Turning in a paper or thesis written by someone else, even if you paid for it, is plagiarism. It is even possible to plagiarize yourself. In published work, if you reuse ideas or phrases that you used in prior work and do not cite your prior work, you have plagiarized. Sometimes, however, revising and building on your earlier work is useful and productive for intellectual growth; if you want to reuse portions of your previously written work in an educational context, ask your instructor.
When writers and public speakers are exposed as plagiarists in professional contexts, they may lose their jobs and are certain to suffer public embarrassment, diminished prestige, and loss of credibility. The consequences of plagiarism are not just personal, however. The damage done is also social. Ultimately, plagiarism is serious because it erodes public trust in information.
So be scrupulous in your research and note-taking. When you write, your notes will help you identify all borrowed material. Make sure that you clearly identify when you are copying words from a source and transcribe them exactly or retain digital images of the passageswhen you are summarizing or paraphrasing a source, and when you are jotting down an original thought of your own. Remember to record page numbers for quotations and paraphrased passages in your notes. Note-taking apps can help you collect information about your sources and organize your own ideas.
Steer a middle course between recording too much information and too little. Details, like specific phrases and passages, will help you present evidence in your paper. But also remember to describe in your notes how a writer used those details to arrive at a particular conclusion. Notes that merely list quotations without giving any sense of why they are important, how they relate to the sources they derive from and to one another, and what they collectively mean will be of little help to you once you start writing.
As you do research, collect all the sources you use in one place, which will allow you to double-check that your work acknowledges them. Care needs to be taken even when using a digital reference manager for note- taking or creating documentation, since the data used by the software can be incorrect and must be checked against your source. Thus, manual input is often required. Citation tools are a good starting point, but their output must be verified and edited.
Detailed explanations of how to create works-cited-list entries and in- text citations and how to incorporate quotations and paraphrased passages into your work appear in chapters 5 and 6. Paraphrase from a source when you want to condense or summarize long passages, arguments, or ideas; make your writing more concise; stay in control of your ideas and argument and maintain your voice; or signal your knowledge of key lines of conversation and concepts from your sources.
Imagine that you read the following passage about the well-known concept of American exceptionalism from Walter A. Passage in source American Exceptionalism as our founders conceived it was defined by what America was, at home. Foreign policy existed to defend, not define, what America was. Maintaining the sentence structure and plugging in synonyms in your paraphrase is insufficient, because doing so hews too closely to the original. Programs focused on other countries were there to protect America, not delineate it.
If you write the following sentence, however, you have successfully paraphrased the passage by changing the wording and sentence structure. Note that some terms cannot be paraphrased because they represent core concepts, definitions, or principles: it would not make sense, for example, to find a different way to state American exceptionalism just as it would not make sense to find a synonym for capitalism, democracy, freedom, or any other widely used term.
How to paraphrase and give credit [4. In your prose As Walter A. Work cited McDougall, Walter A. Houghton Mifflin, Quotations are most effective in research-based writing when used selectively.
Quote only words, phrases, lines, and passages that are particularly apt, and keep all quotations as brief as possible. Always explain the relevance of the quotation to your point.
Your project should be about your own ideas, and quotations should help you explain or illustrate those ideas and how you arrived at them.
When to quote [4. Quoting should not be used as a substitute for paraphrasing ideas you do not fully understand. Quoting and paraphrasing can be combined in one sentence, as shown in the example below. Passage in source Everyone uses the word language and everybody these days talks about culture. If you want to quote from this source in your writing, you must use quotation marks around the borrowed words and give credit to the source.
You do this by including an in-text citation that directs the reader to an entry for the work in the list of works cited and to the page number where the quoted material appears in the source. Work cited Agar, Michael. Language Shock: Understanding the Culture of Conversation.
HarperCollins Publishers, But documentation is not required for every type of borrowed material. Common knowledge includes information widely available in reference works, such as basic biographical facts about prominent persons and the dates and circumstances of major historical events. When the facts are in dispute, however, or when your reader may want more information about your topic, it is good practice to document the source of the material you borrow.
For example, if you state that your favorite graphic narrative is Fun Home, you have not quoted from or paraphrased the book, referred to any aspect of it specifically, or used it to advance an idea. You have simply stated that the book exists and given an opinion about it.
