Again, shift the blame from the officer who did not use proper training tactics and 2. Negates Gurley's death as a victim because he is associated with the Pink Houses which is linked to violence, therefore implicating Gurley as a criminal or violent. The micro-insults and micro-invalidations of Akai Gurley come out in a particular manner of subversive text and imagery to take the focus off the particular case of excessive police violence but rather focus on the physical character and appearance of Gurley and the location and environment of the event.
Tamir Rice's death was met with questions of lifestyle and behavior. However, the themes of micro-insults and micro-invalidations were expanded to include Rice's mother as part of his death. The first and most shocking theme that emerged out of this case of a twelve-year old child being shot and killed by law enforcement was the discussion of who was to blame. Initially, the city of Cleveland, Ohio announced that Rice caused his own death:. Hensley, The city also stated in their response, obtained by Cleveland.
Spargo, This blaming of a child for his own demise by a professional law enforcement agent is a micro-invalidation of his death. It puts the ownership on the victim rather than the perpetrator. Other forms of micro-insults towards the death of Tamir Rice were in the form of blame and lifestyle of his mother. Many on social media outlets were pondering and posing the question: Why did his mother allow Tamir Rice to play with a realistic-looking fake gun? Again, this is a micro-insult, which implies Tamir's mother was not a good parent and did not exercise good parenting skills.
This also reinforces micro-invalidation of Tamir's life because it implies his fault that he was shot for playing with this gun. Tamir Rice's mother, Samaria Rice's character became the focus. An article on Cleveland. This irrelevant connection to a previous drug charge becomes a way to invalidate and negate Tamir's death and his mother's credibility as a parent.
More recently, Samaria Rice has moved into a homeless shelter, which would also give a negative connotation of her unfit parenting and ability provide for her children, therefore to blame for Tamir's unsupervised playing with a toy gun. Like other cases, this case shifts the focus from excessive force by law enforcement and puts blame on the victim and victim's family.
The perception of Tony Robinson was overwhelming concentrated on the behavior that immediately preceded his death, prompting a number of micro-invalidations and micro-insults based on presumed criminality:.
Authorities have said Robinson, who was unarmed, was shot multiple times after he assaulted Officer Matt Kenny, punching him in the head and knocking him off balance. Savidge, Anthony Robinson, 19, was killed about p.
Officers were told a man was jumping in and out of traffic and was suspected of committing battery before he ran into an apartment, he said. An officer forced his way inside after hearing sounds of a disturbance, where Robinson struck the officer in the head, Koval said.
The officer then fired his weapon. Frankel, Robinson was shot after Officer Matt Kenny responded to calls about a man dodging cars in traffic who had allegedly battered another person, according to police officials. They said Kenny fired after Robinson attacked him. O'Brien, One newspaper, a local outlet, highlighted Robinson's past behavior that included criminality:. Wisconsin court records show that Mr.
Robinson pleaded guilty to armed robbery last year and received a probated six-month sentence. Chief Koval declined to comment on Mr. Robinson's record.
Brooks, Much of the narrative surrounding Freddie Gray focused on the behavior immediately prior to his arrest. Many considered his behavior suspicious and thereby warranted a presumption of criminality, resulting in examples of micro-insults:. Four bicycle officers tried to stop Gray about 9 a. North Ave. He ran, police said, and the officers caught him and restrained him on the ground while awaiting backup. Sherman et. In a police report filed with the Savage Aggressions, Officer Garrett Miller wrote that Gray was stopped after fleeing "unprovoked upon noticing police presence.
Also notable in Gray's posthumous portrayal were micro-invalidation, which emphasized both, where he lived, known to be one of the more impoverished and crime-heavy neighborhoods in Baltimore, and also his prior interactions with law enforcement and the criminal justice system.
A few newspaper outlets included his physical composition:. Gray was a year-old resident of the neighborhood around the Gilmor Homes, a Baltimore Housing Authority project. He stood 5 feet 8 and weighed pounds. He had a police record, mainly on drug charges and minor crimes, according to court records reported by the Baltimore Sun.
Muskal, Court records indicate that Gray's arrests were mostly for drug charges and minor crimes, and sometimes were not prosecuted. He had several cases scheduled for trial in the coming months. One case, involving charges for second-degree assault and malicious destruction of property, was scheduled for a June trial. He also faced drug charges that were scheduled for trial in April and May. He has been found guilty of drug charges in the past; his sentences were unclear from court records.
While media depictions of Black bodies have remained compliant to White supremacist structures using body type, negative images e. The purpose of this study is not to accuse any individual of holding those values, but to recognize how White privilege and other forms of privilege allow journalists and other media outlets to report on these cases the way they do, without self-reflection of how the words, images, and storylines are disseminated.
These narratives play a role in the initial assumption of the victim and can shift the perspective of how these victims are viewed. In this last section, we discuss the overall movement that has grown in wake of these deaths, BlackLivesMatter. It is important to recognize social movements and their usefulness in gaining equality. In the wake of the deaths of Michael Brown and Eric Garner, which occurred less than a month apart in Summeractivists, students, and many groups of various racial, class, and social backgrounds came together to protest the ways in which law enforcement handled these situations.
