Recitativo « Wohlan, Ihr Brüder » - Mozart* - Oratorios, Cantatas, Masonic Music (CD)


Requiem in D minor, K. Weihnachts-Oratorium: Dritter Teil: Nr. Staatskapelle DresdenPeter Schreier. Weihnachts-Oratorium: Erster Teil. Weihnachts-Oratorium: Sechster Teil: Nr. Genug, mein Schatz geht nicht von hier". Weihnachts-Oratorium: Vierter Teil: Nr. Weihnachts-Oratorium: Zweiter Teil. Peter SchreierStaatskapelle Dresden. Aria tenor "Ach windet euch nicht so, geplagte Seelen" instead of no.

Agnus Dei. Adagio and Fugue in C minor, K. See all relationships. La finta semplice, K. Molto allegro. Tempo ordinario - allegro - tempo primo - allegro - tempo primo "Troppa briga a prender moglie" Simone. Recitativo "Ritiriamoci, amici! Allegro grazioso - allegro - tempo primo - allegro "Marito io vorrei" Giacinta. Allegro moderato "Guarda la donna in viso" Fracasso. Recitativo "Con chi l'ha Don Cassandro? Recitativo "Eh! Recitativo "Oh, starem male insieme" Fracasso. Andante "Colla bocca, e non col core" Rosina.

Recitativo "Sicche m'avete inteso? Allegro "Cosa ha mai la donna indosso" Polidoro. Recitativo "Oh, la prendo da vero" Cassandro Polidoro.

Andante - tempo primo - adagio - tempo primo "Ella vuole ed io torrei" Cassandro. Recitativo "Grand'uomo che son io" Cassandro, Rosina. Andante un poco adagio - allegro grazioso - andante unn poco adagio - allegro grazioso "Senti l'eco, ove t'aggiri" Rosina.

Recitativo "Eh ben, sorella mia? Tempo di Minuetto "Chi mi vuol bene" Ninetta. Recitativo "Ninetta. Allegretto "Un marito, donne care" Ninetta. Recitativo "Sono i padroni miei a pranzo ancor" Ninetta, Simone. Ultimately, he persuades the singers to give up their claim, but in their heart of hearts they are unrepentant.

Eiler, the banker, quitely implores Franck to satisfy her demand, adding that he will foot the bill anyway. Now the others begin to prick up their ears.

Fortunately, Mme Krone makes up her mind to desist from her claim for the sake of art, and the others follow suit. In this way calm is restored for a while. Buff wishes the impresario good luck adding that there can be no more frightening experience than an ensemble entirely made up of leading ladies and prima donnas. The final scene contains the moral of the story: a spirit of unity is the greatest virtue of artists, who should not place themselves above others.

Buff, who is not a singer, jocularly stakes out his claim to be the leading buffo and then joins in the singing. A country estate outside Seville, late eighteenth century. While preparing for their wedding, the valet Figaro learns from the maid Susanna that their philandering employer, Count Almaviva, has designs on her.

At this the servant vows to outwit his master. Before long the scheming Bartolo enters the servants' quarters with his housekeeper, Marcellina, who wants Figaro to marry her to cancel a debt he cannot pay.

After Marcellina and Susanna trade insults, the amorous page Cherubino arrives, reveling in his infatuation with all women. He hides when the Count shows up, furious because he caught Cherubino flirting with Barbarina, the gardener's daughter. The Count pursues Susanna but conceals himself when the gossiping music master Don Basilio approaches. The Count steps forward, however, when Basilio suggests that Cherubino has a crush on the Countess.

Almaviva is enraged further when he discovers Cherubino in the room. Figaro returns with fellow servants, who praise the Count's progressive reform in abolishing the droit du seigneur - the right of a noble to take a manservant's place on his wedding night.

Almaviva assigns Cherubino to his regiment in Seville and leaves Figaro to cheer up the unhappy adolescent. ACT II. In her boudoir, the Countess laments her husband's waning love but plots to chasten him, encouraged by Figaro and Susanna. They will send Cherubino, disguised as Susanna, to a romantic assignation with the Count.

Cherubino, smitten with the Countess, appears, and the two women begin to dress the page for his farcical rendezvous. While Susanna goes out to find a ribbon, the Count knocks at the door, furious to find it locked. Cherubino quickly hides in a closet, and the Countess 28 admits her husband, who, when he hears a noise, is skeptical of her story that Susanna is inside the wardrobe.

He takes his wife to fetch some tools with which to force the closet door. Meanwhile, Susanna, having observed everything from behind a screen, helps Cherubino out a window, then takes his place in the closet.

Both Count and Countess are amazed to find her there. All seems well until the gardener, Antonio, storms in with crushed geraniums from a flower bed below the window. Figaro, who has run in to announce that the wedding is ready, pretends it was he who jumped from the window, faking a sprained ankle. Marcellina, Bartolo and Basilio burst into the room waving a court summons for Figaro, which delights the Count, as this gives him an excuse to delay the wedding.

In an audience room where the wedding is to take place, Susanna leads the Count on with promises of a rendezvous in the garden.

The nobleman, however, grows doubtful when he spies her conspiring with Figaro; he vows revenge. Marcellina is astonished but thrilled to discover that Figaro is in fact her long-lost natural son by Bartolo. Mother and son embrace, provoking Susanna's anger until she too learns the truth. Finding a quiet moment, the Countess recalls her past happiness, then joins Susanna in composing a letter that invites the Count to the garden that night.

Later, during the marriage ceremony of Figaro and Susanna, the bride manages to slip the note, sealed with a hatpin, to the Count, who pricks his finger, dropping the pin, which Figaro retrieves. ACT IV. In the moonlit garden, Barbarina, after unsuccessfully trying to find the lost hatpin, tells Figaro and Marcellina about the coming assignation between the Count and 29 Susanna.

Basilio counsels that it is wise to play the fool. Figaro inveighs against women and leaves, missing Susanna and the Countess, ready for their masquerade. Alone, Susanna rhapsodizes on her love for Figaro, but he, overhearing, thinks she means the Count.

Susanna hides in time to see Cherubino woo the Countess - now disguised in Susanna's dress - until Almaviva chases him away and sends his wife, who he thinks is Susanna, to an arbor, to which he follows. By now Figaro understands the joke and, joining the fun, makes exaggerated love to Susanna in her Countess disguise. The Count returns, seeing, or so he thinks, Figaro with his wife.

Outraged, he calls everyone to witness his judgment, but now the real Countess appears and reveals the ruse. Grasping the truth at last, the Count begs her pardon. All are reunited, and so ends this "mad day" at the court of the Almavivas. The masked Don Giovanni suddenly runs from the house with Donna Anna following him. Don Giovanni and Leporello overhear the plaint of an forsaken woman. Giovanni approaches, planning to seduce her until he recognizes her as Donna Elvira, a woman he recently seduced and abandoned.

Giovanni orders Leporello to distract her while 30 he escapes. Villagers celebrate the impending wedding of Zerlina and Masetto.

Giovanni, lusting after Zerlina, charges Leporello to amuse Masetto and the revelers so that he may be alone with Zerlina. Giovanni has nearly conquered Zerlina when Donna Elvira interrupts. Masetto chastises Zerlina for fraternizing with Giovanni, but she convinces him to forgive her. Giovanni invites the couple, along with three mysterious masquers, to festivities at his residence. Giovanni, still dressed as Leporello, encounters Masetto leading an vengeful mob in search of the Don.

After Don Giovanni dupes Masetto and makes his escape, Zerlina comforts her battered fiance. Leporello reveals his identity, pleads for mercy, and finally escapes. Ottavio reaffirms his intention to avenge Donna Anna, and Elvira, left alone, laments her betrayal by Giovanni.

Meeting up in a cemetery, Don Giovanni and Leporello encounter a statue of the slain Commendatore. Don Giovanni feasts, waited upon by Leporello and entertained by a band. Donna Elvira bursts in, urging Don Giovanni to mend his ways, but he scorns her entreaties.

Elvira and Leporello encounter the statue of the Commendatore as it arrives for dinner. The Commendatore demands that Giovanni atone for his sins, but he defiantly refuses. Finally, he meets his doom. They agree that all evil-doers must meet such a terrible end. Two young officers are arguing with a cynical old man of the world named Don Alfonso. They insist 32 the idea is unthinkable. Finally Don Alfonso offers to proves his point for a bet of one hundred thousand sequins.

The terms are simply these: for twenty four hours the young men must faithfully act out whatever Don Alfonso tells them to do. And the scene ends in the third of three trios, as the officers decide what they will do with their money when they win it if they do!

Scene 2 Introduces us to the two young heroines - Fiordiligi and Dorabella. They are expecting the young men, but instead old Alfonso arrives to tell them the dreadful news. A moment later these gentlemen enter, already in traveling clothes. For now it is really time for the young men to go - though not so fast that they cannot take part in one final quintet of farewell. The scene closes with some cynical remarks delivered to the audience by Don Alfonso.

You may as well, he says in effect, plow the sea or sow the sand as put your faith in women. Scene 3 Brings on at once the sixth and most engaging member of the cast. She is the maid Despina, a coloratura soprano. She cannot bear, she says, having fresh air.

