5. Play. Allegretto - Piu Mosso - Tempo I - Béla Bartók / György Sándor - Solo Piano Works (CD)


The shimmering sound of the divided violins is converted to a chromatically falling parallel of semitone mordents. Only when the third unit is cut short after only two crotchets, do we recognise that Tansman quotes a varied augmentation of the gentler reorganisation of the eight quaver beats. Example 3. Based on: Tansman [ —]. Meanwhile, the whole-tone alternations of F —G are even more prominent than before, now invading one instrument after the other.

The agitated central section seems to de- pict the women in the state in which Gauguin has painted most of them: in their body postures, they seem absorbed in the internal picture of which the tiny wrestling pair in the upper right quarter of the painting only gives an externalised suggestion, while in their minds, they are profoundly moved and even disconcerted.

The third section brings the women slowly back to their waking state, eager to regain familiarity, stability and control, and probably discomforted by the fleeting thought that the cow, an em- blem of their secure world view, might in some way mirror an incomprehensible rite of passage that occurred to the patriarch of the twelve Old Testament tribes. Fowle, Frances, et al. Guillot, Pierre ed.

McKenzie, Janet, n. Roskill, Mark W. Technisonor, Paris. Wildenstein, Daniel,Gauguin. Tansman was apparently attracted to just this facet. Introduction Is music an ontological or epistemic category? Or does it call forth epis- temic interactions? Is there an epistemic cut between the listener and the music with the interactions leaving the music unchanged, or should we conceive of transactional processes between the music and the listener that affect both the music and the listener for the concept of transaction, see Dewey and Bentley []?

Making sense of music, in fact, is not merely dependent on the intrinsic acoustic qualities of the music. It also depends on the way listeners are dealing with the sounds, as reflected in traditional musical behaviours, such as listening, performing, improvising or composing, as well as more general perceptual and behavioural categories, such as exploring, selecting and focusing of attention on the perceptual side, and actions, interactions on the be- havioural side.

The concept of interaction, however, is somewhat ill-defined: it can refer either to an actual interchange between an actor 5. Play. Allegretto - Piu Mosso - Tempo I - Béla Bartók / György Sándor - Solo Piano Works (CD) that what is enacted upon in a physical sense, or to epistemic interactions at a virtual level of processing.

The former involves actions on sound-producing devices, such as playing an instrument or singing; the latter rely on mental operations on symbolic replicas of the sounds, which can lead to the formation of internalised schemes as the outcome of previous physical actions.

It recalls the theoretical claims of the Kharkov School in Russian psychology [Haenen ] in the s, which drew attention to the concept of activity as the basis for semiotic means. There is the sensorial aspect of capturing sound, which is charac- terised by consumption of time, tapping the moment-to-moment history of successive acts of focal attention. It entails real-time processing and is related in a linear way to the actual level of sonorous unfolding.

The epistemic interactions, on the other hand, operate at a virtual representation in memory or imagination. They allow the simulta- neous representation of sounding elements which makes it possible to transcend the narrow temporal window of actual now moments and to anticipate upcoming events, to recollect past events and to do mental computations on mental replicas of the sounds.

As such, there seems to be a major distinction between the music as a structure and the process of making sense of it. Depending on the kind and number of interactions, the same music can be understood as being meaningful or merely senseless, and the same holds true for the music being valued in a positive or negative sense. It makes a difference, therefore, to conceive of music as an autonomous category, and music as listened-to and music as enacted.

There is, in fact, a kind of paradigm shift in the field of musical sense-making and music cognition that argues against a detached and dis- embodied approach in favour of an embodied and enactive approach that conceives of listeners — or music users to use a more generic term — who are endowed with senses and motor tools that enable them to carry out interactions with the music and to live a musical experience [Reybrouck a, Schiavio et al.

Music as a temporal and sounding art Music is a temporal and sounding art. In its broadest definition, it can be recognised as a subset of the sonic universe, which can be considered as the collection of sounding el- ements that represent the totality of sounds as a virtual infinity of possible combinations of individual vibrational events [Cogan ]. These events have the possibility of being structured, but this structuring process needs consumption of time [Reybrouck ].

