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Save sort order. Here we would be referring to the collection of polit- ical, economic and social ideas that inform the aspirations and activities of the Party. Ideology 3 A second definition suggests a certain masking, distortion, or concealment. Ideology is used here to indicate how some texts and practices present distorted images of real- ity.
Such distortions, it is argued, work in the interests of the powerful against the interests of the powerless. Using this definition, we might speak of capitalist ideology. What would be intimated by this usage would be the way in which ideology conceals the reality of domination from those in power: the dominant class do not see themselves as exploiters or oppres- sors. And, perhaps more importantly, the way in which ideology conceals the reality of subordination from those who are powerless: the subordinate classes do not see them- selves as oppressed or exploited.
This definition derives from certain assumptions about the circumstances of the production of texts and practices. This is one of the fundamental assumptions of classical Marxism. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation on which there arises a legal and political superstruc- ture and to which there correspond definite forms of social consciousness. The mode of production of material life conditions the social, political and intellectual life process in general 3.
What Marx is suggesting is that the way a society organizes the means of its eco- nomic production will have a determining effect on the type of culture that society pro- duces or makes possible.
In Chapter 4, we will consider the modifications made by Marx and Frederick Engels themselves to this formulation, and the way in which subsequent Marxists have further modified what has come to be regarded by many cultural critics as a rather mechanistic account of what we might call the social relations of culture and popular culture. Abandon this claim, it is argued, and Marxism ceases to be Marxism Bennett, a: We can also use ideology in this general sense to refer to power relations outside those of class.
In Chapter 8 we will examine the ideology of racism. This usage is intended to draw attention to the way in which texts television fiction, pop songs, novels, feature films, etc. This definition depends on a notion of society as conflictual rather than consensual, structured around inequality, exploitation and oppression.
Texts are said to take sides, consciously or unconsciously, in this conflict. There is no play and no theatrical performance which does not in some way affect the dispositions and conceptions of the audience. Another way of saying this would be simply to argue that all texts are ultimately political.
That is, they offer competing ideological significations of the way the world is or should be. A fourth definition of ideology is one associated with the early work of the French cultural theorist Roland Barthes discussed in more detail in Chapter 6. What was being suggested is that the socialism of the Labour Party is synonymous with social, economic and political imprisonment. Moreover, it hoped to locate socialism in a binary relationship in which it connoted unfreedom, whilst conservatism connoted freedom.
For Barthes, this would be a classic example of the operations of ideology, the attempt to make universal and legitimate what is in fact partial and particular; an attempt to pass off that which is cultural i. This is made clear in such formulations as a female pop singer, a black jour- nalist, a working-class writer, a gay comedian. A fifth definition is one that was very influential in the s and early s.
It is the definition of ideology developed by the French Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser. We shall discuss Althusser in more detail in Chapter 4. Here I will simply outline some key points about one of his definitions of ideology. Principally, what Althusser has in mind is the way in which certain rituals and We Are Experienced - Various - Logic Trance (CD) have the effect of binding us to the social order: a social order that is marked by enormous inequalities of wealth, status and power.
Using this definition, we could describe the seaside holiday or the celebra- tion of Christmas as examples of ideological practices. This would point to the way in which they offer pleasure and release from the usual demands of the social order, but that, ultimately, they return us to our places in the social order, refreshed and ready to tolerate our exploitation and oppression until the next official break comes along. In this sense, ideology works to reproduce the social conditions and social relations neces- sary for the economic conditions and economic relations of capitalism to continue.
So far we have briefly examined different ways of defining culture and ideology. What should be clear by now is that culture and ideology do cover much the same con- ceptual landscape. The main difference between them is that ideology brings a polit- ical dimension to the shared terrain.
Popular culture There are various ways to define popular culture. This book is of course in part about that very process, about the different ways in which various critical approaches have attempted to fix the meaning of popular culture. Therefore, all I intend to do for the remainder of this chapter is to sketch out six definitions of popular culture that in their different, general ways, inform the study of popular culture.
