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All rights reserved. Reviews has over 1, extensive reviews of 62, Australian cars FA20D valve timing Intake. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of manufactured glass are "silicate glasses" based on the chemical compound silica silicon dioxide, or quartzthe primary constituent of sand.
The term glassin popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, although silica-free glasses often have desirable properties for applications in modern communications technology. Some objects, such as drinking glasses and eyeglassesare so commonly made of silicate-based glass that they are simply called by the name of the material. Although brittle, buried silicate glass will survive for very long periods if not disturbed, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures.
Archaeological evidence suggests glass-making dates back to at least 3, BC in MesopotamiaEgyptor Syria. The earliest known glass objects were beadsperhaps created accidentally during metalworking or the production of faience. Due to its ease of formability into any shape, glass has been traditionally used for vessels, such as bowlsvasesbottlesjars and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms, it has also been used for paperweights and marbles.
Glass can be coloured by adding metal salts or painted and printed as enamelled glass. The refractivereflective and transmission properties of glass make glass suitable for manufacturing optical lensesprismsand optoelectronics materials.
Extruded glass fibres have application as optical fibres in communications networks, thermal insulating material when matted as glass wool so as to trap air, or in glass-fibre reinforced plastic fibreglass. The standard definition of a glass or vitreous solid is a solid formed by rapid melt quenching.
Glass is an amorphous solid. Although the atomic-scale structure of glass shares characteristics of the structure of a supercooled liquidglass exhibits all the mechanical properties of a solid. Due to chemical bonding constraints, glasses do possess a high degree of short-range order with respect to local atomic polyhedra. Laboratory measurements of room temperature glass flow do show a motion consistent with a material viscosity on the order of 10 17 —10 18 Pa s. What is the nature of the transition between a fluid or regular solid and a glassy phase?
Anderson . For melt quenching, if the cooling is sufficiently rapid relative to the characteristic crystallization time then crystallization is prevented and instead the disordered atomic configuration of the supercooled liquid is frozen into the solid state at T g.
The tendency for a material to form a glass while quenched is called glass-forming ability. This ability can be predicted by the rigidity theory. Glass is sometimes considered to be a liquid due to its lack of a first-order phase transition   where certain thermodynamic variables such as volumeentropy and enthalpy are discontinuous through the glass transition range.
The glass transition may be described as analogous to a second-order phase transition where the intensive thermodynamic variables such as the thermal expansivity and heat capacity are discontinuous, however this is incorrect. Glass can form naturally from volcanic magma. Obsidian is a common volcanic glass with high silica SiO2 content formed when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly. Moldavitea natural glass formed by meteorite impact, from BesedniceBohemia. Trinititea glass made by the Trinity nuclear-weapon test.
Naturally occurring obsidian glass was used by Stone Age societies as it fractures along very sharp edges, making it ideal for cutting tools and weapons. The term glass developed in the late Roman Empire. It was in the Roman glassmaking centre at Trier located in current-day Germanythat the late-Latin term glesum originated, probably from a Germanic word for a transparentlustrous substance. In post-classical West Africa, Benin was a manufacturer of glass and glass beads.
Anglo-Saxon glass has been found across England during archaeological excavations of both settlement and cemetery sites. By the 14th century, architects were designing buildings with walls of stained glass such as Sainte-ChapelleParis, — and the East end of Gloucester Cathedral.
With the change in architectural style during the Renaissance period in Europe, the use of large stained glass windows became much less prevalent,  although stained glass had a major revival with Gothic Revival architecture in the 19th century. During the 13th century, the island of MuranoVenicebecame a centre for glass making, building on medieval techniques to produce colourful ornamental pieces in large quantities. By the 17th century, glass in the Venetian tradition was also being produced in England.
In aboutGeorge Ravenscroft invented lead crystal glass, with cut glass becoming fashionable in the 18th century. Throughout the 20th century, new mass production techniques led to widespread availability of glass in much larger amounts, making it practical as a building material and enabling new applications of glass. This reduced manufacturing costs and, combined with a wider use of coloured glass, led to cheap glassware in the s, which later became known as Depression glass.
