of his own spiritual and psychological makeup: he has her admit that she has meditated on death every hour of her life Bernanos 43; see also S.
She then has a horriic vision of the persecution and destruction of her order. In this version of the story, only Blanche is then called to her side, and it is from her alone that the dying woman begs pardon for her fear. Her face disigured with pain and despair, the Prioress dies a terrible death, one totally unsuited to her, as Constance later notes, asking whether God made an error in assigning this horriic death to this holy woman.
In that scene, Blanche steps out of the crowd, showing no fear, and goes serenely to her death on the scafold. Blanche dies easily because she dies the death the Prioress deserved—and gave up for her. Similarly, the representation of the death of Blanche, in full dignity and without fear for the irst time, has been read as his wish-fulilling projection of his own end. How can such a leap be justiied from the textual traces? And they are not wrong, even if their insistence belies a post-Romantic need to assert precedence at all cost.
No mere adapter, they suggest, Bernanos is a real creator. Murray —6. But it was Guido Valcarenghi, of the publishing house of Ricordi, who suggested in that Poulenc write an opera based on the play. To most of his friends and acquaintances, however, this religious story would not have seemed at all like ideal Poulenc material. From then on, Poulenc would compose both sacred and secular music, often turning to religious themes to commemorate the deaths of friends and acquaintances Ivry He came to suspect that he actually needed this anguished emotional climate in order to compose the opera see his letters to Henri Hell, 14 February [Poulenc ] and to Rose Dercourt-Plaut, 25 December .
But after all, it was written in existentialist Paris in the s and by a composer caring for a dying lover Gendre 73; Ivry 75— Not surprisingly, then, in the operatic version of the story, the death of the Prioress is the climax of Act I. It is a death, she said, that forced her to come to terms with her own mortality n. It is at one and the same time a normal human death, an extraordinarily intense one, and, for this woman, an utterly inappropriate one.
Deathbed scenes are not usually this realistic in opera: they are most often aestheticized and even sanitized see Hutch- eon and Hutcheon 43—47, 56— But Poulenc too saw the theme of fear balanced and countered by the theme of the transfer of grace in the exchange of deaths Perhaps due to this potent because it is contradictory combina- tion, the ending of the opera is considerably more moving, in my expe- rience, than that of any of the other versions.
One after another, the Carmelites march to the guillotine. Soon, however, the number of voices heard is reduced to a single one, that of Con- stance, and in the music, that death motif is now suppressed.
Intentionality in Adaptations he story of these eighteenth-century Carmelite martyrs—an unlikely narrative for an opera of any period, much less the twentieth cen- tury—was actually equally unlikely as the adapted subject of a mod- ern novella, ilm, or play. Yet, in academic literary circles, we stopped talking about these dimen- sions of the creative process some time in the twentieth century. In fact, the very idea of dealing with the creative process began to sound dated in North America shortly after W.
No one denies that creative artists have intentions; the disagreements have been over how those intentions should be deployed in the interpretation of meaning and the assignment of value. Intentions, even if recoverable, there- fore, were deemed irrelevant to interpretation. Even the phenomeno- logically oriented critics of the Geneva school resolutely turned away from biography to trace the registering of human consciousness in the text itself.
In focusing primarily on the textual dimension, of course, it is the critic who has authority, not the author or the adapter. But the general injunction against the personal and aesthetic dimensions of intention- ality still holds for the other aspects of the creative process, except in overt genres like confession, autobiography, or testimonio. But adap- tation teaches that if we cannot talk about the creative process, we can- not fully understand the urge to adapt and therefore perhaps the very process of adaptation.
Yet it is arguably no easier to separate the creating agent from the creative act than it is to separate the ethical agent from the ethical act Hix Not so for literary critics, as R. Patterson In recent years, the historical along with the political has been rescued, with the help of New Historicist, feminist, Marxist, and postcolonial theory, and the Lacanians and trauma theo- rists have redeemed the psychological.
However, the creative process itself in all its dimensions is still taboo or at least still out of critical fashion, considered too belletristic, journalistic, or simply Romantic. But some connection needs to exist. In the act of adapting, choices are made based on many factors, as we have seen, including genre or medium conventions, political engagement, and personal as well as public his- tory. And that context is made accessible to us later in two ways.
Second, and more obvious, is the fact that extratextual statements of intent and motive often do exist to round out our sense of the context of creation. Of course, these state- ments can and must be confronted with the actual textual results: as many have rightly insisted, intending to do something is not necessar- ily the same thing as actually achieving it Nattiez 99; Wimsatt and Beardsley In a later revisiting of his position on intentionality, W.
But at the same time, in the moment it emerges, it enters a public and in a certain sense an objective realm; it claims and gets attention from an audience; it invites and receives discussion, about its meaning and value, in an idiom of inter-subjectivity and concep- tualization.
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