An obvious starting point in any attempt to define popular culture is to say that popular culture is simply culture that is widely favoured or well liked by many people. And, undoubtedly, such a quantitative index would meet the approval of many people. We could also examine attendance records at concerts, sporting events, and festivals. We could also scrutinize market research figures on audience preferences for different television programmes. Such counting would undoubtedly tell us a great deal.
The difficulty might prove to be that, paradoxically, it tells us too much. Despite this problem, what is clear is that any definition of popular culture must include a quantitative dimension. The popular of popular culture would seem to demand it. What is also clear, however, is that on its own, a quantitative index is not enough to provide an adequate definition of popular culture. A second way of defining popular culture is to suggest that it is the culture that is left over after we have decided what is high culture.
Popular culture, in this definition, is a residual category, there to accommodate texts and practices that fail to meet the required standards to qualify as high culture. In other words, it is a definition of popu- lar culture as inferior culture. For example, we might want to insist on formal complexity. In other words, to be real culture, it has to be difficult. Being difficult thus ensures its exclusive status as high culture. Its very difficulty liter- ally excludes, an exclusion that guarantees the exclusivity of its audience.
The French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu argues that cultural distinctions of this kind are often used to support class distinctions. This will be discussed in more detail in Chapters 9 and This definition of popular culture is often supported by claims that popular cul- ture is mass-produced commercial culture, whereas high culture is the result of an individual act of creation. The latter, therefore, deserves only a moral and aesthetic response; the former requires only a fleeting sociological inspection to unlock what little it has to offer.
Whatever the method deployed, those who wish to make the case for the division between high and popular culture generally insist that the division between the two is absolutely clear. Moreover, not only is this division clear, it is trans- historical — fixed for all time. This latter point is usually insisted on, especially if the division is dependent on supposed essential textual qualities.
There are many problems with this certainty. For example, William Shakespeare is now seen as the epitome of high culture, yet as late as the nineteenth century his work was very much a part of popular theatre. Similarly, film noir can be seen to have crossed the border supposedly separating popu- lar and high culture: in other words, what started as popular cinema is now the pre- serve of academics and film clubs.
Even the most rigorous defenders of high culture would not want to exclude Pavarotti or Puccini from its select enclave. Such commercial success on any quantitative ana- lysis would make the composer, the We Are Experienced - Various - Logic Trance (CD) and the aria, popular culture. Other stu- dents laughed and mocked. Aboutpeople were expected, but because of heavy rain, the number who actually attended was aroundTwo things about the event are of interest to a student of popular culture.
The first is the enormous popularity of the event. His obvious popularity would appear to call into question any clear division between high and popular culture. It is therefore interesting to note the way in which the event was reported in the media. All the British tabloids carried news of the event on their front pages. The Daily Mirror, for instance, had five pages devoted to the concert.
What the tabloid coverage reveals is a clear attempt to define the event for popular culture. When the event was reported on televi- sion news programmes the following lunchtime, the tabloid coverage was included as part of the general meaning of the event. The old certainties of the cultural landscape suddenly seemed in doubt. Although such comments invoked the spectre of high-culture exclusivity, they seemed strangely at a loss to offer any purchase on the event.
The apparently obvious cultural division between high and popular culture no longer seemed so obvious. An example of this usage would be: it was a popular performance. Yet, on the other hand, something is said to be bad for the very same reason. Consider the binary oppositions in Table 1. Table 1. This is principally the work of the education sys- tem and its promotion of a selective tradition see Chapter 3.
This draws heavily on the previous definition. The mass culture perspective will be discussed in some detail in Chapter 2; therefore all I want to do here is to suggest the basic terms of this definition.
The first point that those who refer to popular culture as mass culture want to establish is that popular culture is a hopelessly commercial culture. It is mass- produced for mass consumption. Its audience is a mass of non-discriminating con- sumers. The culture itself is formulaic, manipulative to the political right or left, depending on who is doing the analysis. It is a culture that is consumed with brain- numbed and brain-numbing passivity. Simon Frith also points out that about 80 per cent of singles and albums lose money.
