Classic Rock

8

Space Clouds - Loaded Fist - Space Clouds (File, MP3)

12.09.2021

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With experience, you will encounter this problem less frequently. A very common problem seen in many 3d models, even professionally, is shown to the right called Z-Fighting. Z- Fighting occurs when 2 faces occupy the same space and the program has trouble deciding which one to render.

The result is typically a darker area on the model. When you press the button, Blender will tell you if and how many double vertices were found in the top bar. Removing double faces can be a little more difficult. Many times, removing the double vertices will also take care of the double face problem, but not always. Sometime, the double faces will display differently in the view port, making it easier to recognize them. The first thing you need to do is create a plane in the top view 7 key.

While in edit mode, make sure all vertices are selected vertices are yellow. Do this a few times. Select a single vertex somewhere near center.

Select Smooth Falloff. Select other vertices and falloffs for more hills and shapes. This will smooth the mesh in display and final output. Your job is to create that logo. This is the basic scene, but as you work through the chapters, you will be encouraged to add more elements and details to your lighthouse and landscape to make it your own. Again, we will be using this file for the next several chapters, so keep it safe and save often!

We will use the left viewport for working in and the right top one for camera and 3D views. Adjust the viewport size similar to shown. For now, you may want to turn off the 3D widgets. Remember that you can close and open the Tool Shelf and Transform panels at any time. Often, you will be unable to see all of the buttons and panels in the Transform and Tool Shelf bars.

Scroll your mouse wheel in the panels to view everything. The plane you created on the previous page will be used for our ground. Our next step is to scale it up a bit. To do this precisely, we will use the Transform Panel. Change the Scale X,Y, and Z to Close the Transform Panel.

You may need to zoom out to see the entire plane. In the Tool Shelf, click Subdivide 6 times. Your plane should be well subdivided. Selected While holding down the LMB, select half the vertices as shown.

Keep the edge random similar to what is shown so it looks like a rough shoreline. If you select too many vertices, remember that by holding down the mouse wheel, you can deselect vertices. Your plane will now just look like a line. Move them up about 2 Blender grid blocks. Use your right side viewport to spin around and get a nice look at the landscape. Randomly pull the edges of the cliff up and down to different levels. You may even want to do MP3) of this with proportional editing off.

Try selecting a few vertices back on the high flat land and create some hills. Leave a flat area close to the cliff to place the lighthouse later. Press it and you should see a much better looking landscape you must be in object mode to see the smoothing. Start by adding an Empty object in the top view 7 number pad key. An Empty is basically used for targeting purposes and does not render as a visible object.

Scale it up a bit. Now, RMB click on the camera to select it. We will add a Tracking constraint to the camera to always point toward the Empty. Both objects will be highlighted. A dashed line indicates the link. With the camera selected only, move it around- it always points to the Empty. If the link appears to work backwards, it means you had the Empty selected first.

Use the UNDO command to back up and try again. Try to get the camera low so it looks as though you are viewing the shore line from a boat. Place the Empty on the cliff line. Use the picture below to frame up your view. You do not want to see any edges on your rendering.

Feel free to develop and refine the landscape contour any way you wish. The more time you spend with it, the quicker you will become comfortable with the program and the more realistic it will become. Use the default setting of 32 vertices, radius of 1, and Fill Type- Triangle Fan.

These setting will be fine for what we are making. Depending on what you are making and what it will be used for, you may require more or less vertices. You will now need to switch to the Front View 1 so the circle appears as a line. If you filled the circle, it will extrude on the Z axis automatically. Extrude the lighthouse about 3 Blender grid blocks high and LMB click to place them. This is your lighthouse- feel free to adjust sizes as desired.

Remember to stay in the front view throughout this process! Rotated views can cause a distorted lighthouse.

It is now time to make the small walkway around the top. This will place the new extruded vertices right on top of the old ones. Pull your mouse away from the lighthouse and scale the walkway outward as desired. LMB click when you have a good size. Extrude again to give the walkway some height.

Continue extruding and shaping to get the light area and the roof. The point of the roof will actually have 32 vertices which you could scale very small so that it appears to be a single point, but we will use a Tool Shelf command to correct this. You will see that 31 vertices are being removed, leaving only one at the center. The lighthouse looks good, but angular. It will take more than Smooth Shading to make it look good.

Some edges actually need to stay sharp. This is where Auto Smooth becomes important. Select the lighthouse again. Ignore how the lighthouse look on the screen.