In the 21st century, glass manufacturers have developed different brands of chemically strengthened glass for widespread application in touchscreens for smartphonestablet computersand many other types of information appliances. Glass is in widespread use in optical systems due to its ability to refract, reflect, and transmit light following geometrical optics.
The most common and oldest applications of glass in optics are as lenseswindowsmirrorsand prisms. Glass transparency results from the absence of grain boundaries which diffusely scatter light in polycrystalline materials. In the manufacturing process, glasses can be poured, formed, extruded and moulded into forms ranging from flat sheets to highly intricate shapes. Glasses containing a high proportion of alkali or alkaline earth elements are more susceptible to corrosion than other glass compositions.
The density of glass varies with chemical composition with values ranging from 2. However, the presence of scratches, bubbles, and other ABC - The Pipettes - We Are The Pipettes (CD flaws lead to a typical range of 14 megapascals 2, psi to megapascals 25, psi in most commercial glasses.
The observation that old windows are sometimes found to be thicker at the bottom than at the top is often offered as supporting evidence for the view that glass flows over a timescale of centuries, the assumption being that the glass has exhibited the liquid property of flowing from one shape to another. The sags and ripples observed in old glass were already there the day it was made; manufacturing processes used in the past produced sheets with imperfect surfaces and non-uniform thickness.
Silicon dioxide SiO 2 is a common fundamental constituent of glass. Fused quartz is a glass made from chemically-pure silica. It is also transparent to a wider spectral range than ordinary glass, extending from the visible further into both the UV and IR ranges, and is sometimes used where transparency to these wavelengths is necessary. Fused quartz is used for high-temperature applications such as furnace tubes, lighting tubes, melting crucibles, etc.
Therefore, normally, other substances fluxes are added to lower the melting temperature and simplify glass processing. Sodium carbonate Na 2 CO 3"soda" is a common additive and acts to lowers the glass-transition temperature. However, sodium silicate is water solubleso lime CaO, calcium oxidegenerally obtained from limestonesome magnesium oxide MgO and aluminium oxide Al 2 O 3 are other common components added to improve chemical durability.
Borosilicate glasses e. They are, therefore, less subject to stress caused by thermal expansion and thus less vulnerable to cracking from thermal shock. They are commonly used for e. The addition of lead II oxide into silicate glass lowers melting point and viscosity of the melt.
However, lead glass cannot withstand high temperatures well. The viscosity decrease of lead glass melt is very significant roughly times in comparison with soda glass ; this allows easier removal of bubbles and working at lower temperatures, hence its frequent use as an additive in vitreous enamels and glass solders.
Aluminosilicate glass tends to be more difficult to melt and shape compared to borosilicate compositions, but has excellent thermal resistance and durability. The addition of barium also increases the refractive index. Thorium oxide gives glass a high refractive index and low dispersion and was formerly used in producing high-quality lenses, but due to its radioactivity has been replaced by lanthanum oxide in modern eyeglasses.
Fluorine is highly electronegative and lowers the polarizability of the material. Fluoride silicate glasses are used in manufacture of integrated circuits as an insulator. Glass-ceramic materials contain both non-crystalline glass and crystalline ceramic phases. They are formed by controlled nucleation and partial crystallisation of a base glass by heat treatment.
Glass-ceramics exhibit advantageous thermal, chemical, biological, and dielectric properties as compared to metals or organic polymers. The most commercially important property of glass-ceramics is their imperviousness to thermal shock.
Thus, glass-ceramics have become extremely useful for countertop cooking and industrial processes. The negative thermal expansion coefficient CTE of the crystalline ceramic phase can be balanced with the positive CTE of the glassy phase. Fibreglass also called glass fibre reinforced plastic, GRP is a composite material made by reinforcing a plastic resin with glass fibres. It is made by melting glass and stretching the glass into fibres. These fibres are woven together into a cloth and left to set in a plastic resin.