Such stat- istics should clearly call into question the notion of consumption as an automatic and passive activity see Chapters 7 and This usually takes one of two forms: a lost organic community or a lost folk culture. The Frankfurt School, as we shall see in Chapter 4, locate the lost golden age, not in the past, but in the future. The claim that popular culture is American culture has a long history within the theoretical mapping of popular culture.
There are two things we can say with some confidence about the United States and popular culture. Second, although the availability of American culture worldwide is undoubted, how what is available is consumed is at the very least contradictory see Chapter 9. What is true is that in the s one of the key periods of Americanizationfor many young people in Britain, American culture represented a force of liberation against the grey certain- ties of British everyday life.
What is also clear is that the fear of Americanization is closely related to a distrust regardless of national origin of emerging forms of popu- lar culture. As with the mass culture perspective generally, there are political left and political right versions of the argument.
There is what we might call a benign version of the mass culture perspective. The texts and practices of popular culture are seen as forms of public fantasy. Popular cul- ture is understood as a collective dream world. In this sense, cultural practices such as Christmas and the seaside holiday, it could be argued, function in much the same way as dreams: they articulate, in a disguised form, collective but repressed wishes and desires. Structuralism, although not usually placed within the mass culture perspective, and certainly not sharing its moralistic approach, nevertheless sees popular culture as a sort of ideological machine which more or less effortlessly reproduces the prevailing struc- tures of power.
There is little space for reader activity or textual contradiction. Chapter 6 will consider these issues in some detail. This is popular culture as folk culture: a culture of the people for the people.
No matter how much we might insist on this definition, the fact remains that people do not spontaneously produce culture from raw materials of their own making. Whatever popular culture is, what is certain is that its raw materials are those which are commercially provided. Critical analysis of pop and rock music is particularly replete with this kind of analysis of popular culture.
At a con- ference I once attended, a contribution from the floor suggested that Levi jeans would never be able to use a song from The Jam to sell its products.
The fact that they had already used a song by The Clash would not shake this conviction. As this was not going to happen, Levi jeans would never use a song by The Jam to sell its products. But this had already happened to The Clash, a band with equally sound political credentials. This circular exchange stalled to a stop. The cultural studies use of the concept of hegemony would have, at the very least, fuelled further discussion see Chapter 4. A fifth definition of popular culture, then, is one that draws on the political ana- lysis of the Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci, particularly on his development of the concept of hegemony.
This will be dis- cussed in some detail in Chapter 4. The process is historical labelled popular culture one moment, and another kind of culture the nextbut it is also synchronic moving between resistance and incorporation at any given historical moment. For instance, the seaside holiday began as an aristocratic event and within a hundred years it had become an example of popular culture.
Film noir started as despised popular cinema and within thirty years had become art cinema. In general terms, those looking at popular culture from the perspective of hegemony theory tend to see it as a terrain of ideological struggle between dominant and subordinate classes, dominant and subordinate cultures.
As Bennett explains, The field of popular culture is structured by the attempt of the ruling class to win hegemony and by forms of opposition to this endeavour. Popular culture 11 The compromise equilibrium of hegemony can also be employed to analyse differ- ent types of conflict within and across popular culture. The Conservative Party political broadcast, discussed earlier, reveals this process in action.
What was being attempted was the disarticulation of socialism as a political movement concerned with economic, social and political emancipation, in favour of its articulation as We Are Experienced - Various - Logic Trance (CD) political movement concerned to impose restraints on individual freedom. Also, as we shall see in Chapter 7, feminism has always recognized the importance of cultural struggle within the contested landscape of popular culture.
Feminist presses have published science fiction, detective fiction and romance fiction. Such cultural interventions rep- resent an attempt to articulate popular genres for feminist politics. It is also possible, using hegemony theory, to locate the struggle between resistance and incorporation as taking place within and across individual popular texts and practices. Thus a text is made up of a contradictory mix of different cultural forces.