Some things are smooth that should remain sharp and some other strange edge effects. You will notice a degree angle below the Auto Smooth button. Leaving it a the default of 30 degrees should work well, but feel free to experiment with other setting. Basically, this setting determines which faces are smoothed and which ones are kept sharp.

We are finished with our lighthouse for now. If you have the time, feel free to modify the lighthouse, change the style, add more features, etc. A good possible addition could be to use Torus and cylinder meshes to create a railing around the walkway. Remember, the Torus mesh features can be adjusted in the bottom half of the Tool Shelf. They will retain any materials you have placed on them, but will be one object. Also available in the Tool Shelf.

Separating Meshes: In order to break up a mesh, you need to be in edit mode Tab Key and select the vertices you wish to separate from the rest of the mesh. You also an option to separate all loose parts. Select the option of what you wish to delete. Adding Faces: Sometimes, you need to fill in holes in a mesh by creating your own faces. To do this, go into edit mode and select the vertices you wish to face together you are limited to 4 vertices in a group.

A face will be formed. Here is an example of 2 cubes joined together with a space that needs filled between them. In edit mode, select the 4 vertices hold down shift key and right click on themthen type F. A face will be created. Ctrl-F will give a Face Specials menu of options that will allow a larger set of closed vertices to be faced with additional options. Using Alt- F will fill a larger area automatically. RoboDude Says: Adding and deleting faces and vertices are the basics in any model construction.

It is important to become comfortable with these operations while knowing how to accurately work within your viewports. In other words, A mesh can be made combining 2 meshes different from the Join command. When using Join, the 2 shapes still retain all vertices.

When using Boolean, a new shape is calculated union and removes interior geometry. A mesh can also be used to cut a hole in another mesh difference and a shape can also be made from where the 2 shape intersect with one another intersect. In the sample shown below, a cube and a sphere have been placed overlapping each other.

With the cube selected, we will be applying a Boolean Modifier. This is the first time we have accessed the Modifier buttons. If the resolution of your computer if not set so that you are able to see the Modifiers button, hold down your mouse wheel to scroll over the buttons to gain access to it.

You will see a variety of modifiers that can be added and many will be discussed later. For now, select the Boolean modifier. In the Boolean panel, you will see a block where you can select the object you wish to use to modify the cube. Clicking in the box will give you a drop down of all objects in the scene. Selecting the sphere will display the changes to the cube. We are going to use Boolean operations to cut some simple windows in your lighthouse. Using your principle views of 1, 3, and 7, place the cube in a good location for a window.

With the cube still selected, make note of the cube's name, displayed in the lower left corner of the viewport. We will need to know that name later. The name can also be changed in the Transform window.

Go to the Modifiers Panel and add a Boolean Modifier. Select the Cube from the list under Object. You can even use different mesh shapes to cut other window and door shapes. Remember to add the Boolean Modifier to the lighthouse and not the cube! They need the logo to be 3D and useful for their promotional needs. For this exercise, you will be creating a 3D logo for a favorite team, company, product, or school while using many of the techniques discussed in this chapter.

Your first step is to do an internet search for an image you wish to model from. I will be using a Blender Logo for my example. Check the box and open the panel. Load your image and it should show up in the background of the 3D window. The image will only display in a principal ortho view 7,1, or 3- 5 key switches between ortho and perspective.

You will notice that you can control which views the image displays in, if you want to display a movie or image as a background, the transparency of the image, the size and X,Y offset. Delete 1 vertex so all you have are 3 vertices. Your next step is to move the 3 existing vertices to the edge of the shape where you wish to start.

The more care you take in shaping, the better the logo will look. Continue around the shape until you get back to the beginning. This will connect the 2 ends and close the shape. You will now have the basic shape. From there, continue to extrude and close the inner edge as you did with the outer edge. Notice that the Blender logo also has a blue inner circle. We will also copy and extrude a circle for that ring. If you have other details to add, do that at this time.

Always stay in the Top View! Before we face the mesh, we will need to separate the vertices into different meshes that will receive different materials. For my example, I will select the inner ring that will get a blue material. After separating all the vertices, go back to Object Mode.

It's now time to face the mesh. If the shape is complex, not closed, or has double vertices somewhere, this option may not work and forces you to find the problem or face it manually.