Shut the windows! She cannot live through her grief! Soldiers never do. Indignantly the girls storm from the room. Enter now Don Alfonso. With a bribe he persuades the maid to help in his plan, which is to get the girls to look with favor on two new suitors. Ferrando and Guglielmo appear almost at once, disguised in beards and dressed like Albanians. But the girls will have none of it. In an aria Come scoglioFiordiligi violently declares her eternal faithfulness.

Maybe, like the lady in Hamlet, she protests too much. Ferrando, the tenor of the team, then sings of his happiness in his love, and the scene ends with Don Alfonso and Despina making further plans to win the girls over. Scene 4 Takes us back to the garden. The two girls have another sweet duet about how sad they are, when there is noise off stage. Their two lovers, still disguised as Albanians, totter in with Don Alfonso.

It seems that they have taken arsenic because of their hopeless passion. Of course, they have really done no such thing. Don Alfonso and Despina assure the sisters that the men will die without help - and off they rush for a 34 doctor. Then Despina returns, disguised with huge spectacles as a doctor and speaking the most extraordinary jargon.

In a typical soubrette aria, she says that by fifteen any girl should be a champion flirt. She must encourage every man, lie expertly - and she will rule the world. Talking it over, Fiordiligi and Dorabella decide that this makes sense; no harm in a little flirtation. They thereupon proceed to divide up, between themselves, the two love-struck Albanians. Dorabella chooses the dark one who is really Guglielmo, engaged to Fiordiligi ; and Fiordiligi will take the blond that is, Ferrando, engaged to Dorabella.

And the scene ends as Don Alfonso invites them down into the garden to see something really worth seeing. Scene 2 Begins with a duet sung by the two lovers to their mistresses. They are in a boat near the seaside garden, and they have a band of professional serenaders to help them.

Fiordiligi and Ferrando wander off among the flowers, and Dorabella and Guglielmo are left to carry on the flirtation. Then they walk off among the flowers, and Fiordiligi returns, alone. Apparently Ferrando has also been making improper advances, but he has been repulsed, as the soprano tells us in a virtuoso aria Per pieta. Still, she does not seem to be confident about how long she will hold out. And so, when the three men meet to compare notes, Guglielmo is triumphant, Ferrando is despondent, and Alfonso promises further developments.

Just wait until tomorrow, he says. Scene 3 Develops some difference in character and temperatures between the two sisters. She now decides that they ought to dress in the uniforms of their lovers and join them at the front. But scarcely is she decked out in this warlike garb when Ferrando rushes in.

He begs her to kill him with the sword rather than deny her love, and he offers marriage - anything she wants. Fiordiligi, already weakened, finally succumbs, and they rush off. Nor is he more pleased when his self-satisfied friend, having deposited Fiordiligi somewhere, returns.

But Don Alfonso soothes them both. Scene 4 Despina and Don Alfonso are directing the servants in preparing a large room for the 36 wedding, and then they depart. The happy lovers the men still in disguise are congratulated by the chorus, and they themselves sing a self-congratulatory quartet. It concludes with a three-part canon, for only Guglielmo stands aside and mutters his dissatisfaction.

Now Don Alfonso introduces the necessary notary, who is, of course, Despina in disguise, and who brings along the marriage contract. Can it be the returning lovers? Almost at once Guglielmo deposits his knapsack in the next room, and finds Despina, still garbed as a notary.

She quickly explains this away says she has been to a fancy dress ball ; but when Alfonso carefully drops the marriage contract before Ferrando, the jig is up for the girls. They ask to die for their guilt. The lovers are properly united and all six principals join in appending a moral: happy is the man who can take the good with the bad - a typical sentiment from the Age of Reason.

His Overture to The Magic Flute was composed after the rest of the work was complete. The three imposing chords are folloed by a short, somewhat ruminative Adagio, which gives way to a magnificently worked-out fugue, the first in any Mozart overture.

After the themes all related to the basic fugue subject have been cited, the wind instruments solemnly pronounce the Masonic motto three times. The fugue resumes, now modulating far afield, just as Tamino and Pamina must make journeys in their trials of purifiction. Their triumph and glorification are evident in the coda, which returns to E-flat major and ends with the three symbolic chords. Act 1.

The scene is a rocky area, with mountains on either side of the stage and a temple. Three veiled Ladies, who emerge from a nearby temple, kill the monster with silver spears. Each then wishes to stay with the handsome young man while the others go for help, but since they cannot agree, all three go. The Ladies return in time to hear his lie and punish him by locking his mouth with a golden padlock. They give to him a set of magic bells and to Tamino a magic flute to protect them in their adventure Quintet.

Sarastro now enters with his priests. Monostatos has captured Tamino meanwhile, but is rewarded by Sarastro with a beating. In the temple courtyard at night, Tamino an Papageno begin their trials. The terrified Papageno proves less resolute than Tamino at keeping silent. After she leaves, Monostatos tries again to overpower Pamina, but he is prevented this time by Sarastro.

Tamino and Papageno are reminded by priests of the necessity of silence, but Papageno is soon chattering away with an old woman who brings him water.

She tells Papageno that he is her sweetheart, but is warned away by a clap of thunder before she can reveal her name. Trumpets and trombones play the symbolic threefold chord, summoning the 40 men to their next trial. Sarastro commends Tamino for his strength and prepares him for two further trials. Lost in the temple, Papageno laments his lot. The Speaker tells him that although he deserves punishment, the gods are forgiving, but he will never achieve full initiation.

The old woman reappears and says that she is the chosen mate. Securing his unwilling pledge of loyalty, she turns into the young and pretty bird-girl Papagena, but the priest sends her away, saying that Papageno is not yet worthy of her. Pamina enters, frantic with grief, but is prevented from committing suicide by their assurance that Tamino still loves her despite his silence.

Tamino is led to a desolate place surrounded by mountain peaks. He finds two men in full armor, their helmets topped with flames, guarding a gate. Pamina fearlessly chooses to accompany him. As he plays the flute, they pass 41 unharmed through raging flames and rushing torrents. The sound restores her to him, and the two happily plan to raise a large family Pa-Pa-PaPapagena! The Queen of the Night, appearing with her Ladies, promises Pamina to Monostatos if he will help abduct her.

The scene immediately changes to the dazzling temple of the sun, in which Sarastro and his priests welcome Tamino and Pamina. Her hopes of returning to the throne as the consort of Titus have come to nothing because Titus wishes to marry Berenice, the daughter of the King of Judaea. For this reason her love for Titus has turned into hatred.

She 42 attemps to persuade the closest friend of Titus, Sextus, who is in love with her, to murder the Emperor, promising him love and marriage. After some Recitativo « Wohlan, Sextus declares himself willing to comply with her request Come ti piace imponi. She tells Sextus to trust her implicitly Deh se piacer mi vuoi. Annius asks Sextus to obtain permission from Titus for his planned marriage with Servilia, the sister of Sextus, and both reconfirm their frienship Deh prendi un dolce amplesso.

In the Forum Romanum the people acclaim Titus and beseech the gods to protect the Emperor and the city Serbate, oh Dei custodi. After the crowd has departed, Titus reveals to Sextus and Annius that he intends to marry Servilia that very day. To the great surprise of Sextus, Annius does not protest. In fact, he congratulates Titus for his choice.

At the behest of Titus, Annius brings Servilia the news that she is to become Empress. Both once more confess their love for each other Ah perdona al primo affetto. In the imperial palace Publius attempts to draw the attention of Titus to a list of conspirators. Servila enters and asks Titus not to marry her, for she is in love with Annius. Titus is delighted that she has had the courage to tell him the truth Ah, se fosse intorno al trono.

Sextus can no longer resist, for her power over him is too strong Parto, ma tu ben mio. Immediately after Sextus has left, Annius and Publius tell Vitellia that Titus has now chosen her to be his consort. Vitellia is in despair: she can no longer recall Sextus, and the attempt to assassinate Titus takes its course Vengo Having reached the Forum Romanum, Sextus is still in two minds about wether to murder Titus.

While the fire spreads, and the people begin to utter cries of terror, Sextus tells Vitellia that he has carried out the murder, and she implores him to be silent. All bewail the terrible events Deh, conservate, oh Dei. Act Two Annius brings the news that Titus has survived the attempt on his life. When Sextus confesses that it was he who tried to murder him, Annius advises him to throw himself at the mercy of Titus Torna di Tito a lato. Vitellia, who is afraid that her role in the plot will also come to light, urges Sextus to flee.

However, it is too late, Publius arrests Sextus in order to lead him to the Senate for questioning. Vitellia is torn between contrition and fear for her own safety Se al volto mai ti senti. Titus is unwilling to believe that Sextus is guilty. But when the news arrives that Sextus has confessed to everything in the Senate, and that he has been condemned to die in the arena, Titus is forced to accept the truth.

Annius asks him to think of the pain of others Tu fosti traditobut his request goes unheeded. The wounds inflicted on love and friendship by unfaithfulness, treason and murder are still much too deep. However, he wishes to question Sextus before signing the death warrant Che orror! Titus wishes to discover from Sextus the reason for what he has done - as a friend, not as a ruler However, Sextus continues to shield Vitellia and takes all the blame upon himself.