How these elements are articulated will depend in part on the social cir- cumstances and historical conditions of production and consumption. David Morley has modified the model to take into account discourse and subjectivity: seeing reading as always an interaction between the discourses of the text and the discourses of the reader.
There is another aspect of popular culture that is suggested by hegemony theory. This is of course to make popular culture a profoundly political concept. Popular culture is a site where the construction of everyday life may be examined. The point of doing this is not only academic — that is, as an attempt to understand a process or practice — it is also political, to examine the power relations that con- stitute this form of everyday life and thus reveal the configurations of interests its construction serves Turner, 6.
Fiske argues, as does Paul Willis from a slightly different perspective also discussed in Chapter 10that popular culture is what people make from the products of the culture industries — mass culture is the repertoire, popular culture is what people actively make from it, actually do with the commodities and commodified practices they consume.
A sixth definition of popular culture is one informed by recent thinking around the debate on postmodernism. This will be the subject of Chapter 9. All I want to do now is to draw attention to some of the basic points in the debate about the relationship between postmodernism and popular culture.
The main point to insist on here is the claim that postmodern culture is a culture that no longer recognizes the distinction between high and popular culture. As we shall see, for some this is a reason to celebrate an end to an elitism constructed on arbitrary distinctions of culture; for others it is a reason to despair at the final victory of commerce over culture.
For example, there is a growing list of artists who have had hit records as a result of their songs appearing in television com- mercials. Moreover, it is now possible to buy CDs that consist of the songs that have become successful, or have become successful again, as a result of being used in advertisements. There is a wonderful circularity to this: songs are used to sell products and the fact that they do this successfully is then used to sell the songs.
Those on the political right might worry about what it is doing to the status of real culture. This has resulted in a sus- tained debate in cultural studies. The significance of popular culture is central to this debate. This, and other questions, will be explored in Chapter 9. This of course makes Britain the first country to produce popular culture defined in this historically restricted way. There are other ways to define popular culture, which do not depend on this particular history or these particu- lar circumstances, but they are definitions that fall outside the range of the cultural theorists and the cultural theory discussed in this book.
The argument, which under- pins this particular periodization of popular culture, is that the experience of industri- alization and urbanization changed fundamentally the cultural relations within the landscape of popular culture.
Before industrialization and urbanization, Britain had two cultures: a common culture which was shared, more or less, by all classes, and a separate elite culture produced and consumed by the dominant classes in society see Burke, ; Storey, As a result of industrialization and urbanization, three things happened, which together had the effect of redrawing the cultural map.
First of all, industrialization changed the relations between employees and employers. Second, urbanization produced a residential separation of classes.
Scientific interests are focused on the roles that carbohydrates play in biological processes. A demonstration of the application of computational expertise is his use of molecular modelling simulations to develop therapeutics for cancer as well as his use of data analytics and informatics methods to develop diagnostics and prognostics for cancer. Research focuses on the molecular genetic changes in oesophageal cancer using a whole genome sequencing approach to identify mutation signatures, epigenetic changes, gene mutation, deletions and insertions with specific relevance to early diagnosis and targeted therapeutic interventions in cancer.
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Internationally recognized for her outstanding work in the area of heart failure. EDM; computer programmed to perfection for your listening pleasure. It has been described as an era of electronic music, being described in a MixMag article as being "the drop-heavy, stadium-filling, fist-pumping, chart-topping, massively commercial main stage sound that conquered America Similarly, "electronic dance music" can mean different things to different people.
Both "club music" and "EDM" seem vague, but the terms are sometimes used to refer to distinct and unrelated genres club music is defined by what is popular, whereas EDM is distinguished by musical attributes. Electronic dance music is generally composed and produced in a recording studio with specialized equipment such as samplerssynthesizerseffects units and MIDI controllers all set up to interact with one another using the MIDI protocol. In the genre's early days, hardware electronic musical instruments were used and the focus in production was mainly on manipulating MIDI data as opposed to manipulating audio signals.
