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Barbaric Practices - Various - Fenland Funland (Cassette)

21.10.2021

Each reader, appreciator or poet is final arbiter in this test, as in the test of technique. The expression of thoughts which fail to register emotionally with a reader as poetry is called verse. Thus, divided by technique, there are the two classifications, poetry and prose; divided by subject matter and its emotional effect, there are the two classifications, poetry and verse. Poetry in Human Affairs Poetry preceded prose, as a persisting form of literary expression.

Writing was unknown to early man; and poetry was far better adapted to be retained in the mind than its more plodding relative, prose. The conventions of poetry formed memory devices which prose lacked.

In the beginning, lyric cries, folk wisdom, tales of tribal heroes, formal odes of jubilation or lamentation, religious teachings, philosophies, pseudo-sciences, histories of men, demigods, gods and peoples, developed first in the form of poetry. Insofar as the conventions of poetry were artificial and unnatural, poetry tended constantly to rigidify and petrify.

It became artificial and unnatural, whereas prose continued to be natural. Man learned to write, and to preserve his writing in stone, papyrus, sheepskin and paper. At first it was the poetry which was so preserved; at length the art patterns were broken, and humbler and more natural prose began to replace poetry. Today, we look to prose for folk wisdom, actual and fictional narratives, religious teachings, philosophies, scientific writings, and histories.

Poetry, as the most concentrated and emotional expression of the soul of man, still should have its place in the lyric outbursts, the songs, of man.

But poets, bound by fossilized conventions, have become a tepid social group, their words largely unimportant; and in the large prose tends today to have replaced poetry entirely. Many of the poets today and tomorrow seek to restore poetry to something of its original wide popularity, as a natural and unartif icial expression of concentrated emotional speech.

Kings, rulers, statesmen, generals, philosophers, scientists were. This is so no longer. Poets were once doers; they are now at best sayers, increasingly unheard. This is one price of man's extreme specialization. The price paid may be more than the human gain, in this particular. The Poet's Equipment The poet, like all artists, is one of the race's sensitives: one of those more finely attuned to phrase the past and the present acceptably, and sense and phrase the future.

The first necessary equipment is sincerity. This demands that commonplace phrasings must be avoided, in favor of fresh original expression of individual or group concentrated emotions. If the race recognizes these as its own, to that extent the poet will be hailed as poetically great. Another essential is technical mastery; adeptness in the craft of poetry, skill in handling all the tools of the trade. Familiarity with all the conventions will enable you to break them and make new ones when your fresh subject matter demands it.

Technical mastery is as easy, and no easier, than learning how to raise better peas than your neighbor, or how to build better bridges and skyscrapers than anyone else. Having learned the craft, anyone with an ear for word-music can improvise flawless heroic blank verse or any other form of blank verse by the hour, or improvise elaborately rhymed sonnets with no appreciable hesitation.

This is not poetry. But the familiarity with the craft makes the coming of poetry easier, in the rare hours when the poet has a concentrated word that must be said. Poetic Greatness One can become great poetically, either in his own sight alone or in the opinions of others, without knowledge of the craft.

Homer, Sappho, Villon, Burns, made their own patterns, or poured their burning emotional beauty into ready-made patterns followed without being comprehended. The definitions of patterns were made afterward, from a scholastic study of poetry widely recognized as great. Such greatness may be achieved by anyone today—the entirely satisfactory expression of one's soul's yearnings.

But the recognition of. With a complete technical mastery of the craft of poetry, any poet today can achieve complete greatness in his own sight. Whether he is hailed by others as great, and especially whether or not his name is hailed by his own and subsequent generations as great, depends largely on the extent to which his own concentrated heart-utterances express the desires of the race, in a new, fresh and original form.

Given such recognition by the race, an enduring poetic greatness has been achieved. The poet can no more control this than Cnut could act as dictator over the tide. How Poems Come Verse upon any theme, and in treatment ranging from the most ponderously serious to the most frivolously flippant, can be manufactured at any time.

Its technique is comparatively simple. Its devices, meter, rhyme, alliteration, assonance, consonance, stanza arrangement may be mastered as easily as multiplication tables. Poetry comes differently.

It is primarily the intellect that manufactures verse; but the intellect plays only a secondary part in creating poetry. The desire that seeks expression, which it finds in the poem, springs from a deeper basic source than thinking. Man, indeed all forms of life, are compact of desires. The fulfillment of one desire causes others to spring hydra-like from its invisible corpse. Psychologists tell us that dreams are likewise expressions of desire, in the form of desires fulfilled; that is, wish fulfillments.