Titus interprets this as ungratefulness and stubbornness, and has him led off to the arena. Sextus is not afraid of death; he is merely tormented by unending remorse Deh per questo istante solo.

In a soliloquy Titus veers between duty and 44 emotion. Vitellia realizes that he has not betrayed her, and that he will die for her if she does not confess to her guilt Ecco il punto, o Vitellia. In front of the amphitheatre the people acclaim the Emperor and compare him to the gods Che del ciel, che degli Dei. Before Titus can pronounce the pardon for Sextus that he had already decided upon, Vitellia accuses herself publicly of being the instigator of the conspiracy.

Titus is taken aback by this new case of treason. Once again he has to struggle with his conflicting emotions. However, he does not wish to be forced to take revenge. Melia, Oebali Filia, Sopranus. Hyacinthus, Oebali Filius, Sopranus. Apollo, ab Oebalo hospitio exceptus, Altus. Zephyrus, Hyacinthi intimus, Altus. Sacrificulus Apollinis primus, Bassus. Sacrificulus Apollinis secundus, Bassus. Scena fingitur in urbe Sardi. Hyacinthus, Zephyrus, deinde Oebalus et Melia.

Ad sacra, quae constituit, actutum Pater. Zephyrus: Ni fallor, est Apollo, quem colitis. Hyacinthum amor. Venit Oebalus et Melia. Sed en! Sorore comite nunc Genitor venit. Num parata sacrificio hostia Et ignes? An alios nescit in coelis Deos? Diis Nullusque nostris vacuus a templis abiit: At solus istud Apollo sibi templum suo Vindicat honori.

Genitor hunc magnum Deum Veneratur, et ego veneror exemplo Patris. Quam libenter offerrem ilia Pectusque, si tu Apollo mihi meus fores! Iam parata sunt omnia. Permisces Diis? Atra nube tempestas minax Ingruit, et omnis glomerat huc noctem Polus. Fundite et mecum preces. Fulmen ignem et aram destruit. Melia, Oebalus, Hyacinthus, Zephyrus. Numen heu nostras preces respuit! Oebalus: An aliquis forsan ex vobis Deum violavit?

O Zephyre! Si me diligis, cela Patrem, Et verba prolata prius a nobis tace! Heu totus hoc concussus a fulmine tremo! Vera loqueris: at metuo tamen, Apollo ne fors perdat hoc igne Oebalum. Accedit Apollo. Insonentem geris Animum, quid ergo Numine a bono mali Metuas? Vivimus, et omnes pristinus vigor beat: Hinc terruisse voluit hoc fulmine Deus Terras, potestas pateat ut mundo magis, Maneatque cum fiducia in nobis timor. Oebalus, deinde Apollo, Hyacinthus, Melia, Zephyrus. Apollo: Et quid vides?

Eloquere pulchra! O quantus decor! Quanta omnibus Gloriaque membris atque maiestas sedet! Zephyrus: Heu! Numen o sanctum! Oebalus, Melia.

Apollo mortalem Sibi me iugali cupiat adiungi toro? Melia: O petat! Deus, Qui me beare voluit, hic Fratri necem Sit machinatus? Ista quis credat tibi? Accedit Zephyrus. Pie Jesu Lux aeterna Libera me Psalm 2 op. Psalm 43 op. Psalm 22 op.

Choralmotette op. Motette op. Ave Maria Christus factus est Os justi Locus iste Timor et tremor. Vinea mea electa.

Tristis est anima mea. O magnum mysterium. Quem vidistis pastores dicite. Videntes stellam. Hodie Christus natus est. Calme mais sans lenteur Agnus Dei. Devotions before Mass Hymn and Psalm: A simple song First Introit Rondo Prefatory Prayers Second Introit In nomine Patris Confession Confiteor Meditation No. Gloria 1. Gloria tibi 2. Gloria in excelsis 3. Credo in unum Deum World Without End Dmitry Bortniansky Let my prayer arise No.

Vassily Titov c. Nikolai Diletsky c. Artemy Vedel By the rivers of Babylon Na rekakh vavilonskikh Vespers Come, let us worship Praise the Lord, O my soul Blessed is the man O gentle light Lord, now lettest Thou Il confia au chanoine Alonso Ortiz la charge de reconstituer la liturgie. Comment notamment, rythmer ce plain-chant chant plane?

Nous ne la connaissons donc pas! Les compositeurs classent alors les intervalles par familles. Tinctoris explicite cette division ternaire en ajoutant au mot cantus les qualificatifs magnus, mediocris et parvus respectivement : grand, moyen et petit.

Pour simplifier, les mouvements de la Messe sont de deux styles. La Missa Pange lingua de Josquin Desprez c. Quels sont les traits que Lully a retenus du style de Carissimi?

Tiburtio Massaino c. Certaines ritournelles instrumentales du Dixit, par exemple, sont optionnelles ad libitum. En contraste, la seconde partie est toute de violence. Scarlatti, A. Bononcini, A. Pergolesi fut-il incompris autrement que par Dent?

Il comporte trois trombones. En cela, il rejoignait E. La Messe en ut mineur K. La musique le souligne. Ce sont ainsi parmi les plus beaux. La musique souligne admirablement le texte dans ses quatre parties. Ces deux recueils sont capitaux. The liturgy, which punctuated the silence of the monasteries at regular intervals during the day, was first organised under St Benedict In his Rule, the eight Hours of prayer frame the Mass, which comprises the Proper specific to a single day in the year; this gave rise to the first polyphony and the Ordinary sung at every Mass; it came to constitute the essence of the polyphonic repertory from the time of Ars Nova onwards.

The earliest neumatic notations appeared only around the ninth century, which is to say when the greater part of the repertory was already fixed.

Moreover, these notations, mere mnemonic devices without indications of interval, cannot be transcribed today. Fortunately, comparison of this early notation with the later square notation enables us to reconstruct many of these early pieces, which are of extremely diverse geographical origin.

Most of them belong to the type known as psalmody, in which a psalm is sung around one or two notes, known as reciting notes, with the aim of making the text easily comprehensible. Latin progressively began to assert itself around the fourth century, when it was used conjointly with Greek. The latter is closely linked to what was to become Gregorian chant.

He was acclaimed bishop of Milan, then the crossroads of languages and cultures, even before being baptised. Ambrose opposed this order and had the threatened churches occupied by crowds of the faithful. It was on this occasion, Augustine says, that they began to chant the hymns and psalms according to the custom of the Eastern regions in order to prevent the people from giving way to sadness and grief.

Not only did the practice endure beyond the great Gregorian reform, it even survived the Council of Trent. To be sure, it incorporated over the centuries certain elements and parts of the younger Gallican and Old Roman repertories, and in the pieces sung by the Ensemble Organum we find familiar melodic features that have survived down to our own day in the commonest liturgies.

Its distinctly Oriental character, which gives it the aspect of an ornamental cantillation, is by no means surprising when one remembers that at this period Italy was not only dependent on the Byzantine emperor, but was also a land of asylum for a large Greek colony which had sought refuge there.

And the iconoclast quarrel was all the more reason for the monks to flee from the Orient and reassemble in the Italian peninsula. Between and nearly fifty thousand monks took refuge in southern Italy. In this respect the question of performance is of crucial importance.

For instance, the Greek alleluiatic verses preserved in the Old Roman manuscripts may be seen as direct evidence of the Alleluia as it was practised in Byzantium in the eighth century. The fall of Constantinople did not bring about a break, contrary to what certain western European musicologists have thought.

Quite the opposite is true: it becomes increasingly apparent that Turkish and Arab music inherited an enormous amount from the Byzantine aesthetic. The confrontation with Old Roman chant is illuminating on this point. Certain pieces in this repertory, which cannot be considered to have been subjected to any kind of Islamic influence, present constructions and formulas which are absolutely identical to pieces from the Byzantine repertory.

Moreover, they were less fortunate in their fate, because practically all the manuscripts were destroyed and the liturgy was proscribed by Stephen IX in However, one relatively rich source has survived in the manuscripts of the Cathedral of Benevento which contains the Mass for Easter; here, the Communion, Qui manducaverit, attains an altogether extraordinary degree of musical elaboration.

It is highly ornamental, often having several notes to a syllable. It is true that the Introit of the Mass for Easter Day seems to be based on the periodic repetition of a single melody. The music is not divided into modes, and it has not suffered the restructuring that results from the importation of the system of eight modes.

It is a music that transmits a particular cultural and aesthetic moment, and it has a value for us, not as archaic and outmoded music of little aesthetic interest, but as an example of stylistic purity and maturity from a culture of which it was the supreme artistic expression.

Certain churches in Toledo never submitted to the liturgical reform imposed at the end of the eleventh century and maintained the tradition of Mozarabic chant. Around this chant was written down, thanks to the farsightedness of Cardinal Cisneros, one of the great figures of the Reconquista. He reinstated the Mozarabic rite by setting aside a chapel in the Cathedral, that of Corpus Christi, for the preservation of these ancient traditions.

He entrusted the task of the reconstitution of the liturgy to Canon Alonso Ortiz who might have modified certain chants, notably those of the schola choirbut given the present state of our knowledge, we cannot estimate the extent of these transformations.