Other cities around the country took notice and joined in solidarity. Fast forward to Novemberwhen both the Eric Garner and Michael Brown cases were dismissed because grand juries decided to not indict either officer involved in these cases.
The first decision came in the Michael Brown case. Contradictory testimony from eyewitnesses, racial tension in the community of Ferguson, and a prosecutor who seemed to not do his job dictated this case. However, the main argument was that there was no video evidence that confirmed either side's story.
Conversely, a week later, a grand jury in Staten Island, New York, put forth a non-indictment verdict for the officer who was implicated in killing Eric Garner. The main difference in this case from Ferguson was the video evidence. Over the next several days and weeks leading into the holiday season, mass movements began to emerge across U.
If Black lives mattered in the United States, we would not see such disproportional rates of poverty, incarceration, school drop-out, lack of secure housing and other socially significant factors. To not recognize racism as an ongoing problem only exacerbates the issue, silences and marginalizes those affected by it, and does not start the process of discourse on how to change cultural and social paradigms in society that only see young Black men as thugs.
As previously mentioned, the aim of this study is not to accuse the selected newspaper outlets of intentionally perpetuating a negative or insensitive racialized portrayal of any of the aforementioned victims of police brutality. We cannot ascertain the mindsets of neither the authors nor the editorial staffs who finalized the articles' publication, so to make such assumptions would be highly flawed and unethical. However, this study aims to highlight that the White-dominated media, newspapers included, is operated under the perspective of White privilege.
Simply put, it is not their obligation to understand, let alone acknowledge, that what they believe to be a compliment, a term of endearment, a simple observation, or even the presentation of facts is anything but what they intended it to be.
For as much as it seems that little progress has been made in the efforts to promote true racial equality, such blatant expressions of racial hatred are usually met with the highest levels of condemnation in American society. The resulting adjustments made are that an individual who aims to exert their White supremacy over a person of color is socially inclined to do so via coded language — micro-aggressions, as previously detailed — as its subtlety limits mainstream detection.
Additionally, the nature of micro-aggressions has evolved to include tangential facets and characteristics historically linked to people of color such as socioeconomic status and culture Clark et. What occurs with the inclusion of tangential facets and characteristics to race is that the line of demarcation between entities that are intentional in their racial disrespect and insensitivity and entities that have no ill will are blurred.
Therefore even honest reporting of an incident carries the risk of creating a negative persona for the victim, and that is what the selected newspaper articles exemplify. A reasonable question can be raised when considering the potential influence of micro-aggressions in media: should an outlet sacrifice journalistic integrity for the sake of a heightened sensitivity to racialized language?
The simple answer is a resounding no. Rather, outlets must be more judicious in the information that they decide to present regarding any incident, let alone deaths involving unarmed Black males and law enforcement. The situations previously examined provide many teachable moments. What greater clarity was achieved by readers in knowing that Tony Robinson was previously convicted for armed robbery Brooks, ? How does knowing that he lived in a housing project and had an extensive police record promote a better understanding of why Freddie Gray died Muskal, ?
Relative to the facts of each incident, these pieces of information were peripheral at best. The only contributions they potentially provide are a triggering of negative misconceptions that will be unconsciously and unjustifiably attached to these individuals.
What is worse is that because this potential triggering is done in the immediacy following their deaths, when all information is novel, the perception created is very difficult to alter even in the face of more sound, debunking information.
The growing number of fatal law enforcement interactions involving unarmed individuals, especially Black males, warrants greater cognizance of the images created by the media of the victims.
Simply regurgitating all information provided, most of which comes from the same law enforcement agencies involved in the altercations and could possibly contain an agenda, is no longer acceptable. True understanding of the power of racialized language, both overt and covert, should be the new standard of journalistic integrity.
Gray died on April 19, stemming from neck and head injuries he suffered while in police custody. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Hum Behav Soc Environ. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jan 1. CalvinJohn Smiley a and David Fakunle b.
Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Appendix. Abstract The synonymy of Blackness with criminality is not a new phenomenon in America.
Keywords: Black males, thug, media, social media, police brutality, racial profiling. Literature Review Race is the most significant sociodemographic distinction in the United States. Jefferson uses observable data — presumably his own slaves — to come to his conclusions, stating: Besides those of colour, figure, and hair, there are other physical distinctions proving a difference of race.
Additionally, according to David Pilgrim: These portrayals were pragmatic and instrumental. Litwack wrote: After stripping Hose of his clothes and chaining him to a tree, the self-appointed executioners stacked kerosene-soaked wood high around him…they cut off his ears, fingers, and genitals, and skinned his face…the contortions of Sam Hose's body as the flames rose, distorting his features, causing his eyes to bulge out their sockets…Before Hose's body had even cooled, his heart and liver were removed and cut into several pieces and his bones were crushed into small particles.
Methods Content Analysis For this study, media coverage of the deaths of six unarmed Black males resulting from law enforcement interaction were investigated. Analytical Plan For each incident ten news articles, each published no more than 30 days after the victim's death, were selected.
Autoethnography While this paper is an exercise in academic writing about current and social issues, for the authors — both of whom identify as Black males — the intersections of race, police brutality, and harassment are part of the lived experience which contextualize our social milieu.