Music, in fact, is an art of the time. It has a fugacious and ephemeral character which is unable to keep the forms, and it is only completed when it is actualised by a performer [Brelet ].

Unlike, e. Thus, it is possible to conceive of the sounding music in terms of its sonorous articulation over time, which encompasses both the actual sounding now moments and their overarching relational continuity. The actual now moment is the starting point of each sensation. It has received con- siderable philosophical elaboration in the phenomenological constitution of time by Husserl [] in an attempt to combine phenomenological and objective time.

The horizontal line refers to the primal data of objective time as a succession of now moments; the oblique lines refer to the re- ceding of these now moments, with a shift from actual perception to retentional memory. The actual sound E1, e. Every time moment, further, can be grasped in a horizontal causal-transitive and a vertical simultaneous way, constituting a relational framework which goes beyond the mere description of temporal order and offers a time experience which deals with actual and virtual time simultaneously.

Figure 1. The constitution of time [after Husserl ]. The horizontal line is a mere succession of now moments. The oblique lines refer to the receding of these now moments with a shift from actual perception to retentional memory.

The actual sensation exists of actual now moments that are perceived during a very short time, which constitute the temporal windows through which the listener keeps step with the unfolding over time.

This temporal window has been termed psychical present by Stern [] and specious present by James [ []], and has been discussed exten- sively in time perception studies [Roeckelein ]. It has been commonly defined as the demarcation of a moment of time that sharply separates past from future, but which is also clearly distinct from both of them. Such a focal point can be without duration — actually a point — but it can also inhabit a minimal span of time, with a horizon of retention of what just passed and a protention of what is coming next.

The temporal window, in this view, can move along with the unfolding of the music, and its duration can be extended even further, dependent upon the level of attention and cognitive organisation of the listener. Extending its length, however, changes the statute of processing with a gradual shift from actual sensation to memory and a tran- sition from time-bound presentational immediacy to the simultaneous apprehension in consciousness of a temporally extended sonorous articulation.

This highlights the plasticity of the mental operations as epistemic interactions, which can be partly time-bound the actual now moments and partly disconnected from actual sensation. It shows the tension between music processing that proceeds partly in real time and partly outside of the time of unfolding.

The distinction is important — it stresses the role of presentational immediacy as against representational distance. Real-time musical sense-making entails a fullness of experience that is lost when the listener relies on mental replicas of the sounds. Taking distance, on the other hand, makes it possible to deal with music in a computational way, allowing the listener to deal with the sounds in a kind of virtual simultaneity, recollecting previous and forthcoming sounding events in memory and imagination in a kind of synoptic overview.

As such, the events can be compared with and related to each other, which enables listeners to conceive of the sonorous flux in terms of re- lational continuity and mental computations. Figure 2 provides an illustration. The visualisation provides a synoptic overview, presenting 16 bars of sounding music at a glance.

Looking at a painting, e. The visual representation neutralises the inexorability of time and freezes the continuity of the temporal unfold- ing in a simultaneous overview of distinct successive snapshots. As such, it provides a combination of a focal and synoptic view. It is possible to carry out these operations outside of the time of unfolding, and the order of carrying them out is not dependent on the inexorable character of the unfolding of time, which makes the op- erations plastic and reversible.

They are carried out on symbolic replicas of the sound, hence the much-used term symbolic play. The computational and perceptual approaches do not exclude each other.

Their combination, on the contrary, makes the process of dealing with music a richer expe- rience, doing justice to both the subtleties of the sonorous articulation and the more abstract and internal dialogues that allow the listener to simulate the actual unfolding through time.

Rather than relying merely on symbolic representations as perceptual sensations in the absence of corresponding sensory input, however, it can be argued that music processing should be coperceptual as well, which means that the computational processing is added to the actual sensory experience, which is the primary trademark of music as a temporal and sounding art [Reybrouck b].