They are conserved in the Mozarabic Chapel of Toledo Cathedral and we were permitted to consult them thanks to the courtesy of the choirmaster. The music is written in late fifteenth-century mensural notation and is therefore perfectly legible as regards the rhythm and the melody. In spite of the date of their publication, these pieces reflect an extremely ancient tradition, the chants of the celebrants generally having been transmitted with great consistency.

The dialogues between the celebrants and the schola are essential for grasping the rhythm and the spatial aspect of these liturgies, whose roots go down to Near Eastern and North African antiquity. His contribution was limited to organising the liturgy. These legends were the work of the Carolingians, who wished to use chant as a means of unifying their empire. At the time there were numerous exchanges of cantors between Rome and Gaul to organise this reform, which soon spread throughout Western Christendom, with the exception of Rome which remained faithful to Old Roman chant until the thirteenth century.

From the late nineteenth century, the monks of Solesmes Abbey set out to rediscover them and to establish a reliable edition the Vatican Edition, followed by the Graduale Triplex.

The Frankish kingdom and then the Carolingian Empire gave it the decisive political impulse that the Roman intentions lacked. Whatever the case may be, this restoration, continued and intensified after the accession of Charlemagnewho took it upon himself to impose it throughout his realms, consisting in the compiling of a fixed Roman liturgy based on the principal existing repertories essentially Roman and Gallicanwas started at Metz, the birthplace of the reformer appointed by Pope Stephen II.

This was how the canon of the Gregorian Antiphoner assumed its definitive form: whilst the organisation of the Office of the Hours the ordering of daily monastic prayer already fixed by Saint Benedict preserved a certain degree of flexibility, the form of the Mass was rigorously established, even though all of its components would not be finally assembled until the eleventh century, with the addition of the Credo.

The Kyrie, the Gloria, the Credo, the Sanctus and the Agnus Dei with the Ite missa est constituted the Ordinary of all Masses, while the pieces in the Proper varied according to the feast day.

The Mass of the Dead — or Requiem — was the only form of the Mass to contain both the Ordinary and the Proper, consisting of the chants presented almost in full on this recording. Although the Church began to transform its spiritual authority into political power under the brilliant leadership of Pope Sylvester II, the fear and anticipation of the Last Judgment and end of the world influenced the late tenth-century Christian world view.

Would an antichrist rise up, to be defeated in anticipation of the Last Judgment? Who would be saved, who damned, and what horrors awaited the earth? What are the musical manuscripts that show traces of this fear of the year ? There is, notably, a number of manuscripts of c. The troped portions of the Aquitanian chants would almost certainly have been adorned with polyphony, created by the singers according to certain rules of improvisation that are preserved for us in theoretical treatises of the time.

The prose, or prose with sequence, its origins related to the practice of troping, was a relatively new addition to the medieval Mass, with Frankish composers of the ninth and tenth centuries adding great numbers of them for specific saints and feasts, large and small, to the liturgical stock. The hymn Cives celestis patrie, for example, describes and explains the mystical meaning of the jewels that constitute the foundations of the new Jerusalem — the perfect city that will replace the earth at the end of time.

How it found its way to Compostela is not known for certain, but it is undoubtedly a French product, probably compiled or written in Cluny around Most of it is specifically liturgical: hymns, antiphons, responsories, and versicles for the Divine Office and Mass propers and ordinaries. Many, if not most, of these were contrafacta i. Until recently it was thought that these attributions were fanciful, but research has verified many of them.

They therefore set out in quest of the original forms of monastic life, at the risk of calling into question usages that had been established for centuries. Their approach was one of simplification, a return to original purity, wholly comparable with the architectural precepts practised at Citeaux or Fontenay.

Since both Rome and Italy were in the throes of violent political upheaval it was decided to dispatch missions of precentors to Metz, which was supposed to have been the capital of the Gregorian reform. Within the mode each degree of the scale should maintain its position in the scalar hierarchy. We might expect to encounter the first stirrings of the first great medieval revolution, the birth of polyphony.

But the two pieces presented here remain obstinately monophonic! All of the music from St Martial was anonymous, reflecting the self-effacing, collective spirit that was typical — and expected — of medieval monastic life. Not so the music from Notre Dame. Not only are many of the composers known; they were among the most distinguished members of the cathedral community.

Adam of St Victor was cantor at Notre Dame from early in the century until his death in around In that role, he was one of the highest ranking dignitaries in the cathedral hierarchy. His duties included supervision of the music sung in the liturgy, and Cantatas was probably in this capacity that he created a body of song that became famous throughout Europe.

And Adam of St Victor was the first name in a distinguished line. CD 3 As a spontaneous embellishment of the liturgy, the earliest polyphony was improvised, hence unknown to us! The first method they present, the doubling of the plainchant a fourth below, is more like an effect of timbre.

But from the polyphony of St Martial of Limoges onwards, the voices become individualised. The process was taken further by the Notre Dame School in the twelfth century. The exploration of polyphony in three, then four voices made it necessary to abandon the subjective pulse of plainchant and measure note values with precision, so as to control part-crossing.

It became indispensable to know when dissonances would occur in order to resolve them on consonances. This in turn led composers to classify intervals into families.

However, all such classifications show considerable differences between the European mainland and the English, who were the only ones to use unprepared thirds and sixths. Only the tritone F-B the modern augmented fourth was proscribed on account of its highly dissonant sound. These intervals often became the point of departure or conclusion. It is needless to say that a system like this could only develop and become more varied, if only by the slow and progressive emergence of the notion of contrary motion, one melodic line ascending while the other descends in spite of frequent crossings, the vox principalis remained the lower.

It is in this rule that the essentials of Western counterpoint lie. With those of Chartres and Winchester, the manuscripts of Saint Martial in Limoges — a vital artistic centre in the twelfth century and an important meeting place due to its position on the road to Compostela — constitute the most important evidence of this practice.

Wherever the ornamentation becomes complex and expands into flourishes the movement is created by the dynamic power of the consonances and dissonances. The third and the sixth are out of tune, that is to say, they generate beats and instability. The music of Romanesque Aquitaine is an incredible art of synthesis in which the connoisseur can discern elements of the art of polyphony described by Ihr Brüder » - Mozart* - Oratorios and theorists since the ninth century, as well as visionary intuitions of genius.

In a similar way to the music of J. Bach in a later era, this music carries within it all the experience of a tradition that informs and gives life to a creative projection into the future. The Magnus Liber Organi having disappeared, these pieces come from thirteenth-century compilations in which the rhythmic notation is always subordinate to the play between consonances and dissonances.

The Mass for Christmas Day presented here dates from the mid-twelfth century. The Introit is richly troped, a practice that was constantly expanding in the Middle Ages, with their insatiable appetite for ornamentation and illumination. Here each gloss is sung by a soloist. Each imploration of the Kyrie is first stated by the soloist, sustained, then repeated by the choir in unison, and then in parallel organum.

After the Gospel, the liturgy enters into a state of symbolic contemplation of the mystery of the Eucharist. Could one find a more explicit symbol of eternity impregnating time? It probably existed long before the invention of musical notation and can be found in African music as well as European. A hocket is the placing of two parts on top of one another, so that where one part has rests the other has notes, and vice versa; the resulting combination creates a continuity out of two parts which in themselves are discontinuous.

Such music is built on the close exchange of notes or short groups of notes, and prepares the way for other medieval polyphonic techniques such as voice exchange where the groups of notes become short phrases and canonic imitation. It Recitativo « Wohlan leads quite naturally towards isorhythmic patterns, and the layered voices we find in many medieval motets.

Three different types of hocket may be identified: the variation hocket based on pre-existent polyphonyof which no complete examples survive, since it was indeed an improvisational technique; the independent hocket where hocketing is the main feature of the entire piece; and the incidental hocket, where hocket is used as an ornamental or climactic device. Her cult, at certain times and places, became so zealous that Mary-worship overshadowed even the adoration of the Deity.

Western Europe during the Gothic era — the late twelfth and thirteenth centuries — was without any doubt one of these times and places. Cathedrals soared to the heavens, many, if not most of them, dedicated to Mary, like the cathedrals of Notre Dame at Paris and Chartres.

We begin with pieces from thirteenth-century France. Certain characteristics separate conductus from other Latin compositions of their time: they are settings of poetry — usually, but not always, religious; they are not based on any pre-existing plainchant melodies, as are the motet and organum; and, in polyphonic conductus i. Some conductus are all about declamation and others are about virtuosic display, with a minimum of text Ave Maria gratia plena.

There is an old, hard-dying belief that in medieval vocal compositions text and music bear little relation to each other. It is impossible to hear sweet and touching songs like Ave nobilis venerabilis without realising that their composers were as capable of sensitive text-setting as they were of vocal fireworks.

With far greater fervour than was the case on the continent, a wave of passionate adoration of the Virgin Mary swept through medieval England. Two-thirds of the English polyphony that has survived from this period is associated with her cult. Marian Masses and votive Offices were said and sung daily in the churches and cathedrals, such as Salisbury where the cathedral is, incidentally, consecrated to St Mary.

Unfortunately, unlike the French motet, the fragmentation and dispersal of the English sources oblige performers to resort to various different manuscripts and to match them in order to obtain a coherent programme.