This is a passing mention. It does not require a source citation. Primarily ornamental, epigraphs are not discussed subsequently in the text. Do not place an epigraph in quotation marks. On a line below the epigraph, generally provide only the author and the title of the work the epigraph comes from; no further documentation is needed, and the work is not included in the works-cited list.
All these beauties will already be familiar to the visitor, who has seen them also in other cities. A quotation that you discuss in the essay should not also be treated as an epigraph. Provide documentation for such a quotation as for any other work you cite.
See 6. The List of Works Cited. Each source cited in the text or notes of your project should appear in a list at the end of the paper, after any endnotes. Title the list Works Cited. If you want to document works you merely consulted but did not cite, give the list a different title, such as Works Cited and Consulted. To use the template, record the publication information given by the version of the work you consult by first evaluating the work you are citing to see which elements apply to the source.
Then, list each element relevant to your source in the order given on the template. Omit any element that does not apply except Title of Source. If no title is given, use your own description of the work as the title. Conclude each element with the punctuation mark shown in the template—but always end your entry with a period. Because a work containing another work can itself be contained in a work—such as an article published in a journal and contained in a database —you can repeat the process by filling out the template again from Title of Container to Location, listing all elements that apply to the container fig.
The MLA template of core elements with two containers. Capitalization of terms: 2. Personal names: 2. Capitalization of titles: 2. Styling titles: 2. Number ranges: 2. Containers: 5. Supplemental elements: 5. The element name is not always literal. For example, Publication Date can include an actual date of publication, a date of composition for unpublished material, the date a performance was attended, and other dates relevant to the work you are citing.
The rest of this section defines each element and explains when to use it, provides guidance on finding publication information and other relevant details about each element, and explains styling decisions unique to the list of works cited. In the example below, Toni Morrison wrote the novel Song of Solomon and is therefore its author.
Morrison, Toni. Song of Solomon. Vintage, The author of a work can be a writer, artist, or any other type of creator. The author can be an individual, a group of persons, an organization, or a government. Some examples of authors are the author of a play, such as Euripides; the author of an essay, such as Benjamin Franklin; a painter, such as Berthe Morisot; a music group, such as the Beatles; and an intergovernmental body, such as the United Nations. Include pseudonyms, stage names, online usernames, and the like in the Author element, especially if the person is well known by that form of the name e.
Sometimes a label must be used to describe the role of the person or persons listed in the Author element. This most often occurs when the person is not the primary creator, such as for editors of collections of essays written by various authors, since editors shape the content of the volume. In the example below, Ignacio M. Mexican Literature in Theory. Bloomsbury Academic, Lazarillo de Tormes. Medina del Campo, Variant forms of names, pseudonyms, and name changes: 5.
When contributors to a work should not be listed in the Author element: 5. Figures 5. Part of the title page of an edited book. Part of the title page of a translated book. A digitized image of a painting published on a website. The text on the site provides the name of the artist. Follow the surname with a comma and the rest of the name as presented by the work. Baron, Naomi S. Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford UP, Kincaid, Jamaica. Surnames used alone: 2.
Names not reversed: 5. Languages that order surname first: 5. Lack of surname: 5. Alphabetizing entries in the works-cited list: 5. Reverse the first of the names as described above, follow it with a comma and the word and, and give the second name in the normal order.
Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus. Gilbert, Sandra M. The Female Imagination and the Modernist Aesthetic. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, The title page of a book showing the names of two authors.
The comma is needed in addition to and so that the reader can easily distinguish the two names. Italicize et al.
In parenthetical citations and works-cited-list entries, the abbreviation should be set roman i. Charon, Rita, et al. The Principles and Practice of Narrative Medicine.
The names of eight authors are shown. Only the first, followed by the abbreviation et al. Do not reverse the name in the works-cited list. When a name is not reversed, no comma is needed. Shen Fu. Six Records of a Life Adrift. Translated by Graham Sanders, Hackett Publishing, The surname of the author is given first.
But some names from languages where the surname is normally listed first do not follow this order. If the surname is given last, begin the entry with the surname followed by a comma and the rest of the name. Oe, Kenzaburo. A Quiet Life. Elizabeth I. Collected Works. Edited by Leah S. Marcus et al. Film Crit Hulk. Hulk Blog! Geoffrey of Monmouth. History of the Kings of Britain. Translated by Michael A.