Do this for all meshes, then switch to the Front View and Extrude the meshes to a desired thickness, like you did with the Space Clouds - Loaded Fist - Space Clouds (File. You logo is finished for now. We will not be addressing this as an actual exercise, but after reading the chapter on Materials and Textures, you can come back and add color to your logo. There are still a lot of commands and techniques to learn to improve your 3D modeling skills and many of these will be addressed in future chapters, however, practice is the key to become a skilled artist.

Answer the following questions in as much detail as possible. Your first task in this chapter had you working with basic meshes, trying to create a sculpture, much like you would have used building blocks as a child. What was your biggest challenge then and how would that challenge be different now that you have completed the chapter and have a little more experience?

How did your lighthouse and landscape turn out? Are you pleased with your results? What was the most difficult aspect of that project and how did you overcome that challenge?

The logo challenge activity is designed to have you create a 3D logo much like ones you would see at sporting events, in movies, and on T. Find a 3D animated logo on the internet that interests you.

Do you have a better understanding now of how a logo like that is made? How has this chapter shaped your understanding of 3D modeling? Have these activities inspired you to create any projects of your own?

What would you like to create? As you make your 3D models in Blender, your goal will probably be to generate render an image or a movie as a final result. The software that determines how your scene will look is the render engine. The render engine will need to know how to handle materials on your objects, how the lighting in your scene should react with reflections, refraction, bounced ambient lighting, shadows, etc.

While there are several 3 rd party engines out there that can work with Blender, there are actually two engines built into the program: the classic internal renderer and the newer cycles renderer. Every render engine will generate different results depending on how it calculates the scene. Some render engines will take a lot longer to generate an image than others. Cycles handles lighting much better than the internal renderer, providing more realistic results.

That will depend on what you want for results. The classic internal engine will give you faster results, but with less realism. The cycles engine will give you more realistic results, but requires more set up time and much longer render times, depending on your computer and graphics card possibly minutes as opposed to hours.

Because this book is written for use in the classroom, all of the activities here use the classic render engine. Time is a valuable commodity in school and we need to render as quickly as possible to meet deadlines. Like most schools, we do not have the best video cards on the market, making cycles a tough choice for us.

Cycles is a work in progress and getting improvements with every new release. Some students do choose to use cycles. In this chapter and the next, we will discuss the basics of the cycles renderer and how to set up basic materials. With that knowledge, you can decide which render engine you would like to use for the activities. Both render engine will give you great results! The Blender Game engine rendering will be discussed in a later chapter. We will only discuss some basic material settings in this chapter so you can experiment with the render engines.

Materials will be detailed in the next chapter. Remember, we are focusing on the classic internal renderer right now. Basic Material Settings To add a material, first select the object you want to work with, then go to the Materials panel in the Properties window. You will see more options open up. Right now, we are only interested in changing color and glossiness.

Diffuse: Diffuse is actually the color that is given off by the object- the color you see. If you want the object to be red, set it here. You will also see settings for the way the material is calculated default-Lambert and the intensity slider. The Ramp button will allow diversity of color. By clicking on the color sample in diffuse or in any other block dealing with a colorthe color wheel will pop up. You'll also see an eyedropper for picking a color elsewhere. The Preview panel can be used to see the results of your setting changes.

You can also change the default sphere preview shape to something else. Specular: Specular settings control the glossiness of the object is it flat or shiny? You will see a color sample, calculation model and ramp as in Diffuse. The color sample indicates the color reflected back usually kept white. Intensity controls the amount of glossiness while the hardness slider controls the hardness and softness of the glow.

Check the sample as you change these settings to see how it changes appearance. RoboDude Asks: How can I see all the panels on the screen?

While the classic render engine is still the default in Blender, Cycles continues to receive most of the recent development and will likely become the default renderer in the near future.

Since cycles can produce more accurate results with reflected light and other effects, it is more memory and is processor intensive. This is where your computer hardware makes a big difference and a place where many high school labs can fall short.

In our lab, we have fast dual-core computers, loaded with RAM, but with integrated video cards. Due to school district budgets, I think many schools are in the same boat. Because of this factor, we can render simple scenes in Cycles, but as scenes become more complex, we experience problems and need to rely on the classic renderer.

Render farms, or Network Rendering, discussed in Chapter 8 can help you get through larger projects as well. Expect detailed project in either render engine to take minutes to hours to render a single image as you add more detail.

Because the CPU is doing everything to run your computer, the amount of memory and the processor speed of your computer will determine how fast your projects render.