In the excerpts from the Marian Mass presented here the Kyrie and the Gloria come from the same manuscript and manifest the same virtuosic whirlwinds of ornamental pitches. It reached its peak at the turn of the fourteenth century with the motets of Pierre de la Croix, active between and For at the beginning of the fourteenth century came a new system of notation that sought to grant even greater freedom to the vox organalis by bringing rhythmic variety and a faster tempo.

From a purely technical point of view the way to the Ars Nova was being paved, which occurred, paradoxically, through a systematisation of rhythmic structure. The lower voices evoke the ringing of bells and the concluding chord unusually contains a full major triad. On the same flyleaf are a French motet and some wordless three-part pieces. Valde mane diluculo This motet survives in the binding of a manuscript at Tours.

Part of a possible explanation may lie in an interest in things English on the part of the clergy who owned the main manuscript; for on two of its inside pages are notes in French on some matters concerning the history of England. The feature in a motet of having voices with the same word or words, as in this piece, is also one that is particularly English.

The lowest voice is based on a corresponding plainsong melody. A century after the latter work, it is reasonable to surmise that Guillaume Dufay wrote his final and most expansive setting of Ave Regina celorum with his own end in mind.

In the event it proved impossible to assemble the singers in time, and the requested performance took place the following day. John Dunstable was regarded by contemporary commentators as the prime mover towards the new style exemplified by Dufay.

Its text, a heavily alliterative poem about the life of St Catherine, has been divided between the two upper voices, while the tenor repeats a fragment of the respond Virgo flagellatur, from the Office for her feast day. While its canonic-style entries over a sustained bass note recall the manner and technique of certain pieces from the Old Hall Manuscript, imitation plays a more structural role, just as it was beginning to do on the continent.

As the most important figure in English music between Dunstable and the Eton composers, John Plummer has been rather overlooked. At the top of what he calls the cantus chant, composition he placed the Mass and immediately below it the compositions on other sacred texts. The cantilena, or secular song came third. Tinctoris went on to qualify this three-part division of the cantus as as magnus, mediocris and parvus i.

The word poses a problem, however, when it is applied to all fifteenth- and sixteenthcentury compositions based on a sacred text. The manuscripts and printed editions often make a distinction between strictly liturgical compositions and those of a more general religious character, whether they were occasionally included in the liturgy or not. A collection of motets generally comprised a heterogeneous mixture of compositions on texts of a varied nature: whole or parts of psalms, antiphons, prayers in honour of the saints, etc.

The title pages were couched in general terms: Sacrae cantiones or Cantiones sacrae quae vulgo motetta vocant Sacred chants commonly called motets. In the course of the creative process the composer himself conceived every aspect of the complete work. The motets composed by Josquin Desprez on texts from the Psalms occupy a crucial position in this phenomenon of emancipation because they mark the beginning of an important body of work produced throughout the sixteenth century.

In his Salve Regina, a motet in honour of the Virgin Mary, Josquin quotes in paraphrase the Gregorian plainsong melody of this Marian hymn.

In a continuous imitative counterpoint he creates a splendid texture of four parts which presents the equivalent of captivating variations on the chant. In spite of the references in the text to enemies and battle, Janequin does not allow himself to be seduced by the temptations of pictorialism as he had so effectively done in the celebrated chanson La Bataille. None the less, the evolution towards the freely invented motet had been particularly inspired by the tendency to express the contents of the text in musical terms.

Josquin especially had paved the way to a form of music that is conceived as an extension of the words. With him the text was to become more and more the new thread of the musical argument.

With language, with the word as a springboard, it addresses us directly. While Lassus, at the court of Munich, was becoming increasingly influenced by the severity and the austerity of the CounterReformation, in England there were radical reforms taking place both in the style and the role of music, which was even more directly under the influence of the religious tendencies than on the continent.

The composer who was most affected by the fluctuations of the religious revolutions and counter-revolutions was undoubtedly Thomas Tallis c. William Byrda pupil of Tallis, probably felt the religious conflicts even more keenly, because, although a convinced Catholic, he remained in England where he and his family were frequently prosecuted for recusancy. He remained in favour with the Queen, however, and was permitted to publish his first Latin motets, a selection of which had been issued in together with several works by Tallis in a collection dedicated to the Queen.

In the motet Peccantem me quotidie he young Byrd proves himself to be an accomplished master of the learned techniques of imitative counterpoint, without, however, making an explicit effort at insistent expression of the content of the text.

While the art of chromaticism is the exception with Hassler, the Neapolitan composer and murderer of his wife and her lover, Carlo Gesualdoimmersed himself unrestrainedly in an extravagantly chromatic idiom. It is significant that Gesualdo, in spite of his unstable harmonic style, persisted in the polyphonic tradition and never wrote any monodies.

With all the subsequent developments of western classical music it is astonishing that, even today, performances of this stunning masterpiece can still have the power to evoke audience reactions ranging from shock to incredulity. Employing dazzling rhythmic exuberance and a harmonic language that seemingly flies in the face of convention, both medieval and modern, this radical work occupies a sound-world that defies simple definition.

Presenting the Messe offers a wonderfully liberating licence to discard pre-ordained musical labels, and it is this freedom that has inspired the juxtaposition of the pieces presented in this collection. The gap of nearly years between the composition of the oldest and newest works becomes an irrelevancy. Born some time around the yearhe was, by the standards of his day, an old man and he was in poor health. All this was set against the background of desperate times: the Black Death was a very recent memory, and France was still suffering appallingly from the ravages of the ongoing Hundred Years War.

Broadly speaking, the movements of the Messe adopt two styles. The Kyrie, Sanctus and Agnus Dei are lyrical and sensual, employing long, sweeping phrases. Dissonances are paraded totally shamelessly, right up to the point where pain crosses seamlessly into ecstasy. Although medieval and modern perceptions of dissonance differ, the harmonies defy the standard rules of both medieval and modern consonance. Even in these gentle movements, however, there are moments of intricate syncopation that relate to the general exuberance of the Gloria, Credo and Ite missa est.

Questi, soltanto nella quarta edizione del suo libro su Mozart parla del ritrovamento di una copia della partitura, depositata successivamente presso la Biblioteca di Stato di Berlino.

Del resto l'invenzione tematica e il suo sviluppo appartengono verosimilmente allo stile dell'artista salisburghese. Il quartetto solista espone e varia con freschezza melodica i diversi temi dei due gruppi; il movimento si conclude con un elegante sviluppo, una ripresa e una cadenza giocosa dell'oboe, del clarinetto, del fagotto e del corno.

Segue l'Adagio dal tono solenne e grave; nei cantabili interventi del clarinetto e del fagotto si preannuncia il tono "massonico" del Flauto magico. Nell'Andantino con variazioni scompare ogni ombra di meditazione e di rimpianto: un'atmosfera divertente e spensierata caratterizza gli interventi dei quattro solisti nelle dieci variazioni sul tema fondamentale, incastonate come pregevoli miniature in una tavolozza di colori caldi e suadenti.

Allegro maestoso mi bemolle maggiore 2. Andante do minore 3. L'ex-fanciullo prodigio aveva ormai ventitre anni e era dovuto tornare a testa bassa a Salisburgo, dopo un viaggio di sedici mesi che aveva avuto come tappe intermedie Mannheim e Monaco e come meta finale Parigi.

L'insoddisfazione e la rabbia non spensero ma anzi stimolarono la sua voglia di comporre. Tra le musiche scritte in quei mesi spiccano la Messa dell'Incoronazione K. Nell'epoca dello stile galante, quando la musica doveva essere soprattutto piacevole, leggera ed elegante, la Sinfonia concertante consentiva di incrociare Sinfonia e Concerto, alleggerendo il serioso stile sinfonico con le divagazioni brillanti e virtuosistiche dello stile concertante.

La ripresa della parte iniziale porta alla cadenza, che solitamente era lasciata all'improvvisazione dei solisti ma in questo caso scritta da Mozart di suo pugno, sfruttando principalmente il gioco d'eco tra violino e viola. Soprattutto negli anni Settanta ed Ottanta, quelli del "Nuovo testamento" affidato al disco, che coincisero con i grandi cicli monografici realizzati con le nuove tecniche di registrazione stereofonica e digitale.

Questo Mozart che viene qui presentato in CD apparve per la prima volta su LP e cassette nel fanno eccezione la Sinfonia n. Che cosa non andava, e non piaceva a tutti, del modo di eseguire Mozart da parte di Karajan? Come spesso accade in questi casi, le riserve erano di natura diversa, spesso opposta.

Perfino la conclamata bellezza del suono dei Berliner - in formazione grande, con il raddoppio dei fiati imposto dal direttore - non pareva rispondere a quelle proporzioni ed a quei rapporti che si richiedevano, per antica tradizione, ad un'orchestra mozartiana. Bohm s'identificava con un modo di intendere Mozart consolidato e sicuro, cordiale e gradevole, elegante e moderato: il Mozart viennese consolatorio e "giusto", che si fa capire da tutti. Interpretare o iperinterpretare?

