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Italy also has many well-known international music festivals each year, including the Festival of Spoletothe Festival Puccini and the Wagner Festival in Ravello. Some festivals offer venues to younger composers in classical music by producing and staging winning entries in competitions.
The winner, for example, of the "Orpheus" International Competition for New Opera and Chamber music—besides winning considerable prize money—gets to see his or her musical work performed at The Spoleto Festival. Italy is also a common destination for well-known orchestras from abroad; at almost any given time during the busiest season, at least one major orchestra from elsewhere in Europe or North America is playing a concert in Italy.
Additionally, public music may be heard at dozens of pop and rock concerts throughout the year. Open-air opera may even be heard, for example, at the ancient Roman amphitheater, the Verona Arena. Military bands, too, are popular in Italy. Many theaters also routinely stage not just Italian translations of American musicals, but true Italian musical comedy, which are called by the English term musical. In Italian, that term describes a kind of musical drama not native to Italy, a form that employs the American idiom of jazz-pop-and rock-based music and rhythms to move a story along in a combination of songs and dialogue.
Music in religious rituals, especially Catholic, manifests itself in a number of ways. Parish bands, for example, are quite common throughout Italy. They may be as small as four or five members to as many as 20 or They commonly perform at religious festivals specific to a particular town, usually in honor of the town's patron saint. The Second Vatican Council from to revolutionized music in the Catholic Church, leading to an increase in the number of amateur choirs that perform regularly for services; the Council also encouraged the congregational singing of hymns, and a vast repertoire of new hymns has been composed in the last 40 years.
There is not a great deal of native Italian Christmas music. The melody is a major-key version of an older, minor-key Neapolitan carol "Quanno Nascette Ninno". Other than that, Italians largely sing translations of carols that come from the German and English tradition " Silent Night ", for example. There is no native Italian secular Christmas music, which accounts for the popularity of Italian-language versions of " Jingle Bells " and " White Christmas ".
The Sanremo Music Festival is an important venue for popular music in Italy. It has been held annually since and is currently staged at the Teatro Ariston in Sanremo. It runs for one week in February, and gives veteran and new performers a chance to present new songs. Winning the contest has often been a springboard to industry success. The festival is televised nationally for three hours a night, is hosted by the best-known Italian TV personalities, and has been a vehicle for such performers as Domenico Modugnoperhaps the best-known Italian pop singer of the last 50 years.
Television variety shows are the widest venue for popular music. The longest running musical broadcast in Italy is La Corridaa three-hour weekly program of amateurs and would-be musicians.
The studio audience bring cow-bells and sirens and are encouraged to show good-natured disapproval. The city with the highest number of rock concerts of national and international artists is Milan, with a number close to the other European music capitals, as Paris, London and Berlin. Many institutes of higher education teach music in Italy.
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Italy has a specialized system of high schools; students attend, as they choose, a high school for humanities, science, foreign languages, or art—and music in the "liceo musicale", where instruments, musical theory, composing and musical history are taught as the main subject. Italy does have ambitious, recent programs to expose children to more music.
Furthermore, with the recent education reform a specific Liceo musicale e coreutico 2nd level secondary school, ages 14—15 to 18—19 is explicitly indicated by the law decrees. The state-run television network has started a program to use modern satellite technology to broadcast choral music into public schools. Scholarship in the field of collecting, preserving and cataloguing all varieties of music is vast. In Italy, as elsewhere, these tasks are spread over a number of agencies and organizations.
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The scholarly study of traditional Italian music began in aboutwith a group of early philological ethnographers who studied the impact of music on a pan-Italian national identity. A unified Italian identity only just started to develop after the political integration of the peninsula in The focus at that time was Serenata - Various - Musica Futurista: The Art Of Noises (CD) the lyrical and literary value of music, rather than the instrumentation; this focus remained until the early s.
Two folkloric journals helped to encourage the burgeoning field of study, the Rivista Italiana delle Tradizioni Popolari and Laresfounded in andrespectively.
The earliest major musical studies were on the Sardinian launeddas in — by Mario Giulio Fara ; on Sicilian music, published in and by Alberto Favara ; and studies of the music of Emilia Romagna in by Francesco Balilla Pratella.