If your computer supports GPU, you can experiment to see which one works best for you. If not, you are limited to CPU rendering. You can try to update drivers, update your video card, or live with CPU rendering. Render settings for Cycles in the Render settings for Cycles in Properties window. Nodes can be confusing to work with, but you can set up your basic materials and textures in the Properties window, similar to the way we construct them with the classic renderer to make life easier.

You can then adjust your results by adding and adjusting nodes in the Nodes window. As you work with Cycles, this will become easier. With a little research on the internet, you will find a lot of tutorials for creating specific effects with nodes. In-Viewport Rendering: A nice feature of Cycles is that you can view your render results in the viewport without the need for pressing F While this feature also works to some degree in the classic rendered, you can control the results better in Cycles.

While the complete explanation is complex, what is essentially happening in Cycles is that the image quality will continue to improve over time with each sample and you can control the number of samples found in the Render Properties menu in the viewport and in the final render F Depending on your computer speed and the complexity of the scene, the higher the better, but you need to find a balance of quality and time.

Professionals may render samples in the thousands. Try a lower sample rate. This is because traditional Blender lamps project from a pin-point location where real lamps project from larger areas, like a light bulb would project more from a spherical object.

Planes work great to light Cycles scenes. Basic Material Settings in Cycles: As mentioned before, Cycles is a node-based render engine, MP3) we can use the Materials properties panel to do some basic setup, similar to the classic render engine. After switching to the Cycles renderer, adjusting your processor CPU or GPUand setting the Samples, you are now ready to apply some basic materials. With the object selected, go to the Materials property panel. You will notice settings are presented differently than in the classic renderer.

An elaborate term that basically means what happens to the light when it hits an object. Is it reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the material for transparency or refraction. Diffuse is used exactly like it is in the classic render engine- the light reflected, with no glossiness. Below the surface setting you will see a color swatch, roughness smooth or rough and default normal mapping.

Clicking on the Diffuse block, more options are displayed. While we we look at more details in the next chapter, we will examine 4 surface options here: Diffuse, Glossy, Emission, and the Mix Shader. In real life, we see the light emitting from our lamps. In the classic render engine type lights, we never see the actual lamp. If you create a sphere or pane to represent your light source, you would place an Emission shader on the object and adjust the strength of the emission.

Diffuse: The cube to the left is using a Diffuse surface material with some roughness applied. The roughness may not be very apparent depending on how many samples you are rending at. Try a higher sample rate for better quality discussed on page Glossy: A sphere has been added to the scene on the right with a Glossy surface material added with a blue color. A glossy surface by itself will be a perfect mirror.

This is where it is important to mix your surface shaders. Mix Shader: A Mix Shader was selected on the left. In this example, Diffuse and Glossy shaders were used on the cube, which gives the cube color and reflction. A Mix Shader could also be added to the 2nd slot to mix even more together.

Here are some of the basic parts of the Node Editor window. More details will be discussed throughout the manual and activities. Tool Shelf- Displays the many nodes available. Display of connected nodes. These represent the current material. Browse to display different materials Which nodes to display. Currently set to Check to tell Blender Add button- display object nodes.

With experience, many people set all of their material properties in the Node Editor window. We will also examine times in future chapters where you can start in the material properties panel and then add additional features in the node editor window. Working with nodes can be confusing and knowing how to connect them can be more of a challenge.

While we will examine the basics of Cycles in this book, the internet is an excellent resource for additional learning. We already talked about adjusting the sample rates on pagebut what else can you do to speed things up? Ken Murphy from Southwest Minnesota State University shared some setting options he uses with his class to speed up the rendering times while giving results similar to the Blender internal render engine.

If you need this, try a low number The default settings are 8 for both minimum and maximum. Bounces: Set the minimum and maximum settings to zero, unless you have transparent objects in your scene. The default settings are 3 minimum and 12 for maximum. Uncheck Shadows and both Caustic settings. The type of lamps you use will also contribute to your results. While using meshes with an emission shader is ideal in Cycles, a traditional Hemi lamp may provide sharp shadows.

Place the camera and lamp in good locations to get a render similar to the one shown below. Use only one lamp to light your scene. You will be experimenting with color and glossiness in this activity.

Adjust the strength for a good output. Add appropriate material shaders to your other objects in Cycles. Set your render samples as high as your computer will allow for an appropriate render time. Compare your two render results and answer the following questions: 1.

Look at the lighting effects in both images. You used one light in each, but have different results. Which one looks more realistic? In Cycles, graininess is determined by the number of samples. Why does the image improve with higher samples?