Non erano, queste, cose da Karajan. Doveva invece imporre il suo marchio personale anche sul ritratto di Mozart. Iperinterpretarlo per interpretarlo. Si prenda, per fermarsi ad esempi di pagine universalmente famose, il celeberrimo inizio della Sinfonia in Sol minore K Con ampio gusto, Karajan deliba ogni particolare e lo carica di un'intenzione solenne, austera ed insieme fastosa.

Queste intenzionali estremizzazioni, in cui Karajan era maestro insuperabile, possono cogliere di sorpresa e perfino indisporre chi si attenda da una Sinfonia di Mozart un pacato piacere, magari da gustarsi ad occhi chiusi e senza sussulti; ma suscitano nell'ascoltatore attento, e non solo per la tecnica con cui sono realizzate, un'emozione intensa. In questo clima, con Karajan tutta la Sinfonia s'erge come un'erme solitario paesaggio di rovine classiche.

Un atteggiamento decadente? In passato il pubblico che andava all'opera, soprattutto per divertirsi ed incontrare gli amici, faceva un tale rumore che a malapena si riusciva a sentire l'inizio della musica.

Per ovviare a questo, i compositori svilupparono l'Ouverture letteralmente l' "apertura" nella quale gli strumentisti attaccavano con alcuni fragorosi accordi per mettere le conversazioni a tacere ed attirare l'attenzione, come fa un giudice con il martelletto.

Eccezion fatta per la Francia dove venne adottato un stratagemma diverso, questa Ouverture in tre parti chiamata allora in Italia, come oggi d'altronde, Sinfonia divenne quasi universale all'inizio del Settecento. NelGluck introdusse un nuovo tipo di Ouverture per la sua opera Alceste.

Egli era dell'opinione che l'Ouverture doveva, non solo mettere a tacere il pubblico, ma anche calarlo nell'atmosfera del dramma che si sarebbe svolto poco dopo. Tutte le Ouvertures sono orchestrate allo stesso modo, ossia con un paio di flauti, oboi, clarinetti, fagotti, corni, trombe e timpani e con archi.

Questa formazione orchestrale comprendente otto strumenti a fiato, quattro ottoni, strumenti a percussione ed archi, era superiore all'epoca a quella considerata normale per la Sinfonia da concerto, la quale si limitava a due oboi, due corni e ad archi, con un fagotto come parte del gruppo dei bassi. Due giorni dopo ebbe luogo la prima esecuzione al Burgtheater di Vienna. L'Ouverture in Re maggiore comprende un unico movimento, Presto, in forma sonata senza sviluppo.

Mozart ritorna allo stile francese per l'Adagio iniziale dell'Ouverture che, con il suo ritmo fortemente marcato, porta infine all'Allegro che inizia a mo' di fuga. Nella parte centrale, un cambiamento in Adagio ricorda la lenta introduzione in tre gruppi di accordi di sviluppo.

La prima esecuzione ebbe luogo l'indomani al Teatro nazionale di Praga, in occasione delle celebrazioni per l'incoronazione del re di Baviera, Leopoldo II. Il successo fu immediato. Eppure, in entrambi i lavori, il ricorso ad un potente crescendo indica l'influenza di Mannheim piuttosto di quella della scuola italiana.

Nel bel mezzo del Presto in Do maggiore, pieno di gioia e dagli accenti mediorientali, si inserisce un Andante dolce nel quale l'ottavino cede il passo ai flauti. L'Opera fu completata a Praga il 28 ottobre ed eseguita l'indomani al Teatro Nazionale.

Nelil poeta francese A. Danchet scrisse in collaborazione con il compositore A. L'opera fu completata nel gennaio successivo ed eseguita all'Holtfeater di Monaco il 29 dello stesso mese. Si tratta di una farsa leggera portata a termine poco tempo prima della sua prima esecuzione al Burgtheater di Vienna il 26 gennaio Al luglio seguente appartengono gli ultimi due Concerti per pianoforte, il K 40 e K Concerto per pianoforte e orchestra n.

Tuttavia, non abbiamo alcuna parte per flauto nei primi due movimenti. Klaus Hortschanisky ha teorizzato che il nuovo Finale fu eseguito a Mannheim nel Quale formazione orchestrale intendesse Mozart per questo Concerto fu occasione di lunghi dibattiti, a causa del fatto che esso non fu scritto per i medesimi strumenti di altri Concerti.

Ma anche il secondo soggetto pur esso nel tono di Re maggiore, vive della stessa animazione ritmica. Sin dalle prime battute, il Concerto K. La mancata ricerca di virtuosismo si ripercuote anche nella conclusione del Concerto, che termina con un piano, dopo l'ultima esposizione del tema eseguita dall'orchestra, privata dell'apporto del solista.

Concerto per pianoforti n 7 in Mi bemolle maggiore per due K. Non sorprende molto che questo Concerto segua le orme del Concerto in Si bemolle, K Allegro mi bemolle maggiore 2. Andantino do minore 3. Scritto per la pianista francese mademoiselle Jeunehomme, conosciuta dal musicista a Salisburgo e poi incontrata di nuovo a Parigi, questa composizione presenta una straordinaria ricchezza tematica sin dal primo movimento.

Concerto per due pianoforti n. Allegro Mi bemolle maggiore. L'imponenza del Recitativo « Wohlan movimento, che nello sviluppo si colora di tinte cupe, dovette risuonare esaltata agli orecchi degli ascoltatori viennesi grazie a una successiva, e purtroppo perduta, rielaborazione della partitura, arricchita di clarinetti, trombe e timpani.

Balza subito evidente la scrittura quasi cameristica di questa pagina, nella quale la mano sinistra del pianista ha un ruolo prevalentemente di accompagnamento armonico, quasi si trattasse di una Sonata e non di un Concerto.

La sezione contrastante del Larghetto si apre poi con un nuovo esitante motivo cromatico dei violini sopra il lungo pedale di corni e viole: sembra davvero qui di avvertire i dubbi e i sospetti del Conte nelle future Nozze di Figaro!

La ripresa del tema principale variato dal solista, avviene in Si. La consueta cadenza del solista porta alla chiusa del movimento.

Il Concerto si chiude con un delizioso Tempo di Minuetto, una specie di caleidoscopio di idee musicali che si alternano felicemente senza oscurare la forma rondeau del movimento. Secondo la tesi di A. Einstein, che ha trovato riscontro in illustri studiosi mozartiani, il Concerto in La maggiore K.

Si tratta in ogni caso di una della pagine per le quali lo stesso Mozart nutriva particolare predilezione. Il solista. La seconda idea melodica viene presentata dai violini primi e sostenuta dalle note ribattute dei violini secondi e delle viole e dalle lunghe note dei fiati. Il solista, come spesso avviene nei Concerti mozartiani, fa il suo ingresso con un nuovo motivo cui subito si uniscono gli archi che riprendono il primo tema. Da qui in poi il.

La ripresa, regolare, porta alla consueta cadenza del solista e alla chiusa orchestrale. Una gioiosa ripetizione del primo motivo seguita da una coda orchestrale conclude la pagina.

Albeit scrisse a Barbara Ployer che fu lo stesso Mozart ad eseguirlo per la prima volta il 17 marzo. La versione originale contiene una sovrapposizione drammatica tra piano ed orchestra, simile a quello espresso nel futuro Concerto in Do minore del La ri-esposizione del tema danzante conduce ad una pausa a cui segue il risoluto Allegro conclusivo in tempo sei ottavi, che accoglie questa composizione deliziosa verso la sua conclusione.

Allegro Si bemolle maggiore 2. Andante Mi bemolle maggiore 3. Il pianoforte entra con un ampio passaggio libero, che porta a un punto coronato, e riprende poi da solo il materiale tematico precedentemente esposto, introducendo anche nuovi temi e approdando ad una chiusa orchestrale rifacentesi al primo Tutti.

Nello svolgimento si hanno passaggi modulanti del solista, imitazioni fra gli strumenti dell'orchestra, la riapparizione del tema iniziale in orchestra sotto il trillo del pianoforte. La ripresa ha numerose varianti rispetto all'esposizione e perviene alla conclusione attraverso una grande cadenza. Accenti da cantico religioso sono stati rimarcati da alcuni studiosi nello svolgimento del discorso musicale. Anche qui una cadenza precede la conclusione: va segnalato al riguardo che di questo, come di parecchi Concerti mozartiani, ci sono pervenute le cadenze composte dall'autore per uso proprio o di altri esecutori.

Il segna una periodo di pausa di Mozart quale compositore ed esecutore di Concerti per pianoforte. Comunque, sono. Il primo movimento ha il carattere di una Ouverture brillante, il piano comincia aggiungendo passaggi virtuosi e aggraziati. Il secondo movimento ha i tratti di una Romanza, che prelude al movimento centrale del Concerto in Re minore. Passaggi inconsueti tra le sezioni principali pongono Mozart al di fuori dei suoi contemporanei. Un modulazione simile prosegue, questa volta fondata in una sequenza cromatica discendente.