From sound to music: the field of pointing and the dynamic-vectorial approach Musical sense-making is not easy to assess. There are several problems which make it difficult to approach the issue in an objective manner. Firstly, there is the tension between the objective acoustic qualities of the music and the way listeners make sense of them. There is, in fact, a lot of subjectivity in this process of sense-making, depend- ent on the attentional focus and the learning history of each individual music listener.

Secondly, there have been multiple attempts to measure the reactions of the listener by applying physiological and neuroimaging techniques in order to provide objective data about the way the body and the brain react to musical stimuli.

Chalmers ] is the fundamental problem of experience, in particular the lived, first-hand experience and its qualitative, subjective character. It calls forth the widespread and tenacious tension between external and internal, objective and sub- jective categories of sense-making. This contribution is not about this hard problem. Yet, it is about experience and the way it relates to common conceptions of musical sense-making.

The question here is whether we should conceive of music-structural knowledge as being equated with pre-existing concepts and labels that are assigned to the sono- rous unfolding, or of the moment-to-moment experience of the unfolding through time [Reybrouck c].

Central in this discussion is the transition from a structural description of music in terms of disembodied categorical terms to a process-like approach to coping with the sounds. It can be questioned, how- ever, whether these approaches are opposed to each other. Real-time listening, in fact, calls forth two distinct listening strategies, namely tracking the moment-to-moment history of the successive temporal windows, with an immersion in the richness and fullness of the perceptual now moment, and the recollection of all actual and previous now moments in a kind of cumulative overview that is partly perceptually bound and partly detached from actual sensation.

A distinction should be made, moreover, be- tween memory and anticipation. Memory, especially the short-time memory of what has just sounded, is mainly determined by what has actually sounded, and this is to 5. Play. Allegretto - Piu Mosso - Tempo I - Béla Bartók / György Sándor - Solo Piano Works (CD) considered as accomplished facts, which call forth a mode of time, characterised by existentiality and actuality, as stressed already by philosophers such as Heidegger [ []] and Peirce [].

Anticipation, on the contrary, can proceed within the constraints of previous sounding events, but there is much more freedom and less de- termination here. Future events are always undecided and contingent to some extent, balancing between actuality and potentiality. The plasticity of mental operations, so typical of epistemic interactions with the sounds, is thus not without constraints. They are grafted on the sonorous articulation which acts as an anchoring thread of now moments, allowing a process-like description of the unfolding music rather than conceiving of it as being reified in a kind of static structure.

Musical sense-making, in this view, calls forth the acoustic character of the sounding music as a collection of time-varying vibrational events that impinge upon the body and the mind. As such, there is a first level of sense-making that is situated at the sensory level of processing and that enables all subsequent and more elaborate levels of processing perceptual, cognitive, sensorimotor, and affective-emotional.

Music, in this view, induces several responses in the listener, which makes it possible to define musical meaning in terms of dispositions to react to stimuli rather than in terms of objective categories.

This reflects recent developments in semiotics which are known as the pragmatic turn [BernsteinParretRorty ], and which have recently received some translations into the domain of music. Central in this view is the phenomenon of musical experience [Maeder, Reybrouck eds] and the role of embodiment and emotions as related to music [Reybrouck, EerolaSchiavio et al.

It is an approach that broadens the scope of traditional musical analysis by taking into account not only the music, but also the dynamic interactions between the listener and the music. The dynamic approach is connected with the conception of sound tracking with the listener keeping track of the sonorous articulation. It is related to the experience of the succession of multiple focal points, somewhat analogous to the distinction Langacker has drawn between processual predication and episodic nominalisation.

This processual approach is time-varying, which means that it follows all the min- ute modulations in duration of the sounding events and the speed of their unfolding.