Research and explain why. Which render engine do you like the best and why? You have had a comparison of Blender's two render engines in this chapter, but how does Cycles compare to another program's render engine? Conduct an internet research of another render engine that can be used with other commercial animation programs.

Explain your findings. You can add color, make things glow, become transparent like glass or make them look like brick, grass, stone, metal, fabric, wallpaper, etc. Basic Material Settings You must always add a material before you can add a texture. To add a material, first select the object you want to work with. Then go to the Materials panel in the Properties window. The material block is used to change some of the physical properties of the object in how it looks.

The panels can float around so they may not be in this order, but here is what you see with all panels collapsed: Add a new material or duplicate List of all materials the one currently selected linked to object Browse list of all Change the material name here materials in file How to display the material: Preview Sample Surface- Normal mode Wire- Render as a wireframe Diffuse- The actual color of Volume- useful for smoke the object settings simulations Halo- Gives verticies a glow Shading- Control self emitting light and ambient Different ways to display the lighting effects sample Subsurface Scattering- Specular- controls the objects effects for final rendering glossiness settings Strands- used for Space Clouds - Loaded Fist - Space Clouds (File and Mirror-Transparency- Raytrace grass efects settings will be discussed in a Shadow- setting related to later chapter how the object casts and Options- a few setting related to receives shadows the world and rendering This is just an overview of the basic material panels.

On the next page, we will highlight some of the important panels we will be using at this time. Remember panels can be collapsed and opened as needed to streamline your view. You can also scroll with the mouse wheel! Some of this will be a review from the past chapter: Diffuse: Diffuse is actually the color that is given off by the object.

Shading: If you want something to glow, even in low light, adjust the Emit slider. Ambient light allows the object to also react as if indirect light were hitting it. There are also a few other shading settings here as well. SubSurface Scattering: Is used to improve rendering for materials where light enters the material and leaves through another point like skin.

Strands: Strands are used to represent hair or grass when used with particle systems discussed in a later chapter. With strand settings, you can control the root and tip width of the strand. Shadow: There are time when you do not want an object to be able to cast a shadow and times when it doesn't receive shadows properly from objects with transparent materials or ray-tracing features.

Those options are controlled in this panel. In the Material panel, turn on Transparency and select Z-Transparency, then slide the Alpha control down. Press the F12 button to render an image. If you need features like distortion refractionthen you will need to use Raytrace Transparent. Refraction is the effect you get like looking through a magnifying glass or a crystal.

Avoid using Ray features at this time. They are discussed in a later chapter. Z-Transparent material Halo Settings By using Halos on objects, you are basically only making the vertices visible when rendered. Halo effects give you a star-like image on every vertex. Sometimes, it adds a nice effect to take a plane and delete all vertices except for one.

Tie it to a particle effect discussed in a later chapter and you can produce some interesting results. Animation basics are discussed in a later chapter.

There are also other options with halos not discussed. Halos are also used to control the size Flare adds additional rings and appearance of particles in smoke and fire and effects effects. These will also be discussed in a later chapter. Feel free to experiment! Blender is capable of using almost any image file type whether created in a paint program or is a photographic image. JPEG images are most common.

Blender can even place a movie on an object as a material! This is a good effect if you want to add animation within your animation. Here's what you see in the texture panel: Texture Channels: You can add multiple textures to an object. For example, lets say you want a marble texture on an object, but also want to add a roughness to the surface.

You would add a texture for both effects. Texture Name: Like materials, it's a good idea to name your textures. Texture Type: Choose between built-in texture generators for wood, marble, stucci, etc or select an image or movie. Mapping: Setting that control how the texture is mapped onto the object. What is happening? What are people doing? How do you feel? Read the first sentence from each extract.

Which person was I was lying on the beach sunbathing when I suddenly noticed huge waves. Before I knew it. People around me were screaming, A few seconds later I was under the water. Pieces of wood were hitting me. Luckily, a man who was on a palm tree pulled me out of the wafer onto the tree. After a few hours, we were rescued by some local men and taken to the hospital. Bill A ship carrying tons of rice, water, tinned fish and other supplies arrived at Nias, Indonesia today, and we have already started distributing food to the people.

Unfortunately, cracked roads and collapsed bndges are making it very difficult. In the meantime, we keep searching for more survivors. In the early hours of Thursday, we managed to find a year-old girl who was still alive.