Faletra, Broadview, Lady Gaga. The Fame. Interscope Records, United Nations. Taylor and Francis, But reverse a pseudonym, screen name, stage name, and the like that takes the form of a name traditionally reversed. Tribble, Ivan. Work-arounds may be needed for economy of citation, to provide useful information to the reader about authors or their canon of work, or to avoid a name an author no longer uses, when known. The spelling of names from languages that do not use the Latin alphabet, like Chinese and Russian, may vary depending on the system of romanization used e.
Generally use the same form of the name in prose as you do in your works-cited list. Various solutions exist for presenting such works. One technique is to list the work or works under the best-known form of the name. This might be suitable for especially well-known persons, even when the version of the work you are citing was published under a different form of the name. For example, if a letter by Mark Twain a well-known pseudonym was written and published under his real name, Samuel Clemens, you can list a single entry under the better-known form of the name, allowing you to refer to that form in your prose and to avoid cumbersome in-text references.
Likewise, when citing more than one work you can consolidate entries under the better- known form of the name. Consolidating makes it simpler for readers to locate all the works by an author in one place in your works-cited list. Twain, Mark.
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. William Collins, Letter to Francis D. Another technique is to add information to entries in square brackets. For example, when citing a single work by an author published under a less widely known pseudonym, you can list the entry under the pseudonym found on the work and annotate the entry using square brackets in the Author element after the pseudonym.
Bachman, Richard [Stephen King]. The Long Walk. Signet, Clerk, N. A Grief Observed. Faber and Faber, King, Stephen [published as Richard Bachman]. Lewis, C. Alternatively, you can place the better-known form of the name in brackets, indicating that it has been supplied by you, and not include the less-familiar form found on the work. When citing an author who has published under various names, you may list all works under one form of the name.
Doing so allows you, in prose and in- text citations, to use the better-known form of the name or to avoid presenting a name no longer used by the author. It also allows readers to more easily locate all works by the author in your works-cited list, where the entries are grouped under one name. Place the name that appears on a given work in square brackets, preceded by published as in italics. Staley, Lynn. U of Pennsylvania P, The Voice of the Gawain-Poet. U of Wisconsin P, Edited by Nicolas Berger, ErosOnyx, Le langage des fleurs.
ErosOnyx, Translated by Brian Stableford, Snuggly Books, Penelope, Julia [see also Stanley, Julia P. Stanley, Julia P. Do not supply information about the name change or cross-reference entries, and avoid using the former name in your prose. Fogarty, Mignon [ GrammarGirl]. When the handle and account name are similar e.
Thomas, Angie. Photo of The Hate U Give cover. Instagram, 4 Dec. If you do not include the URL—for instance, if you access the post from a mobile device or you follow the option presented in 5.
Incorrect The Beatles. EMI Records, Beatles, The. Alphabetize a name of an organization by the first word and do not reverse the name. Incorrect Nations, United. Correct United Nations. Avoiding redundancy [5. List the organization only as publisher. For an exception when citing government publications, see 5.
Modern Language Association of America, But when the author of a work is a division or committee of the organization, list the division or committee as the author and list the organization as the publisher.
Association of Specialized and Cooperative Library Agencies. Library Standards for Adult Correctional Institutions. American Library Association, Government authors [5. If you Somebody Now In Love - Various - Cherry Moon Club Edition Vol.12 (CD) working with many government sources, you may choose to standardize the names of government entities so that entries can be consolidated.
But nonspecialists and writers working with very few government sources can usually treat them just like any other source written by an organization: record the name as presented by the source. Department of Labor. Occupational Outlook Handbook, — Skyhorse Publishing, Standardizing and supplying information [5.
United States, Congress, House. Improving Broadband Access for Veterans Act of When standardizing entries, spell out the government name United States even if your source does not. Organizing the works by author instead of title is particularly useful in specialized studies or long-form works like books and dissertations. Begin the entry with the name of the government, followed by a comma and the name of the agency.
Between them, name any organizational units of which the agency is part for example, the House of Representatives is part of Congress. All the names are arranged from the largest entity to the smallest.
Substitute three hyphens or three em dashes for any name repeated from the Author element in the previous entry whichever mark you use, be consistent. Ordering the works-cited list: 5. Government authors in in-text citations: 6. In the example below, Insurrecto is the title of a novel by Gina Apostol. Apostol, Gina. Soho Press, If the work does not have a title figs. Advertisement for Upton Tea Imports.