Uses of fibreglass include building and construction materials, boat hulls, car body parts, and aerospace composite materials. Glass-fibre wool is an excellent thermal and sound insulation material, commonly used in buildings e. The fibres are bonded with an adhesive spray and the resulting wool mat is cut and packed in rolls or panels. Besides common silica-based glasses many other inorganic and organic materials may also form glasses, including metalsaluminatesphosphatesborateschalcogenidesfluoridesgermanates glasses based on GeO 2tellurites glasses based on TeO 2antimonates glasses based on Sb 2 O 3arsenates glasses based on As 2 O 3titanates glasses based on TiO 2tantalates glasses based on Ta 2 O 5nitratescarbonatesplasticsacrylicand many other substances.
Germanium dioxide GeO 2Germaniain many respects a structural analogue of silica, fluoridealuminatephosphateborateand chalcogenide glasses have physico-chemical properties useful for their application in fibre-optic waveguides in communication networks and other specialized technological applications. Silica-free glasses may often have poor glass forming tendencies.
Novel techniques, including containerless processing by aerodynamic levitation cooling the melt whilst it floats on a gas stream or splat quenching pressing the melt between two metal anvils or rollersmay be used increase cooling rate, or reduce crystal nucleation triggers.
In the past, small batches of amorphous metals with high surface area configurations ribbons, wires, films, etc. Amorphous metal wires have been produced by sputtering molten metal onto a spinning metal disk.
More recently a number of alloys have been produced in layers with thickness exceeding 1 millimeter. These are known as bulk metallic glasses BMG. Liquidmetal Technologies sell a number of zirconium-based BMGs. In Better Off DeadMonique plays this role for Lane, helping pull him out of his depression after his girlfriend dumps him.
Both movies focus on a straight-lacedsuccessful, dark-haired guy Bruce Willis and Griffin Dunne being paired with a free-spiritedcrazy blonde chick note In Blind DateKim Basinger sports dark, brown hair instead of her trademark, platinum blonde look. His entire way of life gets demolished over the course of 24 hours. Also all but demolished along the way is a beloved car. Declarations of love are made at a lead character's wedding to someone else in Blind Datehers and in Who's That Girlhis.
And there's a wealthy, snarkyfuture- father-in-lawwho doesn't seem to respect his child and arguably thinks more of the intended. Even the posters with the oversize female heads with their mischievous expressions next to a smaller version of the male lead are similar.
Sam Rockwell plays the buddy-movie equivalent in Box of Moonlight. He wears a Davy Crockett costume and teaches John Turturro to love life; while there's no romance, there's certainly a lot of naked swimming.
In Breakfast at Tiffany's Audrey Hepburn plays the quirky, wild child of a neighbor. However, the protagonist eventually tells her to get over herself. Although she doesn't insinuate herself into his life so much as yank him bodily into hers. Another gender-flipped example, Rhodes is this to Annie in Bridesmaids. His main function in the plot is to make kooky observations about vegetables and encourage Annie to follow her dreams.
It's a slightly more nuanced example than most: his biggest romantic gesture is presented as at best well-meaning but tone-deaf, and while he encourages her to follow her dreams by returning to her love of baking and dream of owning a businesshe also encourages her to deal with the mundane realities of her life by fixing her tail light.
She also repeatedly tells him that she doesn't need him to "fix" her. She really loves the Durham Bulls, and she knows so much about both baseball and the finer things in life that when she dates a player she picks one per season he has the best year of his career. She has a lot of fun with a bunch of strapping young men, helps the team improve at the same time, and makes no apologies for it.
Subverted with Cabaret 's Sally Bowles, who demonstrates just how messed up this kind of character tends to be in real life. She and Brian have a lot of fun at first but it's soon illustrated that she loves her partying lifestyle too much and she aborts their baby because she doesn't think she's mother material. The last scene of the film has her performing a number that implies she's going to continue a life of fun and frivolity — but the crowd is full of Nazi officers, implying Sally's fun won't last too long.
Dylan Morgan in Cas and Dylan is a wannabe writer—as well as a chronic liar, compulsive shoplifter, and general-purpose motormouth who bums a cross-country car ride with Cas Pepper, a widowed doctor who is Album) of an inoperable brain tumor. Subverted in that not only is there no romance between the two, Cas also goes through with his plan to end his life—yet ends up enriching Dylan's life by leaving her all his earthly possessions.