Overall, Autoethnography is characterized Savage Aggressions personal experience narratives, auto-observation, personal ethnography, lived experience, self-ethnography, reflexive ethnography, emotionalism, experiential texts, and autobiographical ethnography. Operational Definitions The sample of news articles fell under two operational classifications, both derived from the concept of racial micro-aggressions.
Key Themes In addition to the two operational classifications, the portrayals of the victims fell under four major recurring themes: Behavior — the actions of the victim at the time of their death. Eric Garner Eric Garner's representation in newspapers primarily featured micro-invalidations revolved around his physical composition.
Specifically, Garner's health and size, as he was a particularly tall and large individual with a number of preexisting medical conditions, were among the first pieces of information introduced in many of the articles: The pound man, about to be arrested on charges of illegally selling cigarettes, was arguing with the police.
Grimlock and the Dinobots were destroyed during the battle against Starscream while the villain was super-powered by the Underbase. Grimlock's body was seen among the deactivated Autobots Ratchet was doing his best to revive in Transformers 56, "Back from the Dead".
Ratchet shortly after was lost in a transport incident while taking out Megatronand was thus unable to continue his work restoring other Autobots in stasis lock Ratchet later returned, physically merged with Megatron. Grimlock swore to one day find a way to revive his Dinobots.
Under the leadership of Powermaster Optimus Prime, Grimlock proved to be a loyal and powerful Autobot, daring even to battle the Matrix-powered Decepticon Thunderwing during the Matrix Quest. However, he was still obsessed with quickly reviving the Dinobots, a goal which put him at odds with Optimus Prime, who advocated patience in the search for a way to rebuild the fallen Autobots. Grimlock finally lost patience, stole the bodies of the Dinobots and a shuttle from the Ark, and piloted it to the planet Hydrus Four, where scientists had developed a new fuel called nucleon.
It was more powerful than energon and capable of bringing dead Transformers back to life, but it was unstable and could have unforeseen consequences. Grimlock was unwilling to subject his Dinobots to anything he would not go through himself, and thus decided to test the fuel on himself first. When no ill effects were apparent, he used it to revive the Dinobots, and brought enough back to revive the remaining fallen Autobots. The Dinobots returned to Cybertron with the nucleon, and arrived in time for the battle with Unicron.
Their arrival, and their reviving the fallen Autobots with Nucleon, was an important part of Transformer victory that day, but Optimus Prime once again lost his life, sacrificing himself to destroy Unicron, and once again naming Grimlock as his successor with his dying breath. Before Grimlock could celebrate his new position, however, the Nucleon's effect on Transformers became apparent. Grimlock began to experience brief bursts of immobility, his joints locking, which reached a peak when he became completely paralyzed in Cybertron's wastelands while he and the Dinobots were under attack by monstrous creatures from beneath Cybertron's surface.
Realizing that Grimlock had become trapped in a " chrysalis " stage, Prime's Powermaster partner, Hi-Q, tapped into and accelerated the process, completing Grimlock's evolution into a more powerful "Actionmaster" — but the enhanced power came with a price: Grimlock was now no longer able to transform into dinosaur mode.
At that point, Cybertron was believed to be dying as a result of the battle with Unicron, and the Autobots and Decepticons were co-operating to evacuate.
However, the Decepticons had a hidden motive: to escape, and leave the Autobots marooned on the dying planet. Grimlock and the Dinobots were the only ones among the Autobots who saw through the Decepticons' false pretense of peaceful co-existence and suspected the plan of mass betrayal.
When the Decepticons sabotaged the Autobots' ships and fled the planet, Grimlock saved the Autobots. He revealed that he had captured Decepticon ships after a strike against them before the voyage to Earth, and had hidden them away. Thanks to those ships, the Autobots were able to flee Cybertron and follow the Decepticons to the planet Klo for a final showdown.
Unfortunately Decepticon leader Bludgeon had discovered the Autobot homing beacon and laid a trap for them. Grimlock's stubbornness meant the Autobots walked right into it, decimating them. Grimlock was one of the few survivors, and when Optimus Prime returned, recreated by the Last Autobot, Grimlock participated in the rout of the Decepticons. While the monthly Transformers comic was published in the United Statesits sister title in the United Kingdom reprinted its stories, and included many of its own original tales, interspliced with the running American narrative.
The author of these stories, Simon Furmanwas particularly fond of Grimlock, often using him for his original stories, and even using the character for responses on the readers' letters page. Furman truly transformed Grimlock, from the brutish tyrant of the early American comics into a noble anti-hero. Set in and around the U. When leader of the Autobots, Grimlock was involved in assisting Action Force battle Megatron in London and attempted to kill the Predacon Divebomb in order to silence embarrassing facts about Swoop's past.
Towards the end of the series, the UK comics began a break-away storyline that branched off from the continuity of the American stories, beginning with Grimlock's decision to once again break his Dinobots away from the main Autobot force. Tired of Prime's pacifistic approach to protecting Earth, Grimlock was joined by several older Autobots like Prowl and Wheeljack, who had just recently been reactivated, and longed for the older, simpler days.