It involves a kind of conservative behaviour [PaillardBerthoz ] with the servomechanism as prototypical example. It means that the listener is in continuous interaction with the music in an attempt to keep possible disturbances of attention focus within critical limits. This focus should be directed to the succession of temporal now moments as a kind of dynamic gesture in virtual space. As such, it substitutes a field of pointing for the symbolic field of meaning, relying on mental pointing rather than on symbolic or verbal labels 5.

Play. Allegretto - Piu Mosso - Tempo I - Béla Bartók / György Sándor - Solo Piano Works (CD) delimit focal points that should be assigned meaning. Contrary to naming words, which rely on distancing and polarisation between the cogniser and the world, indexical devices imply the physical presence of the things or events that are denoted and which are pointed at in a dynamic way.

It implies perceptual immediacy and the fullness and richness of each sounding temporal window, which means both the sensory qualities and the actual duration. Mental pointing, however, is no guaran- tee of high-level musical sense-making. Much depends here on the actual immersion in the sound and the learning history of the listener in the sense that the allocation of meaning to the points of focal attention can be different between individual listeners. As such, there are two pending questions: how can we assess the sense-making in re- al-time listening situations and how does a listener make the transition from a contin- uous sonorous articulation to a kind of quasi- propositional sense-making?

The first is obvious. Extending the now moment, further, aligns smoothly with the gestural approach, both as a physical gesture or a mental one. Pointing as predication, finally, calls forth the transition from sensory perception to propositional thinking by assigning conceptual labels to the now moments.

The question should be addressed, however, how to define these conceptual labels. The verbal-denotative approach is only one modality of labelling.

Yet, there are other kinds of conceptualisation which also take distance with respect to the sensory qualities. Where the peripheral levels of percep- tion interface most directly with the physical world, highlighting the interactional and experiential approach to musical sense-making, the higher levels represent a greater degree of abstraction, integration and generalisation with respect to the sensory input.

They go beyond psychophysical processing by dealing with the sounds at a symbolic level of functioning without any reliance on perceptual immediacy.

As such, the two approaches have a different relation with the sounding stimuli: the lower level is dependent on the actual articulation through time, stressing the temporal aspect of inexorable time; the higher level refers to the conceptualisations by the listener which are added as the music proceeds and which stress the atemporal aspects of musical organisation as well. Musical sense-making and its underlying mechanisms Musical sense-making is highly subjective, as stressed already above.

The concepts of perspective and resolution are related to the dynamics of representa- tion, which span a continuum between step-by-step processing and synoptic overview. The former perspective defines the distance the listener takes with respect to the actual unfolding; the latter resolution relates to the fine-grainedness of the temporal window through which we experience the music. Both kinds of representations are comple- mentary to some extent, but each of them violates the actual way in which we achieve our musical experience.

The overarching principle of unity cannot account for particu- larity, and mere association of particulars, on the other hand, cannot provide a more global overview. The discrete approach conceives of information as encapsulated, discrete things with unit character that seem to exist outside of the actual time of unfolding. As such, they can be represented at an abstract-symbolic level in imagery, allowing observers to manipulate virtual replicas of the sound. The continuous approach, on the contrary, is perceptually bound and proceeds in real time with the listener keeping step with the music in a continuous process of manifest or epistemic interactions with the sounds [Reybrouck].

The computational approach fits in somewhat with the logogenic approach, as outlined above. It reduces the continuous flow of sounding music to the allocation of meaning at focal points in the sonorous articulation, which receive a kind of conceptual label.

The logogenic approach has been criticised, however, for its detached and disem- bodied character. It is advisable, therefore, to go beyond the encapsulated conception of the discrete symbol processing paradigm and to replace it with a more dynamic approach to music information processing. The in time processing involves the sensorial aspect of capturing sound. It is characterised by consumption of time and proceeds in real time, tapping the moment-to-moment history of successive acts of focal atten- tion.

It is the level of men- tal representation which transcends the narrow temporal window of actual now-mo- ments and which is able to anticipate upcoming events, to recollect past events and to do mental computations on symbolic replicas of the sounds. This is the level of the computational approach which places itself outside of the actual time of unfolding.