Chungking Expressfeatures Faye the "California Dreamin'"-obsessed snack bar girl: to help a police officer get over his breakup with a flight attendant, she frequently breaks into and floods his apartment, switches the labels on all his canned foods, and rearranges his furniture. Eventually, he falls for her, but she stands him up and decides to "see the world" by becoming — yes — a flight attendant. But don't worry: everything works out okay.
Molly, played by Emily Mortimer, in City Islandis the catalyst to resolve the dysfunctional family's problems, but her own are not touched on until near the end of the film or resolved during its course, though one could optimistically interpret the manner of her self-effacing withdrawal from the action as her taking the first step towards doing so.
Clara : Clara is a downplayed version. Though not so energetic or wacky, she's far more loose and optimistic in comparison to Isaac a bitter, unhappy man. By working with her and becoming a couple, he gets over the loss of his son ABC - The Pipettes - We Are The Pipettes (CD caused this though she dies. Cluny in Cluny Brown has an unusual love of plumbing, enriches the lives of others when she's around, and is rather confused about social orders, especially in the very Stiff Upper Lip house she goes to live in as a maid.
Zooey Deschanel is often identified with this character type in general, although many of her other roles play with the trope rather than serve it up straight. Allison from the Jim Carrey film Yes-Man is a subversion.
Her quirky hobbies are entirely for herself, and she's pretty horrified at the idea of just being a tool for Carl's happiness. She also calls him out when he tells her that she's so fearless, and explains that of course she has her own fears, and that she's also perfectly happy living her life without him. Overall, Summer is a deconstruction of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl, as Tom thinks she's this and treats her as a romantic ideal without considering that she's an actual person who might have her own feelings — and what's more, a case can be made that he ultimately turned out to be a Manic Pixie Dream Guy to Summer, who tells him at the end that he taught her that love is real.
She plays the role completely straight in the Hollywood film version of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxyin which her character was Promoted to Love Interest. In the film adaptation of Bridge to Terabithiashe merges this with the Cool Teacher role - as she plays ABC - The Pipettes - We Are The Pipettes (CD only teacher in a conservative school that encourages the protagonist's creativity.
Of course she's also just in a supporting role, and actually becomes an Unwitting Instigator of Doom inviting Jess on a trip to the museum, and Leslie dies while he's with her. Rabin defines a Manic Pixie Dream Girl as a character who "exists solely in the fevered imaginations of sensitive writer-directors to teach broodingly soulful young men to embrace life and its infinite mysteries and adventures".
When Kirsten Dunst was asked about the term directly, she didn't like it. Charlie Kaufman has examined this concept more than once. Clementine of Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind is this type of character, though the relationship plays out more realistically. She even references the "you complete me" line, to her distaste, from Jerry Maguire.
She also lampshades this to a certain degree, saying that Joel shouldn't expect her to "save" him, and that she's "just a fucked-up girl looking for her own peace of mind. It's like, you secure yourself with this amazing, burning meteorite to carry you to another world, a world where things are exciting. But, what you quickly learn is that it's really an elaborate ruse.
Harry: Quirky, messy women whose problems only make them endearing are not real. Light Novels. Kagerou Daze : Ayano tried to be this for Shintaro.
It's deconstructed in that Shintaro — while genuinely internally grateful for her — was too self-absorbed to show affection back, while Ayano suffered through her mother's death and subsequently finding out that her father is planning to kill two of her best friends alone, which eventually results in her suicide, in an attempt to get an eye powerthis in turn the primary reason that Shintaro is a Hikikomori when the story opens.
Ene also acts as one to Shintaro, constantly urging him to go outside. She just so happens to also be a complete troll when he pisses her off. Notably, she is also the one to sign Shintaro up for the Mekakushi-Dan when he's unconscious. Initially, it seems like Rikka is the bizarre pixie girl who enters strait-laced protagonist Yuta's life to shake him up and teach him to embrace being Chuunibyou again, but as the story goes on it becomes apparent he's the one who has to help her get over her deep psychological scars.