Under Grimlock's command, they formed the Earthforce, a pro-active Autobot group based in Canada who regularly battled the two Decepticon forces under the commands of Megatron and Shockwave.
Issue of the Marvel U. Transformers comic featured a story called "Divide and Conquer! There was no specific ending for the Earthforce crew, but the issue of nucleon was resolved in a one-shot text story contained in the final Transformers annual a hardback book containing new material released each year. Of the Dinobots, only Slag retained the ability to transform, until the discovery of new nucleon allowed all the Transformers previously empowered by it to regain their transforming abilities.
The place in continuity of this tale is hard to determine. It followed on from the events at the conclusion of the American series, yet cannot fit in with American continuity as it puts Megatron in a situation he cannot possibly be in. A few years after the conclusion of the original Transformers comic, the line was given a shot in the arm with the release of the new Transformers: Generation 2 toyline and an accompanying comic.
Grimlock's toy was re-released for the G2 toyline in several colors including blue, but he continued to appear in his original grey color scheme for most of his appearances in the G2 comic. With his transformation capabilities restored the explanation for which was not offered in the American seriesGrimlock was Optimus Prime's second in command in the so-called Generation 2 series, aiding in the Autobots' war against the "second generation" of Cybertronians led by Jhiaxus.
However, he remained as rebellious and aggressive as ever, though it proved to be a mixed blessing - at one point his urge to combat Jhiaxus's forces led him and his troops right into a trap, while at another time, his willingness to defy Optimus Prime's orders and launch an all-out attack saved Prime from certain death at the hands of Megatron.
When the Autobots and Decepticons united against Jhiaxus and the threat of the Swarm - a destructive by-product of Transformer reproduction - Grimlock was the joint leader of the ground troops as Prime and Megatron fought on other fronts, and survived the brutal conflict. Grimlock appeared in his blue Generation 2 form in the short lived UK. Generation 2 comic series.
Grimlock appears in the TFcon voice play prelude comic called "Ground Effects" where Perceptor informs him about a repeat repeat wave. Grimlock orders the other Dinobots to dig up a Transformer on Dinobot Island. Grimlock appeared in the TFcon voice play "Primitive Recall. The Classic line appeared in a simple Flash -based video game on the Hasbro web site called Transformers Battle Circuit.
In this one-on-one fighting game you press the right and left arrow keys to try to overpower your opponent. Optimus Prime and Megatron each appear as the boss you must defeat to win the game. Grimlock is featured in the webcomic Twisted Kaiju Theater. Grimlock appears as a play on the word gridlock in the popular webcomic Least I Could Do. This version is not a humanoid who can change into a tyrannosaurus, but rather is a Tyrannosaurus who can change into a motorcycle.
The first completely different character to bear the name of Grimlock was one inhabiting the alternate universe of the Transformers toyline, Transformers: Robots in Disguise. Grimlock originally named Build Hurricane in the original Japanese version of the series, Car Robots was a co-leader of the Autobot Build Team, able to transform into a steam shovel.
Despite his harsh appearance, Grimlock is a seasoned, upbeat warrior. He judges any situation in a composed, calm manner, and dispenses accurate advice based on his many past experiences in battle to others, particularly his leader, Wedge. He can combine with his fellow Build Team members to create Landfillable to form either a leg or a pair of arms. Robots in Disguise Grimlock in Walmart yellow repaint colors appeared in the BotCon voice actor play. Play Synopsis : Rhinox has built a device to deflect Unicron's attempts to pull victims from other dimensions with his tractor beam.
The Autobots deflect two attempts and the victims end up on a frozen planetoid instead of with Unicron. Maximals Rattrap and Silverbolt and the Predacon Waspinator are sent to help the victims, but ReptilionSunstormRuinationand Universe Perceptor are sent to get them for Unicron. As a side effect of the device Rhinox built, a vortex opens which sucks in an Autobot shuttle from the past piloted by BumblebeeTracksand Cosmos. Thrust attacks the Maximal ship, but they are saved by being transported to the Autobot shuttle.
The Autobots and Maximals then go to the planet where they save the victims from the Decepticons. On the planet are two groups of Autobots.
They all fight off the Decepticons. The Autobot shuttle is sent back to its own time. Another alternate-universe incarnation of Grimlock entered the fray in the Transformers: Energon line. Grimlock's toy — packaged with the similarly-redesigned Swoop — was a modern updating of his original figure.
It still transformed into a Tyrannosaurus rexbut had one major change: Grimlock and Swoop could now combine to form a larger robot named "Mega-Dinobot". The characters' joint biography clearly draws on the Generation 1 cartoon incarnation of the original characters, presenting them as Autobots who are simple in speech and thought, but who make up for it in raw strength. Decepticons have been known to flee in fear when faced with the two Dinobots, as Swoop uses his aerial abilities to confuse and distract them, while Grimlock attacks from behind and stomps them flat before they know what hit them.
Though heavily armed, the duo's preferred weaponry is their teeth and talons. It comes as no surprise that longtime Grimlock fan Simon Furman intended to feature the characters in Dreamwave's Energon comic book, but the company's closure prevented this.