Since the late s, the use of software has increased. A modern electronic music production studio generally consists of a computer running a digital audio workstation DAWwith various plug-ins installed such as software synthesizers and effects units, which are controlled with a MIDI controller such as a MIDI keyboard.
This setup is generally sufficient to complete entire productions, which are then ready for mastering. Many ghost producers sign agreements that prevent them from working for anyone else or establishing themselves as a solo artist.
A bedroom producer is an independent musician who creates electronic music on their laptop or in a home studio. Unlike in traditional recording studios, bedroom producers typically use low-cost, accessible software and equipment which can lead to music being created completely "in the box," with no external hardware. Initially, the popularization of electronic dance music was associated with European rave and club culture and it achieved limited popular exposure in America.
By the mid-to-late s this began to change as the American music industry made efforts to market a range of dance genres as " electronica ". According to SpinDaft Punk 's performance at Coachella in was the "tipping point" for EDM—it introduced the duo to a new generation of "rock kids".
Dubstep producer Skrillex popularized a harsher sound dubbed " Brostep ", which had drawn comparisons to the aggression and tone of heavy metal. With the increasing popularity of electronic dance music, promoters and venues realized that DJs could generate larger profits than traditional musicians; Diplo explained that "a band plays [for] 45 minutes; DJs can play for four hours. Rock bands—there's a few headliner dudes that can play 3,—4,capacity venues, but DJs play the same venues, they turn the crowd over two times, people buy drinks all night long at higher prices—it's a win-win.
InSpin declared a "new rave generation" led by acts like David Guetta, Deadmau5and Skrillex. EDM has many young and social fans. Corporate consolidation in the EDM industry began in —especially in terms of live events.
In Junemedia executive Robert F. US radio conglomerate iHeartMedia, Inc. Major brands have also used the EDM phenomena as a means of targeting millennials     and EDM songs and artists have increasingly been featured in television commercials and programs. The company began looking into strategic We Are Experienced - Various - Logic Trance (CD) that could have resulted in the sale of the company. Insomniac CEO Pasquale Rotella felt that the industry would weather the financial uncertainty of the overall market by focusing on "innovation" and entering into new markets.
In LiveStyle entered its final phase of restoring the original owners of the companies acquired during the SFX reign or selling them. Some house producers openly admitted that "commercial" EDM needed further differentiation and creativity. Avicii, whose album True featured songs incorporating elements of bluegrasssuch as lead single " Wake Me Up ", stated that most EDM lacked "longevity". It featured a DJ who goes about performing everyday activities—playing a computer gamefrying eggs, collecting money—who then presses a giant "BASS" button, which explodes the heads of concertgoers.
After years of rapid growth, the American popular EDM market started to wane in when a number of artists famous for producing so-called 'big room' electro-house started to diversify stylistically.
The report also identified several emerging markets for electronic dance music, including East AsiaIndiaand South Africacredited primarily to investment by domestic, as well as American and European interests.
A number of major festivals also began expanding into Latin America. In Ethiopia EDM has become part of mainstream music after the breakthrough of a young artist named Rophnan which incorporated EDM sound with traditional rhythms and melodies. China is a market where EDM had initially made relatively few inroads; although promoters believed that the mostly instrumental music would remove a metaphorical language barrierthe growth of EDM in China was hampered by the lack of a prominent rave culture in the country as in other regions, as well as the popularity of domestic Chinese pop over foreign artists.
Former Universal Music executive Eric Zho, inspired by the US growth, made the first significant investments in electronic music in China, including the organisation of Shanghai 's inaugural Storm festival inthe reaching of a title sponsorship deal for the festival with Anheuser-Busch's Budweiser brand, a local talent search, and organising collaborations between EDM producers and Chinese singers, such as Avicii and Wang Leehom 's "Lose Myself".
In the years following, a larger number of EDM events began to appear in China, and Storm itself was also preceded by a larger number of pre-parties in than its inaugural year. Zho also believed that the country's "hands-on" political climate, as well as investments by China into cultural events, helped in "encouraging" the growth of EDM in the country. In the s, electronic dance music was often played at illegal underground rave parties held in secret locations, for example, warehouses, abandoned aircraft hangars, fields and any other large, open areas.