Kyon was fine with his life as it was, or at least thought so until the day he decided to strike up a conversation with Haruhi, not knowing at the time what he was getting himself into. Their meeting gave her the impetus to create the SOS Brigade.
Rather than wait around for extraterrestrials, espers, and time travellers to show up, she decided they'd investigate strange happenings around their neighborhood in hopes of finding them herself, and she volunteered Kyon as her first inductee. The series goes deeper by exploring Haruhi's psyche, revealing that her eccentricity stems from her perpetual boredom.
Complicated further when Koizumi explains that Haruhi unknowingly possesses the ability to reshape reality as they know it, according to her desires. And is convinced she may be the god of their universe. Despite Kyon's initial skepticism, this revelation sheds new light on his perception of Haruhi, and he eventually accepts that Koizumi may be right. He also comes to realize that he actually likes the weirdness that surrounds her and ultimately admits he prefers life with Haruhi than without note near the end of "The Disappearance of Suzumiya".
Her personality an off-kilterfood-loving and somewhat dense tomboy otaku certainly qualifies for this trope, but her main focus is simply to avoid getting killed or exiled as per the original game. However, since the original Catarina was a selfish brat, "Monkey Catarina" showing basic human decency and kindness to those around her is really all it takes to improve their lives. For example, in the game Catarina's adoptive brother Keith is a shallow playboy because she and her mother treated him like crapbut because "Monkey Catarina" always wanted a little brother, she showers him with love and attention which results in his growing into an upstanding young man albeit with a sister complex.
Nyarlathotep please, call her Nyarko from Nyaruko: Crawling with Love! In fact, it actually works to her disadvantage, as her manic nature including lying to people about their nonexistent sex life and impending firstborn actually puts off her Love Interest Mahiro, who's said that he has a hard time believing her confessions of love and has admitted to himself that he'd like her better if she could take it down a few notches note That, and her being a Lovecraftian Cosmic Horror who only LOOKS like a cute girl kinda wrecks his mood.
In fact, the few times Nyarko has toned herself down and acted demure, even Mahiro is surprised at how attractive he finds her. Shimoneta : Life was normal for Tanukichi, until his fateful encounter with Blue Snowwho saves him from the Public Decency Squad at the railway station. Later that morning, he learns she's really Ayame Kajouthe vice-president of Tokioka Academy's student council.
Guess who she drafts as her first recruit? Beatrice is the most loving, humble, and beautiful woman in the world, so Dante dedicates his whole life to her despite talking to her once before her death. We don't hear much from her or learn what she does with her life and instead only learn about her through her affects on the male lead.
In The Divine ComedyDante has lost his way in life until Beatrice comes down from Heaven to send her lover on the right track through a bizarre journey through the afterlife. The poem builds anticipation for when Beatrice lovingly reunites with Dante, only to unbuild the trope by having Beatrice coldly condemn her lover and make it clear that improving him is going to involve more harshness than manic glee.
But Dodo is anything but good for the men in her life — or herself — until she grows up a bit and earns her happily ever after. Repeatedly deconstructed in John Green 's books. Word of God confirms this and Green says he hates this trope played straight.
He partly wrote Paper Towns to deconstruct this trope further out of concerns that he didn't do a thorough enough job of it with Looking for Alaska which does deconstruct the trope, but in a different and arguably more abstract manner, and is primarily focused on death and suffering and how we individually figure out how to deal with their inevitable reality : that the people whom we idealize are in fact just as vulnerable, selfish, flawed, and self-destructive as anyone else, if not more so.
Through Miles "Pudge" 's eyes, Alaska is a goddess, but she repeatedly shows warning signs of emotional instability and a Dark and Troubled Past that he ignores due to it not fitting in with his idealized image of her. She calls him out on this, too, after an emotional meltdown at the end of Thanksgiving Break, pointing out to Album) that he likes the sexy Hard-Drinking Party Girl side of her and not the "crazy sullen bitch" she sees herself as.
The point's only driven in further by everything that Pudge discovers in the "After" Section of the book — mainly that the self-destructive behaviors that Pudge and the others liked and encouraged in her led to her death.