Smithsonian, Oct. Vega, 19 Nov. Mackintosh, Charles Rennie. Chair of stained oak. Photo of a letter from Shirley Jackson. Twitter, 22 Jan. An advertisement without a title. In the Title of Source element, provide a description. A tweet containing a photograph of a letter. In the Title of Source element, provide a description of the photograph. The description might also include other pertinent information, such as the recipient of a letter or other type of message, the location of a performance featured in a program, the name of the work and author that are the subject of a review, and the artist whose exhibit is introduced in museum wall text.
In some cases, the description may include the title of another work fig. Benton, Thomas Hart. Letter to Charles Fremont. Playbill, Rohrbaugh, Lisa. Library Journal, 1 Julywww. Unbound: Narrative Art of the Plains, 12 Mar. A review of a book. In your entry, list the name of the reviewer in the Author element. In the Title of Source element, provide a description that includes the title of the reviewed book and its author.
The title of the reviewed book, Zero Zone, is in italics, but the rest of the description is not. If you are documenting a communication you received, pertinent information includes a reference to yourself as author or by name in the Title of Source element. Zamora, Estelle. E-mail to the author. In some cases, using text from the work itself is the clearest way to identify an untitled work. Examples include untitled short works like untitled poems, conventionally identified by the first line and digital messages that lack formal titles like tweets, e-mails, and texts.
You may also choose to provide a description in place of text from the post itself when your discussion focuses on a nontextual part of the post such as a photograph or a video. Hughes, Langston. MacLeod, Michael. Pinterest,www. Wilson, Rebel. Video of tire-flipping exercise. Snapchat, 14 Julywww.
Part of the first page of a journal article. The cover of a music album. The title is displayed on the cover near the name of the author—in this case, the band that made the album. A post on a website. Some works have subtitles. They are usually rendered less prominently than the title or indicated by punctuation—typically a colon but sometimes a dash figs. The title and subtitle are distinguished from each other by different typefaces.
The subtitle follows the title and is separated from it by a colon. An online news article. If the design of a work makes distinguishing the title and subtitle difficult fig.
The title of the book Promised Land, Crusader State is shown on the title page, and the facing page shows the subtitle. A page on a website. The Title of Source element is followed by a period unless the title ends in a question mark or an exclamation point. The examples in this section cover styling issues unique to the list of works cited and supplement the guidelines on titles given elsewhere in this handbook. Be sure to include enough of the title to make identification of the work unambiguous, and use ellipses to indicate that a title has been shortened.
If a period or comma is needed to mark the end of an element, insert it after the ellipsis. Bulwer, John. Humphrey Moseley, Mander, Karel van. Felstiner, John. Norton,pp. Part of the first page of the preface to a book. The preface is labeled with a generic label. If the introduction, preface, foreword, afterword, or other similar section has a unique title in addition to a generic label fig.
Seyhan, Azade. Part of the first page of the introduction to a book. The introduction has a unique title in addition to a generic label. Then style the description just as you would a phrase in Somebody Now In Love - Various - Cherry Moon Club Edition Vol.12 (CD) prose: capitalize proper nouns and use punctuation when necessary. Do not enclose the description in quotation marks or italicize it. Slide of Linus, Lucy, and Snoopy.
English Animals in Graphic Art, 4 Apr. Slide 2. Wall text for central Caribbean tripod vessel in the form of a spectacled owl. Young, Talia. E-mail to Standards Committee. Text message to the author. When the description includes the title of another work, style the title within the description according to the guidelines for styling titles in prose.
Max the Pen. Enclose the quoted text in quotation marks and conclude it with a period, placed inside the final quotation mark. Reproduce the text as written, styled, and capitalized in the source. Dickinson, Emily. Franklin, Harvard UP,pp. Wyatt, Thomas. To truncate short introductory fragments as well as those that conclude with nontextual elements like emojis, use an ellipsis at the end. Smith, Clint. Erpenbeck, Jenny.
Gehen, ging, gegangen. Penguin Verlag, If your audience is likely to include readers unfamiliar with the language, however, it may be helpful to provide a translation, placed in square brackets after the original title and with the same formatting as the original title here, italics. Gehen, ging, gegangen [Go, Went, Gone]. Translations and transliterations of book titles are italicized, but titles written in non-Latin characters are styled roman.
Separate a transliteration and translation with a semicolon. Alphabetize the titles according to the transliteration so that any in-text references in your prose using the transliterated title can be more easily identified in the works-cited-list entries by readers unfamiliar with the language.