She had been burled underneath a five-storey building for 52 hours, At the hotel, my colleagues and I were helping injured people. We gave them emergency first aid before they were taken to hospital. Some of the injuries we had to treat were quite horrific. The streets outside were littered with fallen palm trees and huge pieces of wood and metal. Sue An earthquake that occurred at local time under the Indian Ocean generated the biggest tsunami the world has seen in the last 40 years.

The massive waves have killed over 10, people in southern Asia. Thousands have lost their homes. This must be one of the worst natural disasters in recent history.

Which parts of the text helped you decide? Which person or people Say the sentences in the active voice. Interview the people who wrote texts A-D on p. Vocabulary Natural Disasters Read the dictionary entries. What are these disasters called in your language?

What causes each one? Which of them can you see in the pictures A-D? What can we do, then, to reduce traffic in our city centres? The result would be fewer cars in the city and consequently fewer traffic jams. This means several employees would share one car to work instead of each coming in their own car. Again, this would reduce the number of cars on the streets. If this was done, people would be encouraged to cycle instead of taking their car.

Applying just some of these ideas would result in a lot less traffic in our cities. Find examples in the essay in Ex. Say these phrases in your language. One way to, Another solution would be, Another way to To express effect: thus, therefore, as a result, consequently, so, as a consequence To conclude: All in all, To sum up.

Then join sentences using co-ordinate conjunctions. Then listen and say which ideas Sally mentions in the conversation. Wliat aatnetetto YlfWii Suggestions 1 Fine people who litter. Results a If people know that they will have to pay ft they litter, they will stop doing it b This way landtill sites will not become so full.

I like both rock and pop music. We con have the party either on Friday or on Saturday. Factories pollute the air. You can recycle old things. You can ride a bicycle to work. Portfolio: You had a discussion in class about the amount of litter we produce. Now your teacher has asked you to write an essay offering suggestions and their results related to the problem. Write your essay. Follow the plan below. Are linkers used correctly? Need a little career Come and see us anytime of the day or night.

They are wild Grammar Revision Complete the gaps with the correct infinitive or -ins form of the verbs in brackets. Dear Jane. How are you? I had a wonderful time and it was fantastic I especially liked Next time you come visit I will Please write soon.

Use -ing form or infinitive. However, the Scottish Highlands are home to another creature which is much easier to spot: the Highland coo. In Scotland, cows are called "coos". The Highland coo is an ancient Scottish breed with long horns, long hair and a fringe that makes it look different to other cows.

Legend has it that a long time ago, a farmer wanted to impress his wife with a new variety of cow that would actually last through the long winters. The coo is also unique because it can survive on poor grazing grounds, eating plants that other animals don't. The farmer crossed a standard Hereford cow with a longer-haired smaller cow and got one of Scotland's most popular tourist attractions!

This cute animal is also known as "shaggy coo" or "hairy coo". It has become a national symbol of Scotland and is important for farming as well as tourism. If you take a bus tour to the Scottish Highlands, don't miss the chance to take a photograph of this animal!

Think of three questions about it. Read, listen and see if you can answer your questions. Correct the false statements, 1 Nessie is a breed of Highland cow. Use the picture to describe the Scottish coo. Then, tell your partner two things you found interesting about Scottish coos. Project: Collect information, then ICT write an article for an international student magazine about an interesting animal that lives in your country.

Write: its name, what it looks like, what it eats, what makes it special, any other information. Read through and check. They can form at any time of the year, although many occur in the spring. A tornado is a spinning, whirling wind. When it meets with cold air it takes the shape of a long funnel or tube, reaching down from a large cloud.

It is formed when warm air near the earth's surface rises and meets with cold air. When the weather conditions are right, this warm air starts to twist as it rises, getting faster and stronger. It is a bit like watching water disappear down the plughole in your bathtub. If this huge, twisting rope of air hits the ground, it may cause great damage.

Tornadoes can reach speeds of more than mph, ripping roofs from houses, uprooting trees, and tossing heavy objects like cars in the air. Ina meteorologist named Theodore Fujita developed a scale to show how strong tornadoes are. His scale goes from FO to F5. It doesn't calculate strength based on wind speeds but the damage a tornado causes to homes and other buildings. Hailstones are lumps of ice. They can be as small as peas or as big as cricket balls!

In Kansas, USA, a hailstone fell that was Hail is formed when raindrops start to fall. Before they reach the ground, they are blown up into the clouds again by strong winds. There they freeze into balls of ice and the wind in the clouds bounces them up and down. As the frozen raindrops rise and fall like this, they get even more thickly covered in ice from the water inside the clouds.