Non sarebbe altrimenti Mozart, e il suo tremore non ha strascichi e non va oltre il primo movimento, ma riemerge temporaneamente con le modulazione della fase centrale del terzo movimento conclusivo. Composto per Barbara Ployer, fu completato il 10 aprile — come risulta dal manoscritto autografo — ed inserito nel catalogo personale delle composizioni il 12 aprile La prima esecuzione fu di Barbara Ployer il 13 Giugnosotto la direzione dello stesso autore Mozart — ed insieme eseguirono il K e la Sonata per due pianoforti K Raramente uno stesso Concerto veniva replicato oltre una volta.

La platea mozartiana esigeva ascoltare una nuova composizione ogni volta. Nessun altro Concerto infatti ha inizio con i soli violini, a cui si uniscono in seguito i Tutti. Come una sorta di ricambio, gli stessi violini taceranno durante la cadenza dove — altrettanto inusualmente — solo i bassi saranno presenti.

Qui il piano assume il ruolo di un soprano drammatico in una scena di Opera seria. Tal evoluzione fa tornare alla mente la conclusione della danza Davids Bundler di Schumann. Nello stesso frangente temporale, egli scrisse anche il Quintetto per pianoforte Kla Sonata per violino e pianoforte K e la Sonata per pianoforte in Do minore K Ella eseguiva questo concerto nelle sue esibizioni e Mozart stesso lo esegui a Vienna il 13 Febbraio in un recital della cantante Luisa Laschi.

Specialmente la dolcezza del primo movimento con le sue armonie romantiche, ha pochi confronti con altre composizioni. Dopo un energico ritornello orchestrale al centro del movimento, il pianoforte rientra con una sorta di improvvisazione che porta alla sezione-sviluppo. La sensazione di benessere di. Ma non solo questo! Matteo di Bach. Solo nella cadenza originale di Mozart viene rievocato quello scompiglio con simili passaggi fulminei: un elegante brano di psicologia musicale anteriore a Wagner.

Inoltre, si nota un evidente contrasto tra queste due composizioni. Il terzo movimento inizia con un tema sfrontato nel ritmo di danza popolare eseguita alternativamente dal piano e dai fiati. Piuttosto inaspettatamente gli archi entrano nella misura 32 con una vigorosa fuga breve. Una fuga entro un Concerto per pianoforte!

Qualcosa che non era mai accaduto prima. Il tema della fuga ricompare diverse volte durante gli episodi solistici. Ma non solo: nella ripresa un vero conflitto si impone tra i due soggetti laddove essi si fronteggiano in una drammatica fuga doppia — un simbolo di lotta in cui apparentemente il tema danzante ha la meglio. Come osservato da C. Rosen, solo in poche altre composizioni principalmente nel Don Giovanni e nella Sinfonia 40 in Sol minore K.

Al contrario, egli scrisse spesso i suoi Concerti per piano in coppia e la vicinanza del Concerto n. I Concerti per piano del Mozart maturo condividono una struttura comune. Come analizzato da A. Einstein, la. Attraverso il resto del primo ritornello. Unico tra i Concerti mozartiani il n. Opera preromantica.

In questi e in molti altri modi simili viene solitamente definito questo Concerto. La sua influenza, evidente in alcune opere come nel primo Concerto per pianoforte e orchestra di Brahmsattraversa tutto l' Ottocento e si estende sino al XX secolo. Mozart compose 41 Sinfonie, ma solo poche di esse sono assimilabili per dimensioni, organico, intenzioni e contenuti a quelle che nei anni successivi furono il genere "principe" della ricerca musicale.

L'assenza di una cadenza autografa di Mozart nel Kva letta proprio come indice dell'importanza che attribuiva a questa composizione. Nei Concerti di Mozart assistiamo ad una sconvolgente evoluzione non solo delle dimensioni dell'orchestra, ma anche nei timbri, nel rapporto tra le varie parti dell'orchestra e nel carattere dell'opera, che da intrattenimento virtuosistico si teatralizza divenendo discorso, narrazione, azione drammatica, musica assoluta.

Entrambi furono composti in meno di un mese. Il Concerto in Do maggiore fu iniziato in Febbraio, immediatamente dopo la prima esecuzione del K e fu terminato in base a quanto scritto dallo stesso Mozart nel proprio catalogo privato il 9 marzo Un buon copista oggi avrebbe bisogno del doppio del tempo solo per riuscire a copiarlo! Nel primo movimento, il tema principale e quello secondario — il principio maschile e femminile — sono in armonia, come una coppia ideale. Senza alcun dubbio, senza questi elementi apparentemente incoerenti, il suo andamento sarebbe troppo calmo e scontato.

Il Finale recupera la struttura formale: il motivo iniziale si ripresenta e conduce alla conclusione del movimento. Le corpose dissonanze del motivo secondario richiamano alla mente quelle del Quartetto K che Mozart aveva composto un paio di mesi prima. Si mantiene qui un dialogo permanente tra solista e gli archi o i fiati e, nelle loro partiture, essi hanno tra loro frequenti dialoghi. Alcuni di loro suggeriscono perfino che il K sia meno ispirato rispetto al Kche rappresenta un evidente modello di riferimento per il compositore.

Sebbene sia scritto per solo pianoforte, infatti ha il carattere di un assolo per corno, richiamando perfino i Finali dei suoi Concerti per corno e orchestra K. Ma Mozart cattura questo tema nuovamente e lo affida al corno come la vera conclusione del movimento, laddove il solo corno lo suona, prima ad unisono con il flauto e poi lo regala al piano solo. Se Mozart considerava Vienna il posto migliore al mondo, sappiamo anche quale reputasse il peggiore.

E come per le Sinfonie, anche per i Concerti per pianoforte non disponiamo di recensioni significative. Mozart era molto richiesto a Vienna come compositore, esecutore ed insegnante. Molti nobili si privarono delle proprie compagini strumentali, e le occasioni di suonare in pubblico calarono vistosamente. Ad iniziare dalla partitura autografa: essa mette insieme singole sezioni, brutta copia e versione finale.

Tuttavia, i temi sottostanti e i passaggi del solista spesso richiedono assestamenti o scambi di posizione. Indicazione elusa dagli editori! In diversi esempi, tali abbreviazioni riguardano la continuazione di passaggi assimilabili a simili antecedenti che lasciano pochi dubbi in merito — anche se qualche interprete li considera letteralmente, eseguendo note. La prima parte del secondo movimento — a - fu scritto in un foglio diverso e non allegato alla partitura completa.

Queste tre note — Fa, La, Sol — creano un effetto di smarrimento riscontrato anche nella musica del Masonic Funeral Knella Fantasia per pianoforte in Do minore K e nel movimento centrale del Concerto in Mi bemolle maggiore Ktutti composti nel Il principio, un unisono senza alcuna linea armonica. Ha il senso di annuncio-presagio, come il silenzio che precede una tempesta. Come logica conseguenza di questa sovrapposizione, il piano solo non riprende mai il tema del Tutti.

Dopo le cadenza, il pianoforte ricompare — ancora in modo inusuale — suonando armonie interrotte, come fossero accompagnamento ai frammenti del. Il primo movimento si conclude con un pianissimo, in assenza di speranza, con rassegnata accettazione. Dopo tal disperante Finale, il secondo movimento appare come un rifugio amichevole, una parentesi sognante. Anche in teatro, solitamente le tragedie contengono usualmente delle scene di speranza.

Solo Mozart — e forse in seguito Schubert — potevano inventare una melodia con poche note che abbia al contempo un significato tanto profondo. La seconda parentesi-episodio. Dopo una pausa, il tema riprende in una versione accelerata che conduce verso una danza macabra come guidata da spirito rabbioso.

Allegro maestoso Do maggiore 2. Andante Fa maggiore 3. Proprio Le nozze di Figaro segnano una sorta di spartiacque nella produzione pianistica mozartiana. Dopo l'abbandono del servizio presso la corte arcivescovile di Salisburgo e il trasferimento a Vienna delMozart aveva scritto quattordici Concerti per pianoforte fra la fine del e la primavera del ; appena tre Concerti K. Nelle interminabili serate Concertistiche per sottoscrizione "Accademie"frequentate da un ristretto circolo di aristocratici e.

Tutta la musica per pianoforte era peraltro considerata come genere di intrattenimento e di svago, ed era destinata agli esecutori dilettanti, che si dedicavano al pianoforte in quanto strumento di rapide soddisfazioni.

Le Accademie viennesi, non a caso, avevano non solo una funzione ricreativa ma anche commerciale: l'ascoltatore infatti, se aveva ritenuto di suo gradimento le composizioni udite nel corso del Concerto, poteva acquistare, per le proprie private esibizioni, una copia degli spartiti, fatta appositamente incidere dall'autore a proprie spese. Dunque un contenuto musicale disinvolto e disimpegnato, improntato a un concetto semplicemente decorativo della scrittura pianistica, un ruolo accessorio della compagine strumentale nei primi Concerti viennesi gli strumenti a fiato sono considerati ad libitumuna estrema nitidezza nell'impianto strutturale.

Insomma il Concerto per pianoforte diviene progressivamente nelle mani di Mozart un vero e proprio laboratorio di sperimentazioni formali e linguistiche. Non a caso il Concerto K nacque come opera isolata in circostanze poco chiare; potrebbe essere stato destinato a un ciclo di Accademie nel periodo dell'Avvento; o eseguito nel viaggio a Praga nel gennaio Il pianoforte fa il suo ingresso con un tema del tutto diverso, dal carattere decorativo, e appare solo in un secondo momento il primo tema dell'esposizione orchestrale.