The earliest recordings of Italian traditional music came in the s, but they were rare until the establishment of the Centro Nazionale Studi di Musica Popolare at the National Academy of Santa Cecilia in Rome. The Center sponsored numerous song collection trips across the peninsula, especially to southern and central Italy. Giorgio Nataletti was an instrumental figure in the Center, and also made numerous recordings himself. The American scholar Alan Lomax and the Italian, Diego Carpitellamade an exhaustive survey of the peninsula in By the early s, a roots revival encouraged more study, especially of northern musical cultures, which many scholars had previously assumed maintained little folk culture.
During the s, Leydi and Carpitella were appointed to the first two chairs of ethnomusicology at universities, with Carpitella at the University of Rome and Leydi at the University of Bologna. In the s, Italian scholars began focusing less on making recordings, and more on studying and synthesizing the information already collected. Others studied Italian music in the United States and Australia, and the folk musics of recent immigrants to Italy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Music of italy. Overview of music traditions in Italy. Mythology and folklore. Mythology Folklore. Music and performing arts. Television Cinema. World Heritage Sites. Flag Coat of arms. Main article: Italian classical music. Instruments associated with classical music, including the violin and piano, were invented in Italy.
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La canzone di Marinella. I giardini di marzo. Niente da perdere. Tenors Enrico Caruso left and Luciano Pavarotti right. Andrea Bocelli. Laura Pausini. Umberto Tozzi. Tiziano Ferro. Marco Mengoni. Emma Marrone. See also: Italo discoItalo houseand Italo dance. See also: Music media in Italy. Waterhouse in The Musical TimesVol. The author does not distinguish refugees on the basis of race or creed. Seattle Catholic. Retrieved 25 December University Concourse.
Archived from the original on 11 November This essay provides a thorough review of the history and current state of Italian ethnomusicology. The Guardian. Retrieved 21 December Aggiungi opzioni regalo. Confronta offerte su Amazon. Generalmente spedito entro giorni. Immagine non disponibile Immagine non disponibile per Colore:. Dettagli Ritira il tuo ordine dove e quando preferisci.
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Even the conductor Arturo Toscaninian avowed opponent of Fascism,  gets the same neutral and distant treatment with no mention at all of his "anti-regime" stance.
He had been forced out of the musical directorship at La Scala in Milan in because he refused to begin every performance with the fascist song, " Giovinezza ". For this insult to the regime, he was attacked and beaten on the street outside the Bologne opera after a performance in A series of "racial laws" was passed inthus denying to Jewish composers and musicians membership in professional and artistic associations.
Some non-Jewish foes of the regime also emigrated—Toscanini, for one. More recently, in the later part of the 20th century, especially in the s and beyond, music became further enmeshed in Italian politics. Italy has long been a center for European classical music, and by the beginning of the 20th century, Italian classical music had forged a distinct national sound that was decidedly Romantic and melodic. As typified by the operas of Verdi, it was music in which " The vocal lines always dominate the tonal complex and are never overshadowed by the instrumental accompaniments Italian music also had little in common with the French reaction to that German music—the impressionism of Claude Debussyfor example, in which melodic development is largely abandoned for the creation of mood and atmosphere through the sounds of individual chords.
European classical music changed greatly in the 20th century. New music abandoned much of the historical, nationally developed schools of harmony and melody in favor of experimental musicatonalityminimalism and electronic musicall of which employ features that have become common to European music in general and not Italy specifically. Opera originated in Italy in the late 16th century during the time of the Florentine Camerata. Through the centuries that followed, opera traditions developed in Naples and Venice; the operas of Claudio MonteverdiAlessandro Scarlattiand, later, of Gioacchino RossiniVincenzo Belliniand Gaetano Donizetti flourished.
Opera has remained the musical form most closely linked with Italian music and Italian identity. This was most obvious in the 19th century through the works of Giuseppe Verdian icon of Italian culture and pan-Italian unity. Italy retained a Romantic operatic musical tradition in the early 20th century, exemplified by composers of the so-called Giovane Scuolawhose music was anchored in the previous century, including Arrigo BoitoRuggiero LeoncavalloPietro Mascagniand Francesco Cilea. After World War I, however, opera declined in comparison to the popular heights of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Causes included the general cultural shift away from Romanticism and the rise of the cinema, which became a major source of entertainment.