Translations of titles in prose: 2. Alphabetizing the works-cited list: 5. Chou, Elaine Hsieh. Examples of containers are shown in the following list and in figure 5. The title of the work is listed in the Title of Source element.
The Title of Container element is left blank, but any relevant publication details are provided in the container Somebody Now In Love - Various - Cherry Moon Club Edition Vol.12 (CD) of the template and in the entry. Austen, Jane. Penguin Books, For example, an essay can appear in a print book and that book can be digitized on a website. Blob Collector's Edition [Blu-ray].
Hot new releases See more. What Lies Beneath [Blu-ray]. Chicago Fire: Season 5. Luca Feature [Blu-ray] Bilingual. Venom [Blu-ray] Bilingual. Cartoon Network: Over the Garden Wall. The Addams Family. Most wished for See more. James Bond Collection Bilingual [Blu-ray].
Most gifted See more. Yellowstone: The First Three Seasons. Eclectic described the music that the label released. That described the albums that Black Jazz Records released during That was still to come. Doug Carn who was just twenty-three when he signed to Black Jazz Records. Not long after this, he began work on his debut album Infant Eyes. Doug Carn put together a band and spent the best part of a year practising and then when he signed to Black Jazz Records recorded the album.
The rhythm section featured drummer Michael Carvin, bassist Henry Franklin and bandleader Doug Carn who switched between electric piano, organ and piano.
Meanwhile his wife Jean added her unmistakable vocals. George Harper played tenor saxophone and flute and was joined in he front line by trombonist Al Hall Jr and Bob Frazier who played trumpet and flugelhorn. This talented and versatile band worked their way through the seven tracks which became Infant Eyes.
The session was engineered and produced by label owner Gene Russell and the album was scheduled for later in When Infant Eyes was released inDoug Carn still regarded the album as a demo. Despite that, it was well received by critics and hailed as a groundbreaking album.
It was a similar case with the other two albums Doug Carn released for the label. That was no surprise given the quality of the three albums he released. The first was Infant Eyes.
Initially the arrangement is intense and almost frenetic before the band lock into a groove. By then, the scat disappears as unleashes an impassioned vocal. On Moon Child Doug Carn switches to piano, and his playing is moody and melancholy.
Meanwhile, the horns add an atmospheric backdrop during this eight minute epic which is an emotional roller coaster. Horns are to the fore as the organ sweeps and swirls and join with the cymbals in playing a crucial role in the sound and success of the track. However, six years later Doug Carn added lyrics and his wife Jean takes charge of the vocal. Doug Carn added new lyrics full of social comment which are delivered by Jean. She plays a leading role in the success of breathtaking, powerful and poignant take on a familiar track from the late, great jazz pianist.
Despite that, it was the most successful album that Black Jazz Records released that year. Infant Eyes was very different to old school jazz and was new type of jazz album. It featured everything from avant-garde and even elements of free jazz, funk, fusion, soul, soul-jazz and spiritual jazz.
These genres were combined by Doug Carn and Jean Carn who unleashed her five octave vocal on Infant Eyes which introduced the pair to the record buying public across America. This was just the first chapter in the Doug and Jean Carn story. Infant Eyes was the first of four critically acclaimed albums that Doug Carn released between and These albums are now regarded as cult classics, and amongst the best that Black Jazz Records released during the five years it was in business.
And nothing elsewhere in the infinite universe like them either. Peter will ask, you know: "Have you dug 'Faces in the Jazzmatazz'? And which person are you in "Flibbity-Jib'?
But the thing he is probably best loved for is a series of albums released in the late Fifties on Dot Records called Word Jazz. The four albums, recorded between andhave been anthologized several times over the course of their history including a vinyl collection on Blue Thumb and a CD on Rhinobut they have never before been made available on CD in their entirety.
In all, 27 tracks make their CD debut. Needless to say, Ken has also written some notes, and has provided some rare photos for the set. The Charlie Parker Dial MastersThe Judy Garland Decca MastersThe Machito Columbia Masters —the titles assume a certain form: the imperious definite article, the name of the artist, the recording company, and, at the end, that masterful word, masters.
But he did not define his era, and it did not define him. He is a performing artist of indeterminate medium, all but unknown to the general public and not well-known among musicians either. Most of his career has been in television and radio, where he lent his dark, agile bassvoice to numberless commercials. His album Colors was originally a series of radio spots for the Fuller Paint Company.