In the s and s, aspects of the underground rave culture of the s and early s began to evolve into legitimate, organized EDM concerts and festivals. Major festivals often feature a large number of acts representing We Are Experienced - Various - Logic Trance (CD) EDM genres spread across multiple stages.
Festivals have placed a larger emphasis on visual spectacles as part of their overall experiences, including elaborate stage designs with underlying thematics, complex lighting systems, laser showsand pyrotechnics. Rave fashion also evolved among attendees, which The Guardian described as progressing from the s "kandi raver" to "[a] slick and sexified yet also kitschy-surreal image midway between Venice Beach and Cirque du SoleilWilly Wonka and a gay pride parade ".
Ray Waddell of Billboard noted that festival promoters have done an excellent job at branding. They often play EDM-specific stages, but major acts such as Deadmau5 and Calvin Harris have made overall headlining appearances on the main stages of Lollapalooza and Coachella respectively—placements that are typically associated with rock and alternative.
After Ultra Music Festivalwhere a crowd of gatecrashers trampled a security guard on its first day, Miami's city commissioners considered banning the festival from being held in the city, citing the trampling incident, lewd behavior, and complaints by downtown residents of being harassed by attendees.
The commissioners voted to allow Ultra to continue being held in Miami due to its positive economic effects, under the condition that its organizers address security, drug usage and lewd behavior by attendees. Dance music has a long association with recreational drug use particularly with a wide range of drugs that have been categorized under the name " club drugs ".
Russell Smith noted that the association of drugs and music subcultures was by no means exclusive to electronic music, citing previous examples of music genres that were associated with certain drugs, such as psychedelic rock and LSDdisco music and cocaineand punk music and heroin.
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMAalso known as ecstasy, "E", or "Molly", is often considered the drug of choice within the rave culture and is also used at clubs, festivals and house parties.
The psychedelic amphetamine quality of MDMA offers multiple reasons for its appeals to users in the "rave" setting. Some users enjoy the feeling of mass communion from the inhibition-reducing effects of the drug, while others use it as party fuel because of the drug's stimulatory effects. Death", it is similar to MDMA but they can take up to an hour to produce effects, which can result in hyperthermia and subsequently, organ failure.
MDMA is occasionally known for being taken in conjunction with psychedelic drugs. Many users use mentholated products while taking MDMA for its cooling sensation while experiencing the drug's effects. The incidence of nonmedical ketamine has increased in the context of raves and other parties.
MDMA due to its anesthetic properties e. A number of deaths attributed to apparent drug use have occurred at major electronic music concerts and festivals. The Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum blacklisted Insomniac Events after an underaged attendee died from "complications of ischemic encephalopathy due to methylenedioxymethamphetamine intoxication" during Electric Daisy Carnival ; as a result, the event was re-located to Las Vegas the following year.
In Septemberthe city of Buenos AiresArgentina banned all electronic music events, pending future legislation, after five drug-related deaths and four injuries at a Time Warp Festival event in the city in April The ban forced electronic band Kraftwerk to cancel a planned concert in the city, despite arguing that there were dissimilarities between a festival and their concerts.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Electronic music and History of DJing. See also: P-Funk. Main article: Dub music. See also: Sound system Jamaican and Deejay Jamaican. Main article: Hip hop music. See also: Rapping and Turntablism. Main article: Disco. Main article: Synth-pop. See also: New wave musicElectropopMinimal waveand City pop. Main article: Post-disco. See also: Boogie genre. Main article: Electro music. Main article: House music. See also: Chicago houseGarage houseand Deep house.
Main articles: Techno and Acid house. See also: Progressive houseTech houseMinimal technoTrance musicIntelligent dance musicEurodanceGhetto houseHardcore electronic dance music genreand Digital hardcore. Svært At Leve - Tøsedrengene - ... Det Går Fremad! (CD, Album)
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