Much thinking is likewise wish fulfillment; there is truth in Wordsworth's dictum, "The wish is father to the thought. As one poet has it: Singing is sweet; but be sure of this, Lips only sing when they cannot kiss. Art, James Thomson. Because of the obstacle, a tremendous inner compulsion comes upon the sensitive poet to seek relief by creating his wish-fulfillment in words: and so it is that poems are born.

This inner compulsion has, as. Inspiration blows from no outer sky, but from the universe of desires within. The woman's insistent inner compulsion to deliver her child at the appointed hour is hardly more shatter ingly imperative than the true poet's insistent inner commandment to write.

At times the whole poem forms itself within the mind, before the first word is written down. At times a couplet, a single line—perhaps the first, but more often the last—or even a phrase or a mood comes first, with the dominant insistence that it be given the intermittent immortality of writing. The wise procedure for the poet is to write down what comes, as it comes, even if only a single line or less is the result. As far as possible, write out the poem without delay, to prevent another visitor from Porlock's silencing part of your poem forever, as Coleridge's Kubla Khan was silenced forever.

When the poem or poetic fragment is written down, the critical intellect comes into play. If technical mastery has become habitual, the intellect may have no changes to suggest.

The poet who fails to be a critic as well is usually his own self-slayer. More extended poems, of course, require more preparation and slower writing and criticism. In all cases the danger is more in the overuse of the intellect than in the use of inspiration.

Originality in Poetry The easiest way, in poetry, is to rephrase your own emotional reactions in the words and phrases created by the favorite poets of the past: so that a thing is "white as the driven snow," or "red as a June rose. Second-rate poets distrust their own vision, which differs in every case from that of every other person in the world; and hence sag into such uncreative repetitions.

It is wisest to be true to your own differing vision and seek to expand the boundaries of poetry by stating your own desires in your own terms. The weakness of much verse and some poetry of the past is partly traceable to unoriginal teachers of English or versification, who advised their pupils to saturate themselves in this or that poet, and then write. Keats, saturated in Spenser, took a long time to overcome this echoey quality and emerge into the glorious highland of his Hyperion.

Many lesser souls never emerge. It is valuable to know the. But the critical brain should carefully root out every echo, every imitation—unless some alteration in phrasing or meaning makes the altered phrase your own creation. The present double decade has splendidly altered the technique of versification in poetry, by the addition of freer rhythms, consonance, and other devices in the direction of natural speech.

It has altered the themes and subjects of poetry as much, until the Verboten sign is unknown to the present generations of poets, as far as themes are concerned. If the speech is natural and conversational; the treatment sincere and original; the craftsmanship matured—there is no reason in the poet's effort to withhold him from a seat among the immortals. It is easy to understand and not easy to define. In prose and poetry it means the flow of accented and unaccented syllables.

It may be defined as: The successive rise and fall of sounds, in pitch, stress, or speed; when used of words, depending on accents, pauses, or durational quantities. In classical Greek and Latin poetry, rhythm was not based on accent, but on the conventionalized time it took to pronounce syllables.

Syllables were not accented or unaccented, as in modern poetry, from a standpoint of versification; but were long or short. Since two consonants occurring together made a syllable long, and a short vowel made a syllable short when followed by one consonant, the word honest was scanned as short-long: the rhythmic stress occurring on the second syllable, not on the first, as with us.

Honest, pronounced in the classical Greek or Roman way, would be ta-TUM; with us, it is pronounced rhythmically TUM-ta, the accent falling on the first syllable.

This one example will show why verse written in English according to classical rules of scansion, based upon long and short syllables instead of accent, is unnatural and only slightly pleasing to the ear.

It is no more at home among modern poets writing in English than Greek clothing or the Greek language would be. Modern poetry written in English must be in words whose rhythm, based upon accent, tends toward uniformity rather than toward variety.

Both prose and poetry have rhythm, the stream or flow of accented and unaccented syllables; in prose the pattern constantly varies, while in poetry it approaches some sort ofregularity. This is clearly poetry:. Rose leaves, when the rose is dead, Are heap'd for the beloved's bed; And so thy thoughts, when Thou art gone, Love itself shall slumber on. It would be no less poetry if it were set up: Music, when soft voices die, vibrates in the memory.

Odours, when sweet violets sicken, live within the sense they quicken. Rose leaves, when the rose is dead, are heap'd for the beloveds bed. And so thy thoughts, when Thou art gone, Love itself shall slumber on.