The accompaniment is not always jazz, nor is it exactly accompaniment. The absence of any clear boundary between music and sound, or sound and voice, might spark the thought that word jazz has more to do with Cagean compositionin sound than any bongos-and-angst record. But Nordine raises this possibility with the lightest touch, for he can be very funny, and this is maybe why his albums have aged so well.
The twenty-page insert booklet includes appreciationsby Laurie Anderson and Tom Waits, reminiscences by Nordine and Cunningham, all the original cover art and liner notes, and a new poem by Nordine. The only shortcoming of this album is its stingy run of five thousand copies, which are intermittently hard to find. So if you see a copy, snap it up Somebody Now In Love - Various - Cherry Moon Club Edition Vol.12 (CD) you can. Bass — Emmet Frazier tracks:toHarold Gaylor tracks: toJimmy Bond tracks: toJohn Frigo tracks: to, Drums — Bob Frazier tracks:toJerome Slosberg tracks: to,Red Holt tracks: to Engineer — Jim Cunningham tracks: toto, Mason Coppinger tracks: toto Woodwind — Ken Soderbloom tracks:toPaul Horn tracks: to Tracks taken from Next!
Track 20 recorded circa No re-channeled stereo was employed in this recording. The Fairchild stereophonic disc mastering was use in transferring the original masters from tape to disc. Posted by Jillem on Friday, October 01, Sometimes I'm in the mood for hip music and nothing else will do.
He is now highly recognized as one of the foremost exponents of a sophisticated style of largely instrumental music that combines elements of lounge music and jazz with Latin flavors. They're of such a similar qualitative standard that none can be singled out as definitive, or even recommended above the others. The 20 tracks are drawn from RCA releases spanning toincluding both original compositions and oddball versions of standards like "Harlem Nocturne," "Night and Day," "Malaguena," and "Take the 'A' Train.
Kansas City. Posted by Jillem on Thursday, September 30, Essential for all Prince Buster fans. One of the best from the man himself, worth every penny, now that it has been deleted. Get it if you can.
Very rare and amazing selection from the Prince's rarest sides; great sound, great artwork, pure ska and rocksteady masterpieces. Including the best whistling tune ever: "rock and shake", and "Dance Cleopatra", a total scorcher which was a minor hit in Holland in The Prince's recording plethoric recording output still begs for a proper reissue job.
Until then, true enthusiasts will carry on an almost archeological quest for scratchy elusive Blue Beat singles. Most of these tunes are worth five or ten times the price of this CD on 45, and not without reason. Get this while you can - its availability in Europe has been patchy to say the least.
Possibly because he was part of a postwar, post-colonial social revolution, Prince Buster seems like some sort of ghetto supe- pioneer: a boxer, soundsystem operator, DJ, producer, live performer, humouristsocial and political commentator, owner of a record shop-label-and-jukebox empire, sharp dresser and all round coolest guy in Kingston, and therefore Jamaica, and therefore quite possibly the world at the time.
All his activities complemented and were complemented by the main event, which was his completely unique and inimitable voice, delivery and lyrics. He pronounced himself Prince, the Voice of the People, and made sure he lived up to his claims by being the best. Just as he apparently made sure he would win every boxing match, he made damn sure he only used the cream of Jamaican musicians, on the hottest and hardest rhythms for his backing tracks and productions.
When the time eventually came that he could no longer achieve that, I admire the fact that he largely quit the studio: nothing less than the best was ever going to be good enough for Prince Buster, and that ensured that his incredible output remains undiluted and in tact to this day. He continued with the occasional live appearance, some of which I saw and which were always of the highest possible standard.
I was lucky enough to travel with him to one gig and he really exuded the true meaning of cool a word which has become greatly abused now. It was funny to watch. That ghetto humour was at the heart of a lot of his lyrics and a huge part of his popularity in Jamaica. It could be brutal, as could the ghetto morality that went hand in hand with it in his lyrics.
On the stage when THAT voice was given free rein, it remained completely unspoiled — like his legacy — and came out exactly the same as ever.
He had always mixed singing and speaking so seamlessly and tunefully that at times it is almost impossible to say which of those two things he is doing. You would be very hard pressed to find anyone who has ever mixed those two things together better.
He was the first real ambassador of Jamaican music worldwide, he was a voice of the third world — luckily for us, speaking in English, and that made him accessible to anyone in the rest of the world who spoke English and was willing to listen. At first he was picked up in this country largely by working-class kids who could probably relate to the subject matter.