The question can be raised, however, to what extent these dichotomies really apply in the case of musical sense-making.

Rather than thinking in terms of opposition, it is possible to think of them as two sides of a coin, revolving around the conception of music as a temporal art, and to conceive of musical events as higher-order variables that can be defined as functions of time [Reybrouck ]. The latter is more sensitive as it works beyond the limitations of fixed thresh- olds for distinctions.

It is thus closer to the real world, which is not segmented, but presents itself in continuous transitions. As such, it is most suitable for exploring and perceiving, as advocated also in the experiential approach to cognition. The former is much more reductive. It constrains the real world from a relatively large or continuous set of values to a relatively small set of discrete and quantised values.

As such, it is more suitable for labelling and measuring and has the advantage of distinctness and com- municability. It allows an observer to share an experience without actually living it and illustrates dramatically the economy of abstraction as against the subtlety of experience.

In passing from the sensory to the more conceptual representation, there is thus a sys- tematic stripping away of components of information which reduces the experience of the 5. Play. Allegretto - Piu Mosso - Tempo I - Béla Bartók / György Sándor - Solo Piano Works (CD) rich thing to only one or some of its components [Dretske ].

This is a process of digitalisation or conceptualisation with a piece of information being taken from a richer matrix of information in the sensory-analogue representation and featured to the exclusion of all else. Digitalisation and conceptualisation focus on ge- neric features that group together the maximum of information with the least cognitive effort. They consider as equivalent a number of things that can be distinguished from each other but which can be subsumed under the same conceptual category.

Conclusion and perspectives The transition from sound to music involves a process of sense-making that goes beyond stimulus-driven processing of the sounds. It echoes the Kantian approach to cognition, which stresses the spontaneity of cognition, i. Yet, they are not totally free, but constrained by the sounding stimuli which trigger them. It is a major challenge, therefore, to study the relation between the sonic world and the musical mind, and these challenges multiply once we include consciousness with its subjective and experiential aspects as part of this mapping.

The latter, in particular, stress the dynamic character of musical sense-making with a tran- sition from a digital-discrete way of perceiving to an analogue-continuous approach to music cognition.

The term cognition, in this view, is to be broadened from a lexi- co-semantic conception that is characterised by detachment and disembodiment, to an experiential approach that stresses the role of knowledge-as-acquaintance, as the kind of knowledge that we have by presentation to the senses.

It states that the significance of concepts consists always in their relation to perceptual particulars which we become aware of only in the perceptual flux. Conceptual knowledge can extend this knowledge, but it is inadequate to the fullness of the reality to be known. It is needed only in order to manage information in a more economical way, but it remains superficial by its abstractness and discreteness.

As such, it is possible to broaden our cognitive structures from a classical conception of mean- ing in terms of static, discrete and objective categories to a conception of meaning as subjective, process-like and non-discrete, which means that our categories of cognition are the outcome of perceptual-motor and epistemic interactions with the sounding environment [Reybrouck a].

This transition reflects the basic epistemological findings of the experientialist approach to cognition, which states that knowledge must be understood in terms of structures of embodied human understanding, and as an interaction between an organism with its environment [Lakoff, JohnsonJohnson ].

This field of research, which was highly valued in the early s, did not fully meet the expectations though. New fields of research, however, are emergent, with major contributions from the field of neurophenomenology.

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Bagpipe Ii. The Highway Robber. Mourning Song. Folk Song. Peasant's Dance. Ballade Tema Con Variazioni. Sostenuto, Rubato. Bear's Dance. Valse Ma Mie Qui Danse…. Slow Tune. Walachian Dance. Whirling Dance. Quasi Pizzicato.

Ruthenian Dance. Lajos valczer [Lajos Waltz] G majorop. Elza polka C majorop. Andante con variazioni D majorop. BB 2a DD 32 Sonata no.

Movements: I. Adagio — Allegro II. Andante III. Presto Unpublished. BB 4 DD 35 Sonata no. Allegro II. Moderato — Allegro vivace Unpublished. BB 7 DD 38—44 opp. Dedication: Gabriella Lator Pieces: 1.