Grimlock appeared in the text story from Fun Publications called " Force of Habit ". This story explained where he was during the events of the Cybertron story. Ultra Magnus was the commander of various Autobot ships sent to other planets in search for the Cyber Planet Keys. Grimlock and Swoop were sent to stop an attack by Predacon on the ship. Producer Tom DeSanto has stated that he had an idea on how to include the Dinobots and Constructicons in a possible sequel,  although director Michael Bay has confirmed that they will not be.
Later reports revealed that Grimlock and other Dinobots would be featured in the fourth film, with images surfacing of Optimus Prime riding Grimlock into battle in Hong Kong. In Transformers: Age of ExtinctionGrimlock and the Dinobots are captured by Lockdown as trophies, referred to as legendary knights. After the Autobots escape with the part of the ship holding them, Optimus releases the Dinobots for backup and engages in a battle for dominance with Grimlock which Optimus wins.
After Lockdown is defeated, Optimus releases Grimlock and the Dinobots to go their own way. This Grimlock is larger than previous incarnations and, like the rest of the Dinobots, he isn't referred to by name although in The Last Knight he is named by Cade Yeager as he cannot speak, or at least has yet to learn how.
Grimlock returned in Transformers: The Last Knight. Grimlock is among the Autobots taking sanctuary at Cade Yeager's junkyard.
He has taken up the personality of a dog, often eating the local police chief's car. Though he is not seen after this, Grimlock presumably joins the other Autobots in returning to Cybertron on Lockdown's ship. It gains Grimlock's fire breath, which it uses in Cade's trailer.
Mini-Grimlock is seen snuggling with Izabella Savage Aggressions around the other Autobots. The Sector 7 viral marketing web site featured several videos recording supposed evidence of Transformers on Earth. These featured cameos by Generation 1 Transformers, including scenes of Grimlock destroying a construction site, as well as scenes of Kickback and Laserbeak being video taped by people accidentally, and a security video showing bits of a robot looking a lot like Generation 1 Bumblebee transforming in a parking garage.
In the game, his controls are very identical to his counterpart in Transformers: Fall of Cybertron. Grimlock is one of the main playable characters in Transformers: Devastationand the only one who does not transform into a motor vehicle. A character named Grimlock appears in Transformers: Animatedwhich began airing in He is similar to his animated Generation 1 incarnation in persona and form, but with his face modified with a feral look. His beast mode now looks more like how an actual Tyrannosaurus is thought to look and his roar sounds much like the T.
Rex' s roar from Jurassic Park. In robot mode, he wields a flaming battle sword and can breathe fire in beast mode. Grimlock is partnered with fellow Dinobots, Snarl and Swoop. That sense of the world dropping off under his feet.
But Brandon Taylor offers some other unrelated, short yet stunning whoppers in this little collection. What happens when we cling to the memory of a childhood friend, but that friend has now gone beyond our reach, no matter how desperately we want to grasp onto the old times?
People grow at different rates, perhaps become unrecognizable to us. Violent behaviors may even be laid bare.
It moves through him like the Holy Ghost might… There was some other god, then, a god for whom the spilling of blood was a prayer, an act of devotion. Other stories deal with cancer, death, broken familial relationships. One story brought a bit of hope and a smile.
Things get interesting when her new lover asks her to point to which Henry VIII wife she most identifies with. Filthy Animals made me squirm. It made me gasp. And it made me think. I reflected on our vulnerabilities and emotional states of mind juxtaposed with our sensual, if not sometimes desperate and savage natures.
What causes certain behaviors to flare up in one person but not in another? Why do some repress their urges and others do not? Is it nature or nurture? View all 74 comments. I really want to read Real Life before long. And you can imagine all the unopened new books on that shelf by brilliant writers that are overlooked because people don't recognize the names. And then the two or three that get worn out within the first couple of months of release ; Pedro Aww Jun 29, s.
This is an incredible collection of linked stories that examine the ways trauma and violence function as both intake and output into people and those they interact with. The writing is so crisp and perfect, really pulling you into these stories as if an emotional participant in the goings on of these young lives. It becomes an excellent examination on modern life and relationships, with much of the insight surrounding queer, Black individuals as they navigate society.
View all 19 comments. So is going to be another year with a Brandon Taylor book on my best-of list. In Filthy Animals, every other story or, every story with a one-word title is part of an interlinked, novella-length narrative circling Charles and Sophie, two dancers in a open relationship, and Lionel, a man who becomes involved with them. The other stories are standalones, but they have a sense of shared conc So is going to be another year with a Brandon Taylor book on my best-of list.
The other stories are standalones, but they have a sense of shared concerns, portraying young people — in their teens and twenties — navigating intimacy, desire, cruelty, loneliness. I took the time to read the stories carefully, pausing and taking notes after finishing each one. Discovering a new favourite writer at the beginning of their career is a unique delight. He meets a couple, Charles and Sophie, and seems to have chemistry with both of them, so that when someone follows Lionel on his way home and calls his name, the reader is unsure which of them it will turn out to be.
My initial reaction was to believe that I disliked this story, but after sitting with it for a while I realised that I disliked what it depicted, found it tangibly oppressive, and the reason I felt that way was because it was so effectively described. A scene that captures the ripples of tension and desire among the dancers, and the dynamics of a relationship.
