The muses judged the first round to be a draw. According to one account, Apollo then played his lyre upside down, which Marsyas could not do with the aulos. In another account Apollo sang beautifully, which Marsyas could not do. In another account, Marsyas played out of tune and accepted defeat. In all accounts, Apollo then flayed Marsyas alive for losing. Pindar recounts a similar myth but instead of Marsyas, it was Pan who contests Apollo and the judge was Midas.
This myth can be considered a testament of Apollo's skill but also a myth of caution towards pride. The following were among the instruments used in the music of ancient Greece. The lyrecitharaaulosbarbitonhydraulisand salpinx all found their way into the music of ancient Rome. The enigmatic ancient Greek figure of Pythagoras with mathematical devotion laid the foundations of our knowledge of the study of harmonics —how strings and columns of air vibrate, how they produce overtoneshow the overtones are related arithmetically to one another, etc.
After studying the sound hammers made in a blacksmith's forge, Pythagoras invented the monochordwhich has a movable bridge along with a string stretched over a sounding board. Using the monochord, he found the association between the vibrations and the lengths of the strings. At a certain point, Plato complained about the new music:. Our music was once divided into its proper forms It was not permitted to exchange the melodic styles of these established forms and others.
Knowledge and informed judgment penalized disobedience. There were no whistles, unmusical mob-noises, or clapping for applause. The rule was to listen silently and learn; boys, teachers, and the crowd were kept in order by threat of the stick.
But later, an unmusical anarchy was led by poets who had natural talent, but were ignorant of the laws of music Through foolishness they deceived themselves into thinking that there was no right or wrong way in music, that it was to be judged good or bad by the pleasure it gave.
By their works and their theories they infected the masses with the presumption to think themselves adequate judges. So our theatres, once silent, grew vocal, and aristocracy of music gave way to a pernicious theatrocracy From his references to "established forms" and "laws of music" we can assume that at least some of the formality of the Pythagorean system of harmonics and consonance had taken hold of Greek music, at least as it was performed by professional musicians in public, and that Plato was complaining about the falling away from such principles into a "spirit of law-breaking".
Playing what "sounded good" violated the established ethos of modes that the Greeks had developed by the time of Plato: a complex system of relating certain emotional and spiritual characteristics to certain modes scales. The names for the various modes derived from the names of Greek tribes and peoples, the temperament and emotions of which were said to be characterized by the unique sound of each mode.
Thus, Dorian modes were "harsh", Phrygian modes "sensual", and so forth. In his Republic Plato talks about the proper use of various modes, the DorianPhrygianLydianetc.
It is difficult for the modern listener to relate to that concept of ethos in music except by comparing our own perceptions that a minor scale is used for melancholy and a major scale for virtually everything else, from happy to heroic music. The sounds of scales vary depending on the placement of tones. Modern Western scales use the placement of whole tones, such as C to D on a modern piano keyboard, and half tones, such as C to C-sharp, LP) not quarter-tones "in the cracks" on a modern keyboard at all.
This limit on tone types creates relatively few kinds of scales in modern Western music compared to that of the Greeks, who used the placement of whole-tones, half-tones, and even quarter-tones or still smaller intervals to develop a large repertoire of scales, each with a unique ethos. The Greek concepts of scales including the names found its way into later Roman music and then the European Middle Ages to the extent that one can find references to, for example, a "Lydian church mode ", although name is simply a historical reference with no relationship to the original Greek sound or ethos.
It is a commonplace of musicology to say that harmony, in the sense of a developed system of composition, in which many tones at once contribute to the listener's expectation of resolution, was invented in the European Middle Ages and that ancient cultures had no developed system of harmony—that is, for example, playing the third and seventh above the dominant, in order to create the expectation for the listener that the tritone will resolve to the third.
Plato's Republic notes that Greek musicians sometimes played more than one note at a time, although this was apparently considered an advanced technique. The Orestes fragment of Euripides seems to clearly call for more than one note to be sounded at once.
All we can say from the available evidence is that, while Greek musicians clearly employed the technique of sounding more than one note at the same time, the most basic, common texture of Greek music was monophonic. The lyre should be used together with the voices Aristotle had a strong belief that music should be a part of one's education, alongside reading and writing, and gymnastics.
Just as men must work hard in their duties, they must also be able to relax well. According to Aristotle, all men could agree that music was one of the most pleasurable things, so to have this as a means of leisure was only logical. Amusing oneself was not considered a viable hobby, or else we would not want to help in society. Since music combined relaxing ourselves, along with others, Aristotle claimed that learning an instrument was essential to our development.
Virtues is a topic that Aristotle is widely known for, LP) he also used them to justify why music should be involved in education. String Instruments The name tabouras characterizes a group of plucked string instruments of the laouto lute family which originated from Egypt, Mesopotamia, and they are played with fingers or with a pick. In ancient Greece, the tabouras LP) called Pandoura, in the Byzantine period, Thaboura, and more recently, tabouras, bouzouki, baglamas Liavas, Due to its flexible shape, the tabouras provides all variations of musical intervals of Byzantine and traditional music.
Santouri became prominent in the Eastern Aegean due to Greeks from Asia Minor who migrated after the destruction in Its melodic, polyphonic and expressive qualities contributed so LP) it became part of the compania group of musicians of the mainland and the island region of Greece, along with laouto and violin. The santouri, shaped in an isosceles table, has metallic strings and it is played with two thin mallets with cotton tips. The musician places it on his lap, or on a table, or even hangs it from his shoulders when played standing up.