A third cause is the fact that "internationalism" had brought contemporary Italian opera to a state where it was no longer "Italian". Traditional Romantic opera remained popular; indeed, the dominant opera publisher in the early 20th century was Casa Ricordiwhich focused almost exclusively on popular operas until the s, when the company allowed more unusual composers with less mainstream appeal.
The rise of relatively new publishers such as Carisch and Suvini Zerboni also helped to fuel the diversification of Italian opera. Respected composers from this era include the well-known Aldo Clementiand younger peers such as Marco Tutino and Lorenzo Ferrero.
Italy, being one of Catholicism's seminal nations, has a long history of music for the Catholic Church. Until approximatelyit was possible to hear Gregorian Chant and Renaissance polyphonysuch as the music of PalestrinaLassusAnerioand others. Approximately to approximately was a century during which a more popular, operatic, and entertaining type of church music was heard, to the exclusion of the aforementioned chant and polyphony.
In the late 19th century, the Cecilian Movement was started by musicians who fought to restore this music. This movement gained impetus not in Italy but in Germany, particularly in Regensburg.
The movement reached its apex around with the ascent of Don Lorenzo Perosi and his supporter and future saintPope Pius X. The dominance of opera in Italian music tends to overshadow the important area of instrumental music.
Even opera composers occasionally worked in other forms— Giuseppe Verdi 's String Quartet in E minorfor example. Even Donizettiwhose name is identified with the beginnings of Italian lyric opera, wrote 18 string quartets. In the early 20th century, instrumental music began growing in importance, a process that started around with Giuseppe Martucci 's Second Symphony, a work that Gian Francesco Malipiero called "the starting point of the renaissance of non-operatic Italian music.
The early 20th century is also marked by the presence of a group of composers called the generazione dell'ottanta generation ofincluding Franco AlfanoAlfredo CasellaGian Francesco MalipieroIldebrando Pizzettiand Ottorino Respighi. These composers usually concentrated on writing instrumental works, rather than opera.
Members of this generation were the dominant figures in Italian music after Puccini's death in Guido Gatti 's founding of the periodical Il Pianoforte and then La rassegna musicale also helped to promote a broader view of music than the political and social climate allowed.
Most Italians, however, preferred more traditional pieces and established standards, and only a small audience sought new styles of experimental classical music. Italian contributions to ballet are less known and appreciated than in other areas of classical music. Italy, particularly Milanwas a center of court ballet as early as the 15th century, which was influenced by the entertainments common in royal celebrations and aristocratic weddings.
Early choreographers and composers of ballet include Fabritio Caroso and Cesare Negri. Early ballet was accompanied by considerable instrumentation, with the playing of horns, trombones, kettle drums, dulcimers, bagpipes, etc. Although the music has not survived, there is speculation that dancers, themselves, may have played instruments on stage.
He became balletmaster at La Scala in It was composed in and is a lavish tribute to the scientific and industrial progress of the 19th century.
It is still performed and was staged as recently as Currently, major Italian opera theaters maintain ballet companies. They exist to provide incidental and ceremonial dancing in many operas, such as Aida or La Traviata. These dance companies usually maintain a separate ballet season and perform the standard repertoire of classical ballet, little of which is Italian.
The Italian equivalent of the Russian Bolshoi Ballet and similar companies that exist only to perform ballet, independent of a parent opera theater is La Scala Theatre Ballet.
Experimental music is a broad, loosely defined field encompassing musics created by abandoning traditional classical concepts of melody and harmony, and by using the new technology of electronics to create hitherto impossible sounds.
In Italy, one of the first to devote his attention to experimental music was Ferruccio Busoniwhose publication, Sketch for a New Aesthetic of Musicdiscussed the use of electrical and other new sounds in future music. He spoke of his dissatisfaction with the constraints of traditional music:.
Similarly, Luigi Russolothe Italian Futurist painter and composer, wrote of the possibilities of new music in his manifestoes The Art of Noises and Musica Futurista. After a dispute over the value of experimental music inCasella formed the Corporazione delle Nuove Musiche to promote modern experimental music.
In the s, Luciano Berio experimented with instruments accompanied by electronic sounds on tape. Italian classical music grew gradually more experimental and progressive into the midth century, while popular tastes have tended to stick with well established composers and compositions of the past.