Needing to reread dialogue to understand what is not being said. The way sentences are juxtaposed. Taylor is so good at scenes that go on longer than they seem they need to. Me thinking, this character is a cruel man, and then someone in the story says it. Towards the end, strongly reminiscent of Joel Lane — the sex, the darkness.
Almost a horror story. Here we find him working, then meeting Sophie again. The story has a perfect opening paragraph and so many lines I want to quote. Taylor writes awkward moments so well, really captures how they feel rather than simply what they consist of. This is a story that suits its title — dirty and bloody.
Is it an accurate portrayal of American boyhood, red in tooth and claw? But it feels like one. I kept thinking about this story later, all its menace and murk. Again there is both brutality and softness here; the tyranny of perfectionism, the complications of love.
More perfect sentences. Marta and Sigrid are on a date, awkward at first, later comfortable; it flows outwards from there. Something about loneliness. Something about how love transforms you. Unsure where to stand with this one. A lot of uncertainties, intimations of threat, of meanness. Like many characters in this book, she is thinking about what family means, what human connection means, how they are the same, how they are different.
It has a lot of tense, ambiguous moments; intimacy as unbearable suspense. I received an advance review copy of Filthy Animals from the publisher through Edelweiss. TinyLetter Linktree View all 4 comments. Mar 03, Adam Dalva rated it it was amazing. Loved it - Taylor has accomplished something quite interesting here, with alternating stories filling in a 36 hour period for an intriguing set of characters in Madison.
The non-connected pieces are often really good I especially liked "Anne of Cleves"and the collection's high points the last story, the story "Proctoring" present the sweeping pleasures of a novel with the intimacy of the short story form.
Jul 15, Elyse Walters rated it it was amazing. These connecting stories were powerful, evocative, and deeply felt. Brandon Taylor sure knows how to capture the tiny fragments of peoples lives while elevating hopes, regrets, dreams and musings.
The stories combine insights into how and why each character behaves the way they do—in a world that can be unforgiving-to-thyself. Brandon goes where few go… … includes dialogue that is witty and smart…uncomfortable as well…. View all 15 comments. My poor heart can't take this. Sadness at leaving. Sadness at going back to their lives. The sadness of knowing it would never again be this perfect, this easy. Taylor excels at writing about things, people, and situations that are bound to make you feel uneasy, exposed even.
Throughout this stunning collection of short stories, Taylor demonstrates time and again just how inexorably intertwined our fears and desires are. Taylor reveals the double-edged nature of desire, showing just how often we want that which we are or should be afraid of. Within these stories, Taylor explores and challenges the relationship between violence and intimacy, cruelty and compassion, attraction and repulsion, happiness and sorrow, pleasure and pain.
They can be ugly, to themselves, to one another. And it is because his prose is habitually so unsparing that makes those brief lapses into tranquillity feel all the more precious. However rare, those brief glimpses of hope and kinship that we do get are truly touching. As with Real Lifemany of these stories are set in or around the academic world and once again Taylor articulates just how insular it can be.
College is no safe haven however and the pressure to succeed often feels like a burden. There are many instances in which characters try to outdo one another, be it through personal or academic achievements, and we witness just how petty and competitive academia is. Most of these stories focus on Black queer characters and Taylor once again examines the intersection between sexuality and race. His characters often struggle to reconcile themselves with their identities and are often caught between opposing urges and desires.
They seek to form meaningful connections but they are mostly unsuccessful. The relationships within these stories are hindered by unresolved tensions, veiled insults, hurtful barbs, real and perceived slights.
Many of these relationships are unhealthy, seeming to bring more pain and suffering than not. Yet, we see that sometimes that is why certain characters decide to pursue certain people as Taylor repeatedly blurs the line between love and hate, passion and violence.
At a party, Lionel and Charles seem to form a connection of sorts. Lionel is clearly ill at ease, especially given that the host of the party seems intent on making a move on him. My heart really went out to Lionel and it was incredibly saddening to read of how this couple is trying to involve him in their ongoing drama. But, as we see over and over again, they are often unsuccessful. Hence the violence and cruelty. They are startlingly realistic.
View 2 comments. Jun 26, Matthew rated it it was amazing. As humans, we fear intimacy. For to be truly intimate with others requires vulnerability, honesty, submission. Moreover, it demands we let our collective guards down to reveal our true selves. We are but knights in armor equal parts shiny and tarnished. After spending some time in LondonBetsy found herself under an overwhelming psychic attack by the Shadow King, which caused her to lose control.
She sent the X-Men to the Astral Plane to deal with Farouk and remained behind to maintain the necessary mental link back to the physical world. Betsy found out the Shadow King was keeping Charles Xavier 's soul trapped in the Astral Plane, and under the Professor's guidance, she managed to fight Logan and Gambit, both possessed by the Shadow King, contain the psychic infection in London and protect the civilians.
After Xavier killed the Shadow King, Betsy was shocked to learn he had taken over the body of Fantomex, who chose to remain in the Astral Plane.