Eventually they get so heavy that they fall to the ground as hall. When big hailstones fall, they make quite a noise hitting roofs and pavements. Cars and buildings are damaged, and plants and crops are destroyed. Driving during a hailstorm is also very dangerous, as the roads become slippery. Which words helped you decide? Tell the class three things you found interesting in the texts.

Half fill a plastic bottle with water Cover the top of the Add tiny pieces ; bottle with a piece of ol Poke a Describe your experience and feelings. Create a tornado yourself. Use the instructions in Ex. Read the saying. Tina sent me a wedding Oh, no! I forgot George would like Let me Mrs Brown to see if she needed any shopping. That car has burst Points: — 5X2 10 7 Match to form exchanges. Listen to the music.

Which of the four places are you at? What are you doing? What is the weather like? What do you think the text is about? On which holiday A-D can you Use some of them to complete the sentences.

Which holiday would you like to go on? Wrap up in warm furs and travel through the valleys of the Lena River and over the frozen landscape, just like the native Yakutian people, who have travelled this way for centuries. You can spend your evenings in traditional Russian family homes, enjoy home-cooked meals, and learn about the rich culture of these people. During your trip, you will have the chance to see all sorts of amazing wildlife including wolves, foxes and elk, and you will even be able to ride the famous Yakut horses.

You will see so much more than sand because Morocco has many varied landscapes. The perfect escape from a busy life! Here are a selection of some of the types of holidays for those with a sense of adventure. Well, now you can find out tor yourself with a holiday that offers the unique opportunity to see how life might have been over years ago.

You will travel in a convoy of covered wagons through the unspoilt countryside of Yellowstone National Park and through Wyoming, and enjoy the majestic views all around. Stopping at a different camp each day, there wili be plenty of opportunities to go on nature hikes, go swimming, canoeing, horse riding, or just reiax.

You can spend your evenings cooking on an open fire and singing cowboy songs around the campfire. Ice Divinq in the Arctic D 1 n the icy waters of the Arctic Ocean, you will see a strange but unique world that very few humans get the chance to visit.

The Arctic is one of the last places on earth that remains a mystery and a challenge. Not many people are brave enough to explore the region and even fewer are brave enough to explore it from twenty feet beneath the ice! If the diving experience is not enough, you can also enjoy the scenery and wildlife above the ocean on foot or on snowmobiles. One thing is for sure; no one eise will have holiday snaps like yours!

Vocabulary Holiday activities A Which of the following T activities do you enjoy doing while on holiday? You can use your own ideas. What activities would you like to do there? What would you like to do there? A: I'd like to visit the museums and to practise my Italian. Give examples and explain.

Compare your answers with a partner. What has happened to the people? One is looking at the car engine. They seem to be very angry. Which problem s in Ex. What are they in your language? Use the expressions to discuss holiday problems, as in the example.

Which countries did she visit? Listen and say. What good and what bad experiences did Isabelle have while she was travelling? Hope you had a nice time. B: It was an absolute nightmare! Our car broke down. A: How awful! Welcome back, Bella! How was your holiday? Hi, Andrew. It was fantastic. Just tell me all about it. Well, Greece was amazing. I took lots of pictures, but I got sunstroke. How awful! Well, I should have been more careful. Anyway, after Greece, I went to Italy, but I got seasick on the ferry.

Oh, poor thing! No, not at all. Italy was fantastic! The people are very friendly and I loved Italian cuisine. You have to go to Rome some day. Yes, maybe next year. Did you manage to go to Spain? Yes, but I had a bit of trouble in Barcelona. My purse was stolen while I was waiting for a bus. Good for you! Sounds good! What does it advise listeners to do?

What did she find surprising? When is he most relaxed? What is her opinion of it? A It is too modern. C There are no taxis. Who is the website for?

A people who want to plan their own holiday? Then match them to the feelings a-f. B: Oh, thank goodness! Speaking 8 9 Portfolio: Work in pairs. Imagine you went on a holiday where everything went wrong.

Now you are back. Use the phrases in Ex. You can use the dialogue in Ex. Direct Speech is the actual words someone says written in quotation marks. Reported Speech is the exact meaning of what someone said but not their actual words.

Direct Speech enjoy travelling a lot. Said or told Grammar Reference 3 Study the examples. Fill in the gaps with said or told. Tony said that she was going to China.