Il gusto "popolare", dunque, cede al "sofisticato" e viene assorbito in un movimento che contraddice fortemente ogni concessione al pubblico. Una distanza incolmabile rispetto a quella "via di mezzo fra il troppo difficile e il troppo facile" che aveva segnato i primi Concerti viennesi.

Si presentano un paio di domande sottostanti questa composizione che non trovano risposta soddisfacente. No, in questo Concerto il pianoforte si mantiene come solitario, unico protagonista, come una star. Ma passarono circa 14 mesi dal momento della composizione a quello della sua prima esecuzione in pubblico.

Come mai quindi? Naturalmente, egli avrebbe potuto completare anche composizioni che avrebbe poi eseguito nel corso del e aver tralasciato questa, apparentemente composta per il proprio piacere personale. Solo dopo la morte di Mozart le parti smarrite del Concerto K. Solo nel quando la prima versione parziale fu pubblicata, i fatti furono resi noti: la scrittura differente fu evidente. Mozart ebbe mai la sensazione prima di questa composizione che quello sarebbe stato il suo ultimo anno di vita?

Torniamo al Concerto! Una simmetria perfetta si riscontra nel tema iniziale del secondo movimento iniziante con il Mi bemolle, seguito dalla sua quarta. I temi contengono solo poche note che tendono ad avere un tratto spirituale — preghiera. Un legame breve di tipo cromatico tra le misure 4 e 5 richiama il solo passaggio cromatico nel ritornello del primo movimento.

Il tema che si ritrova splendente nel Lied scritto subito dopo questo Concerto, il K Lo stesso Mozart in una lettera del 28 dicembre scriveva a proposito delle sue prime creazioni viennesi di questo genere musicale «I Concerti sono una via di mezzo fra il troppo difficile e il troppo facile, sono molto brillanti e piacevoli all'udito, naturalmente senza cadere nella vuotaggine. Oltre a lavori per questa specifica destinazione, Mozart soleva riproporre musiche scritte in precedenza, come ad esempio il Concerto in re maggiore K.

Nella quarta variazione il pianoforte semplifica il tema, prima della ripresa in orchestra. Non manca la cadenza del solista concepita abbastanza liberamente, ma il discorso si avvia rapidamente alla stretta conclusiva fra una cascata di note e di suoni arpeggiati del pianista. Ennio Melchiorre. Tra le composizioni liturgiche mozartiane di minori dimensioni non mancano ad esempio testi di Offertori per voce sola, coro ed orchestra, o brani generici da utilizzare in sostituzione del testo prescritto: Mottetti, ma anche Sonate strumentali di solito per l'Epistola, come quella in Do maggiore K per due trombe, due violini, basso continuo ed organo obbligato da associare alla Messa K Al tempo delle Messe mozartiane, maestri di tale Cappella furono Joseph Franz Lolli e Jakob Rust ; anche se ufficialmente la carica ricoperta da Domenico Fischietti dal alvicemaestro dal nei vent'anni precedenti vi aveva prestato servizio come violinista fu Leopold Mozart, il padre di Wolfgang, mentre come primo violino, direttore d'orchestra della stessa fu assunto Michael Haydn, fratello di Joseph.

L'organo inferiore del coro ed il violone si uniscono anch'essi nel caso che debbano suonare tutti. Raramente si ascoltano l'oboe ed il flauto traverso: mai il corno da caccia. Tutte queste persone suonano quindi tra i violini".

Di esse, due Messe - K e K - sono state scritte per chiese viennesi quando nel Leopold Mozart aveva deciso di trasferire la famiglia nella capitale asburgica per profittare di migliori occasioni professionali da tentare con Wolfgang. In ogni caso, sappiamo con certezza che Mozart scrisse una Messa per la consacrazione della chiesa annessa ad un orfanotrofio di Vienna, celebrata solennemente il 7 dicembre alla presenza della famiglia imperiale, come racconta una cronaca apparsa di un giornale locale:.

Le musiche sono state eseguite e dirette con la massima precisione dal medesimo, suscitando generali consensi ed ammirazione; da lui stesso sono stati cantati anche i Mottetti". Ma essa traspare anche dall'estensione dei singoli brani, e dalla loro ampia articolazione interna. Il Kyrie consta ad esempio di un maestoso Adagio introduttivo in breve e fitto dialogo tra coro a blocchi "recitativi" ed orchestra, cui segue un Allegro come "Sinfonia", vale a dire iniziato da un consistente preambolo strumentale: esso viene poi immediatamente ripetuto, ma stavolta sovrapponendogli le voci.

Il Gloria ad episodi corali nello stesso stile salvo un transitorio spunto imitativo al "propter magnam gloriam tuam"intercala duetti ed arie solistiche "Laudamus" e "Domine"; "Quoniam"per concludere con una severa fuga a quattro voci "Cum sancto spiritu". Infine l'Agnus Dei inizia come aria tenorile coinvolgendo prima il coro al completo, e poi concludendo con un ternario e cullante Allegro generale "dona nobis pacem".

L'altra Messa K. Entrambe scritte per Salisburgo rispettivamente agli inizi e nell'autunno delle Messa K 65 e K 66 replicano la dicotomia precedente. Da segnalare il canone cromatico del Benedictus, un tratto di stile sublime solitamente non attribuito a questo momento liturgico. Una Messa, anche solenne, con tutto il Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, la Sonata all'Epistola, l'Offertorio o Mottetto, Sanctus ed Agnus Dei, anche quando celebra il principe stesso, deve durare al massimo tre quarti d'ora.

Ci vuole uno studio particolare per questo tipo di composizione. Concepiti solisticamente potevano dunque al massimo essere alcuni movimenti come il Benedictus o l'Agnus Dei.

Lo mostrano appunto quelli della KKK assai ampia, con "Sinfonia" ed esordio solo corale, come si addice ad una Missa longaK la medesima costruzione appare anche nel Benedictus e K Infine, non va trascurata la trama unicamente polifonico-imitativa che Mozart compose per le sue prime Messe salisburghesi, brevi o meno che siano.

Musica: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1. Kyrie - soli e coro - Andante maestoso do maggiore. Maestoso 2. Gloria - soli e coro - Allegro con spirito do maggiore 3. Credo - coro - Allegro molto do maggiore a. Et incarnatus est - soli e coro - Adagio do minore b. Et resurrexit - soli e coro - Allegro molto do maggiore 4. Sanctus - coro - Andante maestoso do maggiore a. Osanna - coro - Allegro assai sol maggiore; do maggiore 5. Benedictus - soli - Allegretto do maggiore a.

Osanna - coro - Allegro assai do maggiore b. Benedictus - soli e coro - Allegretto do maggiore c. Osanna - coro - Allegro assai do maggiore 6. Agnus Dei - soprano - Andante sostenuto fa maggiore 7.

Dona nobis - soli e coro - Andante con moto do maggiore. E' il quattro settembre del ed egli scrive al suo maestro italiano Padre Martini: «Vivo in un paese dove la musica ha pochissima fortuna».

Si riferiva, come si sa, alla natia Salisburgo dove risiedeva in quegli anni dopo i viaggi giovanili e la prima rappresentazione a Monaco. Ma i frutti di questa «molta fatica» furono assai numerosi in quei due anni di soggiorno salisburghese che dovevano concludersi con la rappresentazione a Monaco dell'Idomeneo.

E compose in quegli anni la Serenata K. E poi - per far fronte ai suoi impegni professionali verso la corte arcivescovile - numerose pagine di carattere religioso: la Messa in do maggiore dell'Incoronazionela Messa K. Al centro di questo contrastato periodo - fu eseguita il 23 marzo - si pone la composizione della Messa dell'Incoronazione K. Del resto queste diverse componenti espressive e strutturali si riconoscono anche da un'analisi superficiale. Il Kyrie si conclude con la ripresa del tema del coro «Andante maestoso» e con una «coda» che ripresenta contemporaneamente il materiale tematico delle due sezioni.

Anche il Credo ha una struttura strumentale assai precisa. Qui al contrario di quello che avviene nei brani precedenti le voci non appaiono che dopo la quinta battuta quasi che Mozart abbia voluto riaffermare una sorta di primato della componente orchestrale della partitura. La terza sezione ripropone l'«Allegro molto» iniziale sulle parole «et resurrexit» ancora basato sul soggetto principale fino all'«Amen» esposto in imitazione sullo stesso tema su cui erano state cantate le parole «descendit de coelis».

Gianfilippo De'Rossi. Gloria in excelsis Deo, et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis. Laudamus te, benedicimus te, adoramus te, glorificamus te. Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam. Qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis, suscipe deprecationem nostram. Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis. Jesu Christe. Cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris. Credo in unum Deum, Patrem Omnipotentem, factorem coeli et terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium. Et in unum Dominum, Jesum Christum, Filium Dei, Unigenitum, et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula, Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero, genitum, non factum consubstantialem Patri, per quem omnia facta sunt, qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis.

Et incarnatus est de spiritu sancto ex Maria Virgine, et homo factus es, crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Filato, passus et sepultus est.

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