It did not take the line division to make this poetry. Technically, the tendency toward regularity in the rhythm made it definitely verse and not prose, while its emotional appeal, to most people, makes it poetry.

It is equally poetic in either typographic form. Set up the opening of the first chapter of this book in the same line division: The word poetry is often used Loosely to mean whatever embodies The products of imagination And fancy, the finer emotions And the sense of ideal beauty. In this lax usage, men speak of "The poetry of motion," the poetry Of Rodin or Wagner, the poetry This is prose.

No magic worked by the line division can bring it any closer to poetry. Only a comparative regularity in the alternation of accented and unaccented syllables can make it acceptable verse; this, plus the proper emotional appeal, alone can make it poetry. Meter and Metric Feet Meter is a comparatively regular rhythm in verse or poetry. There are four common metric feet used in English verse. Their names are taken over from classic durational or quantity meters. The first two feet listed below are occasionally encountered in English verse, the third rarely or never.

In practice, the spondee may be used as an iamb or as a trochee; in combination, we may have— In head -long flight in which the word is used as a trochee; He plunged head-long in which the word is used as an iamb. In actual verse and poetry, never forget that the actual rhythm of the words, as normally uttered Barbaric Practices - Various - Fenland Funland (Cassette) a conversational tone, differs from the artificial scansion pattern adopted. Take one of the most regular five-foot iambic lines in the language: The curfew tolls the knell of parting day.

The curfew j tolls the knell of parting day. Here we have one iamb, two feet consisting of mere accented syllables for which we have no name, and two feet of three syllables each unaccent—accent—unaccent, or amphibrachs. To make the actual line fit the planned iambic pattern, we have to divide words as follows: The cur-1 few tolls the knell of part-1 ing day. Absolutely natural iambic lines are rare: And dwell upon your grave when you are dead. The Comedy of Errors, William Shakespeare.

A repetition of such lines would be monotonous, unnatural and intrinsically unpoetic. To show a still further group of variations, the opening of Hamlet's most famous soliloquy, commencing "To be or not to be," is theoretically in the same iambic five-foot pattern: three lines, each consisting theoretically of five ta-TUM's.

The actual scansion brings in strange and unusual feet, or groups of unaccents with one accent, and shows that these three lines have only four actual feet apiece a foot being, in.

English, normally grouped around one accentwhere the pattern called for five in each line: To be I or not to be. That is the question. Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune. Hamlet, William Shakespeare. Here are four feet of two syllables each two iambs and two trochees ; four of three syllables each three amphibrachs and one anapest ; one of one syllable; and three of four syllables each two of one type, one of another.

And only four natural feet to each line. This is acceptable five-foot iambic verse, in the hands of the world's greatest master. In later plays, his variations became more extreme, until at times his rhythms were less regular than Whitman's typical free verse or polyrhythmic poetry.

What is desired, in metric poetry, is a regular pattern, with restrained freedom and variety in its use. The poet should learn to scan his poetry—that is, to mark the accented and unaccented syllables as above, and then to divide it both into the natural speech rhythm and into the artificial pattern rhythm.

There is no need for pride, if the poetry is excessively regular. As a rule, that means that it is strained and unnatural in phrasing, and to that extent falls below true greatness in technique. In reading poetry aloud or to oneself, avoid most of all an unnatural singsong. Instead, read this and all other poetry as naturally as if it were unpatterned prose. Barbaric Practices - Various - Fenland Funland (Cassette) pattern is there and will make itself felt.

Excellence in reading depends upon naturalness in expression. Many more words in English are trochees than iambs. Iambic is the preferred pattern because such trochaic words are normally introduced by a one-syllabled unaccented article, preposition, or the like. Normally lines do not open with the trochee hoping, but rather with such a phrase as in hoping, for hoping, and hoping, this hoping, if hoping, and so on. Lines name the metric pattern and are described by the type of foot and the number of feet to the line.

Thus a one-foot iambic line could be written: All hail! A two-foot iambic line would be: All hail to you! A three-foot iambic line would be: All hail to you, my friends! A four-foot iambic line would be: All hail to you, my worthy friends!

A five-foot iambic line would be: All hail to you, my wholly worthy friends! Note how naturally trochaic words like wholly and worthy fit into this iambic pattern. This line might have been: In hailing friendship's wholly worthy sons, in which case four words hailing, friendship's, wholly, worthy are complete trochees in themselves, yet are transformed into word-split units in the iambic pattern, by the introductory unaccented word in and the concluding accented word sons.