The violin, violi, is a traditional instrument in Greece that goes back to the 17th century. It is one of the main melodic instruments of the mainland and island region of Greece. The violi is part of the compania along with klarino, laouto, sadouri and, although it is the same as the violin, it is tuned in a different way Anogianakis, The lyra comes from the East, but it has also many similarities with the ancient Greek lyre. It is a three stringed pear-shaped instrument played with a bow.
It is basically for quick melodies and dances, used in weddings or traditional fiestas. The Cretan lyra, was derived either from the Arabs or, most probably, from Constantinople. In Crete, the lyra accompanies traditional dances and songs and its bow has little bells attached to embellish the melodies Anogianakis, Wind Instruments Although the clarinet comes from the West, the klarino, as a traditional instrument, came to Greece from Turkey in the 19th century.
It is part of the compania. The askavlos came from Asia during the first to second century AD, is the Greek bagpipe, and has two variations: the tsabouna in the islands and the gaida in Macedonia and Thrace.
It has three parts: the bag made of goat hidethe mouthpiece and a device for the sound production. It is crafted by the musician himself and the two types differ mainly on the device that produces the sound. Gaida differs because of its additional third pipe that is used as the bass drone. The sound of the tsabouna is sharp and loud, so it is ideal for open-air performances such as dancing and singing at weddings, baptisms and fiestas.
In some islands it accompanies Christmas carols. Anogianakis, The zournas or karamouza or pipiza, originating from the ancient Greek flute, is a double reed instrument like the oboe and produces a high-pitched and shrill sound.
The zournas and daouli percussion instrument are part of the traditional group in the Greek mainland and is played in open space because of its very loud sound Liavas, Made by the musician himself, the daouli is a cylindrical drum with two heads and comes with many variations in terms of size, skin leather processing and the way the strings are tied Liavas, The daouli accompanies other melodic instruments such as the zournas. The defi is a small ancient Greek drum with or without cymbals around its wooden frame, similar to the tambourine.
It accompanies melodic instruments in every region of Greece Liavas, The toubeleki accompanies different kinds of melodic instruments in the North Greece Thrace, Macedoniathe Greek islands and Asia Minor.
It is played by both hands in many different ways and techniques. It consists of a clay frame and a drumhead made of animal skin. It is usually performed with a melodic instrument like the gaida Anogianakis, In Homeric times both song and dance were an inseparable part of every religious ceremony, national or private feast, and in classical times the art of dancing was developed to the highest degree.
They were based on the beliefs of the ancient Greeks such as freedom, pride and sportsmanship. This tradition, compassing the Hellenistic world, arose in Byzantium from the establishment of its capital, Constantinoplein until its fall in Byzantine music drew on the artistic and technical productions of the classical age, influenced by Jewish music, and inspired by the monophonic vocal music that developed in the early Christian cities of AlexandriaAntioch and Epheus.
Thus, Orthodox music developed from a Greek musical background. Orthodoxy has spread and its music adapted to its various regions, however, Orthodox music has retained its distinctive features and differs from European music. On important occasions, singing is used in place of chanting, thus some things which are chanted at minor services are sung at more important services. Singing is as varied and multi-faceted in its forms as chanting and vestments, changing with the Church 'seasons' of commemoration thus singing during Great Lent is always somber and during Holy Week nearly becomes a sorrowful dirge while during Pascha Easter and the Paschal season the notes are high and quick and as joyful as they were sad during Lent.
The power of music is used to its full effect to bring about spiritual renewal in the listeners. Over the centuries Orthodox church music has expanded and become more elaborate. The Church uses eight 'tones' or 'modes,' which are broad categories of melodies. But these music styles are back in the trends and many taverns propose rebetika music bands during weekends.
In the s, modern artists like Dionyssis Savopoulos, Georgios Ntalaras, Nikos Papazoglou, Stavros Xarhakos, and Pavlos Sidiropoulos rehabilitated the rembetiko music and mixed it with rock music, bringing to life a new, passionate and interesting kind of music. Their lyrics were about personal or political freedom Savopoulos, Ntallaras, and Sidiropoulosor about aspects of everyday life, pain and sorrow Papazoglouand drugged generation Sidiropoulos.
He is one of the most famous Greek classical composers and representative of the Greek National School. He used, for inspiration, Greek folk tradition and works of great Greek poets like Palamas, Mavilis, Sikelianos, and others.
The most important contemporary Greek composer, maestro, and pianist often identified as being the new Mahler. Born in New York from Greek parents, Callas was the most celebrated soprano in opera.
She was particularly famous for her unique presence on stage and for her turbulent relationship with Aristotelis Onasis. Because he was condemned to death by the Germans for participating in the Resistance, Xenakis was forced to leave Greece and go to Paris.
The originality of his music led him to become a composer with international recognition. His musical work consists of acoustic, electro-acoustic and multimedia creations. He was a pioneer of the development of digital synthesis. He is the most famous Greek composer who wrote songs against the German occupation and was an active member of the largest Greek resistance organization EAM. He was very active during the Civil War and the years of the Greek Junta.
Inhe went to Paris where he wrote ballet and music for films. Popova Kerka - Various - Local Greek Music And Dances From West And Central Macedonia (Vinyl he was writing about freedom and equality, he became an international symbol of Greece. He is one of the most important Greek composers, who wrote music for many ancient tragedies as well as things for the modern repertory, light and folk songs which provoked a revival of the folk music.
He also created music for theatre, ballet, and cinema. Contact us Contact us.
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