Adagio B minor 2. C major 3. BB 9 DD 46—48 opp. DD 47 Grosse Fantasie in C, op. DD Adagio, ma non troppo III. Allegro appassionato Unpublished. Allegro molto III. Adagio espressivo IV. Intermezzo C minor 2. Adagio G minor 3. Scherzo E major First edition: 1—No. Text: No. Nacht am Rheine C major 3. Hallberger, Scoring: S solo; 3 fl, 2 5. Play. Allegretto - Piu Mosso - Tempo I - Béla Bartók / György Sándor - Solo Piano Works (CD), 2 cl in si b2 fg, cfg, 2 cor in re, 2 cor in fa, 2 tr in fa, 3 trb, 3 timp, archi Unpublished.

Guckst du mir denn immer nach Unpublished Arrangement: No. BB 20 DD 62 Liebeslieder for voice and piano Du meine Liebe du mein Herz 2. Du geleitest mich zum Grabe 4. Wie herrlich leuchtet 6. III: Scherzo. Scoring: picc, 3 fl, 3 ob, cor i, 3 cl in si bcl b in si b3 fg, cfg, 6 cor, 4 tr in fa, 3 trb, tb, timp, trgl, tamb picc, gr c, ptti, 2 arp, archi Unpublished Movements: I.

Scherzo IV. III and mov. I, reconstructed by Dille] radio broadcast. Dedication: No. Fantasy I [BNS recording 4'58"] 3. Scoring: picc, 3 fl 1. You splendid lads, you valiant Hungarian warriors! Scoring: pf solo; picc, 3 fl 3. Scoring : pf solo; picc, 2 fl, 2 ob, 2 cl in sib 2.

Pieces: 1. Duration: [BNS recording 2'57"] Pieces : 1. Adagio [BNS recording 2'] 2. Scoring : picc, 3 fl, 2 ob, cor i, cl in re, 2 cl in la, cl b in la, 3 fg, cfg, 4 cor, 3 tr in sib, 3 trb, tb, timp, ptti, trgl, tamb, camp, 2 arp, archi Duration : 34'10"—35'26" Pieces : I. Allegro vivace II. Poco adagio III. Presto IV. Moderato V. Scoring : 2 fl 2. Comodo II. Allegro scherzando III. Andante IV. Revised edition : 1st rev. Text : No. I Bp: R ; Nos. In R No. In Rv No.

Duration : [BNS recording 2'58"] Pieces : 1. Rubato 2. Duration : [BNS recording 3'14"] Pieces and their durations : 1. Rubato [BNS recording 1'22"] 2.

Pieces and their durations : 1. Pod lipko, nad lipko 3. Duration : ca. Dedication : Stefi Geyer Scoring : vl solo; 2 fl 2. Paul Sacher Arrangement : Mov. II for violin and piano —, unpublished Remark : Mov. Scoring : vl solo; 2 fl 2. Duration : [BNS recording 14'41"] Pieces and their durations : 1. Grave [BNS recording 6'43"] 2. Duration : 23'17" Pieces and their durations : 1. Molto sostenuto 1'20" [durations from the edn] 2. Andante 45" 4. Lento 1'35" 7.

Andante sostenuto 1'45" 9. Allegretto grazioso 1'37" Allegretto molto rubato 2' Rubato 3'06" Elle est morte Lento funebre 1'46" Valse Ma mie qui danse Presto 1'55" First edition : R Revised editions : Nos. Edizioni Suvini Zerboni S.

Peasant Song ca 50" [BNS recording 1'02"] 2. Musica ricercata, a set of piano pieces written between andis widely regarded by both pianists and analysts as one of the most important work from this period. For this purpose re- ference will frequently be made to the most important work of this period, String Quartet no.