Tony said to us that she was going to China. Tony told us that she was going to China. Nathan is spending two weeks travelling alone in the UK. Report what he said. How do the tenses change from direct to reported speech! What other changes happen? It was amazing! Sometimes 1 get a bit lonely. If 1 have time, 1 will visit Cardiff. How do we report the imperative? Pack some 7 2 Have you had your photographs developed? Imagine you are Angela.

Your brother Bill has just got home. Report the messages to him. She told me to pack some warm clothes. She told me not to take a lot of thin2s with me. Have a valid passport. Leave copies of your itinerary with family and call them regularly.

Learn about local laws and customs. Hi, Bill. It's me, Jason. Just calling to remind you we have football practice at 9. See you later. Hi, it's Alan. Sorry I won't be able to come. Reported Speech She asked me which countries I would visit. Where were you last night? I was waiting for you all evening. Susan asked Jack where he had been last night and told him that she had been waiting for him all evening. Jack said that he was sorry, but he had been watching TV and he had fallen asleep.

Julia: Which forms of public transport do you use. Hello, Pat. I feel terrible. I have a terrible headache. Frank: Take an aspirin and have a rest. Did you go to the party last night? Yes, but I left early. What do you think the title means? Say three things that impressed you from the text. Complete the table with as many means of transport as possible.

How does each person prefer to travel? Sophie Greg 5 96 commonly used means of transport in your country? How do you prefer to travel? Nowadays, there 0 so many means of transport, from bicycles and buses to sports cars and jet airplanes, that travellers arc MP3) for choice. In fact, There arc, however, some means of transport that have made an impression on people and have taken One means of transport that truly won The steam rotates a paddlewheel or propeller that in turn causes the boat to move forward.

These riverboats became popular The Mississippi River was especially known Steamboats have now disappeared from most American rivers, but they have become a symbol of the Mississippi River.

Many people think of these boats when they hear the name Mississippi. Fortunately, a small number of Tell a partner. Check with a partner. B: Sorry! B: You were lucky, then. B: OK. Fill in: at or on. Then, make sentences of your own. Use reported speech. Where could you hear each? Check in Appendix 3. What are these idioms in your language? B: My sister borrowed my car without asking.

A: We should set out now. We are all in the same A: Where is Paul? B: His father How do you think you would benefit if your family played host to a foreign student? Would you enjoy the experience? Beeome a ll! What difficulties might you face? He really enjoyed his stay and improved his English. Now Jun is back home and is writing a letter to his host family. Read the letter. What kind of letter is it: an invitation, a complaint, a thank-you, a request?

Dear Mr and Mrs Reeves, 1 am writing to let you know that 1 have arrived home safely to thank you for your kindness during my stay with you. My mum is going to try some the recipes you gave me. I think my English improved a lot dunng my stay. Read the theory.

Semi-formal thank-you letters are written to people you know but not very well, and to whom you want to sound polite and respectful a teacher, a friend's parents. In the main body paragraphs we express our gratitude giving examples. In the conclusion we thank again.

Use the phrases in the list. About my room, it was perfect. That helped me improve my English so much. Writing Read the sentences. Which phrases can we use to express gratitude in a semi-formal letter? I am very grateful for It gave me great pleasure It was very nice of you to Thanks a lot! I really enjoyed the Choose from the expressions above to express gratitude in the following situations.

Your penfriend has sent you a birthday gift. You spent your summer holidays at your English penfriend's house. Write a letter to the family thanking them for their hospitality. Use the letter in Ex. Follow the plan. I Dear Mr and Mrs Read what is actually on the page not what you think is there. Proofreading a piece of writing helps improve the quality of the written text. Follow the steps of above.

When I arrived in Sydney, the summer was really 2 setting in and it was getting really hot. Dad rented a jeep and we 3 set off the next day to discover the outback.

I was excited. On that first day, the jeep just stopped and we had to call for help. They took hours to come and this 4 set us back a bit, but we were happy just to be there. Anyway, the next six weeks were perfect. We loved it. Word Formation Read the box, then complete the sentences with nouns derived from the words in bold. KIND 2 For some people, travelling alone is plain MAD 3 We went on some hair-raising rides at the Grammar Revision Complete the sentences.

Use the reported speech. What else would you like to know about it? Think of three questions. Read through and see if you can answer them. Explain the highlighted words. Then, ask and answer questions based on the text. In pairs, think of appropnate headings for each paragraph. Compare with another pair. FWj Tell your partner two things you found interesting about the River Thames. Choose an important river that runs through a city in your country. Collect information, then write an article for the school magazine.

Illustrate your article with pictures.

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