Initially ska and reggae was mainly ignored or ridiculed by the mainstream and rock critics — maybe that was partly because Prince Buster was at the forefront of Jamaican lyricists, blatantly and unashamedly covering subject matter that was more or less unheard of in either Europe or America. From ghetto violence and crime, to sex in detailfrom black power and black pride, to commenting on social injustice and poverty, from advocating freedom from colonialism and solidarity with Africa, to other important matters like ridiculing his musical rivals or consigning them to the boneyard, or describing the music on his own record itself and how good that was — nothing was off limits.
In that way lyrically he influenced hip-hop and a lot that was to follow the world over. Buster and some of his Jamaican peers were liberating the sort of real language and subject matter years before it would eventually become commonplace not just in music, but in mainstream TV drama and comedy. Stylisticallythe very idea of reciting over an instrumental backing track, which Buster was a pioneer of, became the basis of hip-hop years later when the Jamaican DJ Cool Herc introduced it to the Bronx.
Buster was really the first king of Jamaican music and started an international process which, with the help of its second king, made reggae probably the most popular music in the world, only to be eventually surpassed in popularity by hip-hop, a form which it had itself helped create.
Myself and all the Two Tone bands owe him an enormous debt of gratitude. New York. Drawn from tapes recorded with King Tubby's Soul Syndicate band, the music included on 'Reckless Roots Rockers' is deeply ingrained with fissures of rhythm and dub melodies - bringing a vast array of talent to bear on some fabulously low-end material.
With much of the album recorded in Jamaica, there were plentiful tributaries on which to draw, as the likes of Jah Carlos, Bullwackies Allstars and Joe Morgan all make fierce appearances. Opening through the Reckless Breed's 'Dub Full Of Girls', we're immediately transported to a humid smoke-draped environ - as the familiar melody snakes its way through jaunty rhythms and an overarching sense of light that is a welcoming salve for a dark November night.
For those who know about such things, the inclusion of Don Carlos' deadly 'Jah Man' will be of particular note - with this particular slice of dub fortitude crafted over a rhythm double-take of Wayne Jarrett's 'Bubble Up' unavailable anywhere else and now rightly resurrected for appreciative audiences to rediscover, whilst dubs of Wackies' vast Black Harmony rhythm crops up throughout like a Somebody Now In Love - Various - Cherry Moon Club Edition Vol.12 (CD) friend throughout.
Elsewhere, 'Exposure' from the Sylvesters is a lithe and uncluttered beast, Bullwackies Allstars 'Creation' contains some demon rhythms, whilst 'Chin Chow' from Reckless Breed will have you nodding till Sunday. Posted by Jillem on Wednesday, September 29, Killer heavy roots business. Jah Lloyd, a. He looked the part of the artist down on his luck, his frame wizened by poor health, his gait slow; but his clothing was flamboyant and his eyes keen.
Sitting on a shady porch, he allowed me to turn his attention from his daily struggle for a living to his great works done twenty years before. He spoke about his songs with great care, almost tenderness. We made plans to meet again, but by the time I returned to Jamaica he had died.
San Franciscan Nights - The Animals - The Last Live Show (CD, Album), Television, Ghosts Of Swing - Dr Zoot* - Ghosts Of Swing (CD, Album), Hit For MTV (Alternative Version), Venus - Various - 10 Jahre Schlagerparade 1961-1970 (Vinyl, LP), Hear In Images (Exclusive) - The Colony Featuring Stronghold (3) - Bootprints & Fistmarks (CD, A, Plano Furado II - Ratos De Porão - Brasil (Vinyl, LP, Album), Mei Muatterl War A Weanerin (My Mother Was A Viennese) - Erich Kunz - Vienna, Vienna (Vinyl, LP, Alb, Wann, Sag Wann - Manfred Krug - Da Bist Du Ja (CD, Album), Diamond - Schizo Fun Addict - ... Just A Dimension Away (CD, Album), Ife - Médéric Collignon - Shangri-Tunkashi-La* (CD, Album), From The Heart - Various - Popcorn Live 99 (CD), Ither Sode - Introduction (Swe) - Santa Sets Sail For Saturn (CD, Album), Polterabend - The Gentle Art Of Chokin - The Gentle Art Of Chokin (File), Loved One - 1st take - Benny Goodman & Jack Teagarden - B. G. & Big Tea in NYC (CD)