Suspicious of X, as now Xavier started to call himself, Betsy travelled to the Astral Plane herself to make sure Fantomex wasn't fooled into giving up his body. Unbeknownst to the X-Men, X had unintentionally brought someone else with him, a newly resurrected Proteus.
Not willing to take a risk with such a powerful being on the loose, the X-Men appointed Betsy as their leader over X and attacked Proteus, ultimately defeating him with a combined effort. However, when Betsy tapped into a psychic network to undo Proteus' reality-bending madness, the Shadow King took the chance to return to the physical world.
Betsy and X joined forces to defeat him once more, linking every psychic telepathically and cleansing the world of Farouk's filth.
X erased the memories of the other X-Men and told Betsy she would be the only one to remember he had returned. As a member of the X-Men, Betsy also tutored the time-displaced Jean Grey in the art of creating psychic weaponry  and investigated the Phoenix-related phenomenon that led to the resurrection of the adult Jean Grey. During this encounter, Betsy was attacked by the psychic vampire, Sapphire Styx who absorbed her soul into herself.
Once inside, Betsy discovered the psychic husks of all the victims Sapphire had claimed over the centuries, including a fragment of Wolverine's soul that she had been unable to purge from herself.
Drawing on the strength of all the imprisoned souls, Betsy used her telepathy to destroy Sapphire from within, and emerged in her original body. She later explained to Jubilee that after Sapphire was destroyed, she was able to use the soul energy she left behind to re-create her original body.
It was also shown that Kwannon has apparently returned to life in her original body as well, as the new Psylocke. Immediately after reclaiming her original body and legal identity as Elizabeth "Betsy" Braddock, Betsy returned to the Xavier Institute, where Jean Grey helped her cope with such a major change.
The X-Men responded with force, but were quickly overpowered and subdued. Gone from the Prime Marvel Universe, the X-Men were taken to a plane of existence created by X-Man with false memories, where everyone was a mutant and close relationships and love were forbidden.
In the following six months, Professor X established the island-nation of Krakoawelcoming mutants from all over the world and creating the first mutant society. Apocalypse also enlisted Betsy and Brian to investigate a strange, magically sealed Krakoan gate that opened from the Otherworld to the mutant-island.
Morgan Le Fayacting as Queen Regent of Otherworld and enraged about mutantkind's reach on her realm, cursed Brian to become her dark champion. In a desperate attempt to save his sister, Brian gave Betsy his Amulet of Right, the source of his powers. As a result, Betsy once again became Captain Britain, a hero of legend. In her earliest appearances in Uncanny X-MenBetsy possessed the power of telepathy.
She could read and project thoughts over long distances;  control minds; manipulate people's minds and possess them; subdue and tap into other's powers; affect people's memories;  project mental illusions;  and generate psi-bolts that could stun,  injure,  or kill others. When using her telepathic powers, a butterfly-shaped energy aura would appear around her face. It was never truly made clear in the comic books by the writers whether this was something that could be perceived by others or if this was simply an "effect" to show when Betsy was using her powers to the reading audience although it was implied that it could be.
In addition, Betsy could also use her telepathy to project a focused beam of directed psionic energy called a "psycho-blast" that could incapacitate or kill a living being instantly. This attack was powerful enough to pierce the Juggernaut 's psi-proof helmet.
The psycho-blast was able to affect inorganic material as well as living targets when directing a psycho-blast at Sabretooth the energy destroyed the metal Cerebro helmet she was wearing. While in her original body, Betsy was given bionic eyes by Mojo and Spiral which instantly adjusted to any intensity of light, preventing her from being blinded by brightness. This costume gave her superhuman strength and the ability to fly, and restoring her sight after she was briefly rendered temporarily blind.
After her physical transformation into a Japanese ninja assassin, she gained highly developed fighting skills in addition to her telepathy, which at this stage was not as powerful as it had originally been before her transformation, as half of her psionic potential still resided with Revanche in her original body.
The most common usage of her powers was the manifestation of a "psychic knife", which operated in the same manner as her "psycho-blast" ability, but at close range. Described as the focused totality of her psychic powers, she often used it to disrupt the minds and nervous systems of her foes by driving the glowing "blade" of psionic energy into their heads. After her exposure to the Crimson Dawn, she also gained the ability to teleport herself and others using areas of shadow as gateways.
To keep the Shadow King imprisoned in the Astral Plane, Betsy sacrificed the use of her telepathy, but at some point gained Phoenix's Savage Aggressions instead. She could blast an enemy through a brick wall, but could not levitate small objects, like a dime, from the floor.
Instead of her psychic knife, Betsy began to manifest a telekinetic katana composed of raw psionic energy. The katana can also affect beings that are more powerful than Betsy herself. During the timeline shift known as House of M, Betsy showed the ability to summon two telekinetic katanas at the same time. Aside from the blade, Betsy can use her telekinesis to enhance her speed, strength, and fighting skills to superhuman levels.
After her resurrection, Betsy was shown to be immune to all forms of psionic manipulations such as mind-reading,  mind-control or mental attacks,  and attempts of telepathic communication. She can, however, still be killed in more traditional manners, such as being stabbed or shot. She is also at least partially resistant to magical manipulation.