In symphonic music, of the 26 composers whose music was played, 21 of them were from the 19th century or earlier, composers who use the melodies and harmonies typical of the Romantic era. This focus is common to other European traditions, and is known as postmodernisma school of thought that draws on earlier harmonic and melodic concepts that pre-date the conceptions of atonality and dissonance.
When music is part of a public display or gathering, it is often chosen from a very eclectic repertoire that is as likely to include well-known classical music as popular music.
A few recent works have become a part of the modern repertoire, including scores and theatrical works by composers such as Luciano BerioLuigi NonoFranco Donatoniand Sylvano Bussotti. These composers are not part of a distinct school or tradition, though they do share certain techniques and influences. By the s, avant-garde classical music had become linked to the Italian Communist Partywhile a revival of popular interest continued into the next decade, with foundations, festivals and organization created to promote modern music.
Near the end of the 20th century, government sponsorship of musical institutions began to decline, and several RAI choirs and city orchestras were closed. Despite this, a number of composers gained international reputations in the early 21st century.
Italian folk music has a deep and complex history. Rather, each region and community possesses a unique musical tradition that reflects the history, language, and ethnic composition of that particular locale.
Italian folk styles are very diverse, and include monophonicpolyphonicand responsorial song, choral, instrumental and vocal music, and other styles. Choral singing and polyphonic song forms are primarily found in northern Italy, while south of Naples, solo singing is more common, and groups usually use unison singing in two or three parts carried by a single performer. Northern ballad-singing is syllabic, with a strict tempo and intelligible lyrics, while southern styles use a rubato tempo, and a strained, tense vocal style.
There is little perception of a common Italian folk tradition, and the country's folk music never became a national symbol. Folk music is sometimes divided into several spheres of geographic influence, a classification system of three regions, southern, central and northern, proposed by Alan Lomax in  and often repeated.
Additionally, Curt Sachs  proposed the existence of two quite distinct kinds of folk music in Europe: continental and Mediterranean, and others  have placed the transition zone from the former to the latter roughly in north-central Italy, approximately between Pesaro and La Spezia. The central, northern and southern parts of the peninsula each share certain musical characteristics, and are each distinct from the music of Sardinia. In the Piedmontese valleys and some Ligurian communities of northwestern Italy, the music preserves the strong influence of ancient Occitania.
The lyrics Serenata - Various - Musica Futurista: The Art Of Noises (CD) the Occitanic troubadours are some of the oldest preserved samples of vernacular song, and modern bands like Gai Saber and Lou Dalfin preserve and contemporize Occitan music. The Occitanian culture retains characteristics of the ancient Celtic influence, through the use of six- or seven-hole flutes fifre or the bagpipes piva.
The music of Friuli-Venezia Giuliain northeastern Italy, shares much more in common with Austria and Slovenia including variants of the waltz and the polka. Even ballads—usually thought of as a vehicle for a solo voice—may be sung in choirs.
In the province of Trento "folk choirs" are the most common form of music making. Noticeable musical differences in the southern type include increased use of interval part singing and a greater variety of folk instruments. The Celtic and Slavic influences on the group and open-voice choral works of the north yield to a stronger Arabic, Greek, and North African-influenced strident monody of the south. The Apulian city of Taranto is a home of the tarantellaa rhythmic dance widely performed in southern Italy.
The music of the island of Sardinia is best known for the polyphonic chanting of the tenores. The sound of the tenores recalls the roots of Gregorian chant, and is similar to but distinctive from the Ligurian trallalero. Typical instruments include the launeddasa Sardinian triplepipe used in a sophisticated and complex manner. Efisio Melis was a well-known master launeddas player of the s. Italian folk songs include balladslyrical songs, lullabies and children's songs, seasonal songs based around holidays such as Christmas, life-cycle songs that celebrate weddings, baptisms and other important events, dance songs, cattle calls and occupational songs, tied to professions such as fishermen, shepherds and soldiers.
Ballads canti epico-lirici and lyric songs canti lirico-monostrofici are two important categories. Ballads are most common in northern Italy, while lyric songs prevail further south. Ballads are closely tied to the English form, with some British ballads existing in exact correspondence with an Italian song. Other Italian ballads are more closely based on French models. Lyric songs are a diverse category that consist of lullabies, serenades and work songs, and are frequently improvised though based on a traditional repertoire.
Other Italian folk song traditions are less common than ballads and lyric songs.
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