A principal point of the novel is that this trope is an unhealthy and unsustainable view of someone because it doesn't allow them to be a real person.
Paper Towns : Margo Roth Spiegelman embodies this trope, at first, having been Quentin's crush for all of his life and taking him on a pranking adventure at the beginning of the story. She's seen this way by most of the other kids at school as well, due to her frequent disappearances and similarly enigmatic behavior.
Reliably, though, she's not all that she seems. The final part of Q's journey is understanding that she's a real person who isn't responsible for him and has her own problems and fears. He then lets her, and the dream of her, go. She was not a fine and precious thing. She was a girl. Live-Action TV. Baskets : Trinity seems like a MPDG at first; a sexy, alternative young woman who takes Chip under her wing when he joins a clique of fellow hoboes in Season 2. It quickly gets subverted when she turns out to be a bit of a neurotic mess getting upset when he upstages her in their clown actand she quits the group after making a failed pass at him.
They reconnect later, and Chip ends up helping Trinity get her life in order and introduces her to her future husband. Early on Dharma fits the trope, but as with most characters in a successful, long running show Character Development sets in and she eventually becomes a more complex, well rounded individual with her own wants and desires.
There are even some episodes that invert it, with Greg helping her realize that her "quirky" methods are not always for the best. A big part of the show is that while she's this to Greg she's actually the grounded and sane one in her family and circle of friends. Skins : Cassie Ainsworth is a Deconstructed Character Archetypesince she has multiple legitimate psychological problems and they're portrayed with all the seriousness they require.
She doesn't exist solely as a love interest for Sid, but whenever the story is focusing on him this is clearly how he sees her.
She's quite self-serving at times, and it's debatable whether she ultimately changes his life for the better. She makes him blissfully happy at times, and utterly miserable at others.
A relationship with someone so mentally unstable they try to commit suicide when you cancel a date was never going to run entirely smoothly. In her Season 7 episode, Pureshe has completely changed and now rejects this trope.
Cassie is no longer the wild, carefree pill popping girl she one was and has now depressingly matured into a young lonely woman who rarely socialises. She has seemingly outgrown this trope and realised being a 'Manic Pixie Dream Girl' in the real world can never work. In season 6, a lovelorn Alo meets a sweet, bubbly girl named Poppy Champion who pulls him out of his depression with her quirky and adorable ways.
That is, until she reveals that she's really thirteen years oldand she reports him to the police when he tries to dump her. Subverted on Dexter. Lila initially seems to have all the personality traits of a Manic Pixie Dream Girl, and she latches onto Dexter, the main character, a forensic scientist who also happens to be an emotionless serial killer who only kills people who really deserve it.
As the series goes on, though, she starts showing the dark side of mania : her antics go from amusing to dangerous, and she stops being charming and starts being scary.
Dexter: You are more dangerous than my addiction will ever be. And that's saying a lot. Abed: He'd run after her and make a fantastic display of affection! He's the new guy, not easily reformed by some quirky girl that he met at work! The "flower girl" from "The Rain, the Park and Other Things" by the Cowsills; the narrator runs into her on a rainy day in the park and falls in Love at First Sightbut after they go for a walk together she seemingly vanishes, leaving him only a flower to remember her by.
The Dead Milkmen 's song "Punk Rock Girl" plays this trope enthusiastically straight, with a dweeby narrator describing a series of playfully violent encounters with an unnamed female other. We got into her car Away we started rollin' I said "How much you pay for this? She's a butterfly in mid-July Who just can't wait to try her brand new wings On brand new things And she needs no rhyme or reason when she goes Her mind is on what lies beyond That wall of blue horizon, I suppose And heaven knows She'll go sailin' off on any old wind that blows.
As she is beautiful, she's unpredictable, Damned irresistible, is it plausible to hate her? She is my common sense, revels on decadence, But what's the difference, it's impossible to bait her. Her eyes believed in mysteries. She would lay amongst the leaves of amber. Her spirit wild, heart of a child Yet gentle, still and quiet and mild And he loved her. The truth is I am a toy that people enjoy Till all of the tricks don't work anymore And then they're bored of me. Mythology and Religion.
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