For example, all sensor-arrays of the Exiles Crystal Palace are not able to detect her—as if she does not even exist. However, Betsy's telekinetic powers seems to evolve with the return of her telepathy since her encounter with the Sisterhood as, at first, she has rarely been seen using her telekinesis to levitate objects or create her trademark telekinetic katana. It appears also, that she is focusing more on developing her returned telepathic powers and that the various immunities that were granted to her by her resurrection at the hands of her brother seem to have vanished or at least greatly diminished, as during the Necrosha event Proteus was not only able to possess Betsy but also was able to alter her body structure.
The events involving the Sisterhood of Mutants triggered a return of her original telepathic abilities. Upon rejoining the X-Men, Betsy states that while she is still primarily a telekinetic, she has gained the mental ability to telepathically "suggest what people see" i. Additionally, she is once again able to focus her telepathic energies into a solid psychic knife and can still manifest her telekinetic katana.
As shown in the events of the Psylocke miniseries, she still appears to be an unusually strong and powerful telepath, with a range of abilities similar to what she possessed at her introduction, as well as manifesting her trademark psychic knife. Betsy is also shown to have levels of telekinesis sufficient to increase the strength and power of her physical blows as well as ward off attacks via force fields and telekinetic "blasts or bursts".
During the Utopia storyline, she was seen manifesting her telekinetic katana, but of late she has been seen using a pair of traditional katanas as well.
She was able to overcome Archangel with her newly strengthened and increased telepathy — a feat that had previously been beyond her power. Elizabeth "Betsy" Braddock has been classified as a master martial artist, though the specific fighting arts she has mastered have never been revealed.
Psylocke's fighting skills and techniques have been shown to surpass those of the average Hand ninja,  or Crimson Dawn Undercloak,  and have been said to rival those of a ninja master.
As a telepath, Betsy could take advantage of her powers in a fight by reading her opponents' movements seconds before they made them, giving her the opportunity to counter-attack faster.
As a telekinetic, she often uses her powers to augment her strength and speed,  making her fighting skills strong enough to match, and even outmatch other superhumanly strong opponents, like a holographic version of Sabretooth in the Danger Room. During the time when the X-Men were based in the Australian outback, Betsy Braddock gained possession of a unique suit of armor.
Made of an unknown metal, it was lightweight and form-fitting, yet extremely resistant to physical damage, giving Betsy an added protection to her physical body. Tyger Tiger also wore the body armor for a short time,  and she was briefly trapped in the armor due to a built-in security mechanism, which Wolverine managed to free her from. After traveling through the Siege Perilous and trading bodies with Kwannon, Betsy no longer used the body armor. When Kwannon, in Betsy's original body, returned to Xavier's mansion, she was wearing an armor that was similar to the one Betsy used to wear, but it has never been officially stated whether or not this armor had the same capabilities as Betsy's original one.
Elizabeth "Betsy" Braddock has been involved in a series of romantic relationships during the years. As a member of S.
He was murdered while trying to defend her, during which time she was telepathically linked to him. Telepathically experiencing Lennox's death left Betsy traumatized for a time.
After returning to the X-Men in Kwannon's body, Betsy telepathically manipulated Cyclopsher team leader, into being romantically attracted to her. Betsy and the X-Man Neal Shaara were romantically involved Savage Aggressions her death. They passionately kissed each other,  eventually leading to both Savage Aggressions on their romantic feelings more intimately. These alternative representations usually differ considerably from the details and events of the main story, without affecting that story's narrative continuity.
She is an Asian ninja wearing a maskthough no explanation is given as to the circumstances of her ethnicity. She possesses the ability to generate psychic blades an ability that the Earth Betsy Braddock only manifested after switching bodies with Kwannon that can affect physical matter as well as living beings.
She frees the captured X-Men and has a brief reunion with Loganfor whom she bears an obvious grudge. Sinister 's influence, and then on Kirikawhich allows the young mutant to remember that Logan and Mariko Yashida are her parents. She is depicted as a member of the Force Warriors, a select group of telekinetics who rebuild the telekinetic shields that protect Fortress X on a daily basis. The plan was to exile them on a series of small islands in the Irish Sea, but was foiled when the Irish separatists bombed one of the ships carrying the transportees.
The Mutant Liberation Front seized control of the other ship with Chamber on board and was ultimately able to berth it at the Canadian port of Saguenay. As a member of the Force Warriors, Betsy used her telekinesis in concert with the other members to rebuild the walls around Fortress X every evening in preparation for the next morning's attacks.
She is in a relationship with the Age of X version of Iceman. Betsy has not only the Crimson Dawn tattoo over her left eye, but also additional tattoos on the right part of her face. Betsy is first seen as a mysterious hooded female that sneaks up undetected behind Logan and telepathically destroys his consciousness. As Shinobi brags about world domination, Betsy reminds him that without her help he would not have been so lucky and he tells her that her name is never far away from his thoughts and that they will rule the world side by side.
Suddenly, Betsy cries out in pain and says that Wolverine has reawakened and that Emma Frost is responsible for bringing him back. Betsy senses betrayal from one of the workers, whom she stuns with her psychic knife and find out to be Jubilee in disguise.
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