During his four years at the Academy, Ligeti composed quite a lot: the catalogue of his early works compiled by Friedemann Sallis4 includes 36 finished compositions 1. See Sallis, Introduction, — Data on instrumentation, first publication, first performance, etc.

Half of them are vocal, half of them are instrumental; in the former group, there are mostly works for choir, while in the latter, piano pieces are in the greatest number. Capricci are influenced also by Hindemith, whose music was quite well-known to the young Ligeti. The door was closed to the majority or, at least, the more valuable part of twentieth-century music.

Although he was not a member of the Communist Party,10 he had sym- pathy with communist views and believed that music should have been addressed to the whole of society: 5. Steinitz, Ligeti, I had a lot of sympathy with that, being so very left and having so many friends who were, and they convinced me that I ought to write music that, you know, every- body can understand. So I forced it a little bit. There was a big fugue: I was very good at counterpoint. And it was absolutely what I wanted: completely diatonic, though not tonal but modal.

The text was against imperialism and all those things, and I believed in it, at that moment. He became aware that this policy was very similar to that of the Nazis. By this time Ligeti was apparently opposed to the political system16 but it did not Griffiths, Ligeti, 18— These works were composed between September and May Griffiths, Ligeti, See Burde, Ligeti, 45— However, I believed that there could be a free zone despite this awful dictatorship and I could try to write music which preserved the great ideals of liberty and just- ice.

It had to be a kind of music that so far opportunistic could yet be per- formed. Still, it can be seen as typical of the official attitude towards Ligeti that he, in fact, won renown for an arrangement, not for an original work.

From onwards Ligeti appeared on the Hungarian musical scene almost exclusively as a composer of folk song arrangements, and many of these pieces could even be published.

Steinitz, Ligeti, 50, 52, 61—62; Griffiths, Ligeti, This is best exemplified by the other final graduation piece, Andante and Al- legretto for string quartet One can feel similarly embarrassed listening to, or reading the score of the Sonatina for piano four hands written in the same year.

Despite being a handsome piece that even contains some interesting ideas, its compositional problems actu- ally appear to be too simple compared to that of, say, Capricci written three years before. When outside the realm of folklore, Ligeti seems to be unsure in which style he should write. It may be seen as natural for a young composer having just finished his studies to be unsure which way he should follow — especially in such a politico-cultural situation that was in Hungary at the turn of the fifties.

For Ligeti, working with folk material gradually became a routine procedure — a task which nevertheless requires compositional skills and some imagination, but which he can at any time carry out. However, creating an original work is quite different: there is no given task. At the moment Ligeti did not find it but he felt he had to find it to become a real composer.

I was twenty-seven years old and lived in Budapest completely isolated from all the ideas, trends, and techniques that had emerged in Western Europe after the war. I regarded all the music I knew and loved as being, for my purpose, irrelevant. I asked myself: what can I do with a single note? With its octave? With an interval? With two intervals? With certain rhyth- mic relationships? In this 5. Play. Allegretto - Piu Mosso - Tempo I - Béla Bartók / György Sándor - Solo Piano Works (CD), several small pieces resulted, mostly for piano.

II, Prior to that he had to reconsider and re-examine his compositional technique. So he set himself certain compositional tasks, and imposed restrictions on pitch con- tent, intervals, and rhythms. Having just finished his studies he very con- sciously began to educate himself in order to be able to fully master the musical material, as well as to widen the compositional and expressive means of his music.

In so doing he strove to take decisive steps towards a more individual musical language and style. Musica ricercata is a set of brief character pieces, of compositional studies.

The average duration of each piece is about two minutes; according to the durata in the printed score, the shortest one no. VI lasts only 30 to 40 seconds, whereas the longest one no. XI lasts 3 minutes and 50 sec- onds. All of the pieces are concentrated in form that is, all of them have their own respective characters and focus on a clearly definable compositional problem and their respective pitch contents gradually increase pitch by pitch.

The first piece is made up of two pitch classes only A and Dthe second is made up of three, the third of four, and so on until the last piece which contains all twelve pitches for the first time.

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