The iambic pattern may be used with a feminine ending: that is, with the addition of an unaccented syllable to the last foot. A stanza of five lines, successively one- two- three- four- and five-foot iambic lines with feminine endings, could be manufactured easily: Good morning, Benignant April, With all your rainbow blossoms, With birds all carolling their rapture, With love alive within the hearts of maidens.

The scansion for this would be:. With all I your rain-1 bow bios-1 soms, With birds all car-1 oiling their rap- ture, With love I alive within the hearts of maid-1 ens.

This is often described as if the first line, for instance, were a twofoot line, with one syllable missing, and is called catalectic verse. The reality is that of an iambic foot followed by a loose or unattached, unaccented syllable. Writing iambic verse is as easy as writing any form of verse. Iambic verse may be altered into trochaic at any time, by adding an accented syllable to each line's beginning or by removing the opening unaccented syllable.

The process may be reversed as easily, thus changing trochaic verse into iambic. Start with this iambic version: And then the little Hiawatha Remarked unto the old Nokomis, I know that hills are edged with valleys. By adding an accented syllable at the beginning of each line, this becomes trochaic: Now and then the little Hiawatha Said aloud unto the old Nokomis, Well I know that hills are edged with valleys. By removing the opening unaccented syllable in each iambic line above, the lines are four-foot trochaic: Then the little Hiawatha Said unto the old Nokomis, All the hills are edged with valleys.

This is the regular meter of Longfellow's Hiawatha and is as easy to write as iambic verse. Trochaic Verse Trochaic verse is less usual in English than iambic, because the custom of the language is to introduce most remarks with an unaccented syllable or word. Hiawatha opens upon this pattern: Should you ask me, whence these stories, Whence these legends and traditions, With the odours of the forest, With the dew and damp of meadows. Hiawatha, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.

In natural accent the first three of the lines quoted have only two accents apiece, and not four: so that the natural scansion, as of the third line, is With the odours of the forest. Shakespeare commences a witches' incantation with the abrupt staccato natural accent: Round about the cauldron go; In the poisoned entrails throw.

Toad, that under cold stone Days and nights has thirty-one Sweltered venom sleeping got, Boil thou first f the charmed pot. Macbeth, William Shakespeare. An interesting variation here is the use of cold as a dissyllable, as if it were pronounced co-old. It may be regarded as the one-syllabled cold, followed by a pause consuming the length of time it would take to pronounce an unaccented syllable.

In any case, it is an effective variant device. Trochaic verse might certainly be described with propriety as iambic verse, with the introductory unaccented syllable omitted in each Barbaric Practices - Various - Fenland Funland (Cassette).

The description is unimportant; the important thing is to choose, understand, and use adequately the pattern, whatever it is called. But the accepted pattern is trochaic four-foot, and the custom is to prefer the first scansion given. At any time, within reason dictated by the poet's own. Similar substitutions may take place in dactylic verse. The best poetry contains variety within uniformity.

Notice that in the trochaic lines from Macbeth the last unaccented syllable is omitted in every line. This again gives an example of catalectic verse. The name is unimportant: a trochaic line may end on a masculine ending as easily as an iambic line ends on a feminine ending.

A dactylic line may end on a trochee or an accented syllable; an anapestic line may have an extra unaccented syllable, or even two of them, without losing its anapestic character. Variety in uniformity It may be described as an iamb with an extra unaccented syllable added before it.

A typical line following this pattern would be: To the end of the world in the dawn. The English language has more accented syllables than many others, and a succession of two unaccented syllables is comparatively infrequent. There are so few natural anapests in the language that this is usual and permitted. The same thing applies to dactylic verse.

In anapestic and dactylic verse, a fourth syllable, usually unaccented, again like a grace note, may appear in any foot. So long as such variations please the inner ear, the inner sense of word music, they are aids. The natural poet will always make his own patterns, knowing that poetry is self-created and not devised by rigid rules. It may be described as a trochee with an extra unaccented syllable added after it. Here is an illustration: Cannon to right of them, Cannon to left of them, Cannon in front of them Volleyed and thundered; Stormed at with shot and shell, Boldly they fought, and well.

Cannon in front of them Volleyed and thundered; Stormed at with shot and shell, Boldly they fought, and well. Once the technique of scansion is mastered, the poet must be his own court of last appeal upon it. These feet become excessively monotonous in long poems, though they may be used with advantage in brief lyrics.

Variations in Metric Verse The use of variations in metric verse is widespread. The development of every poet of importance, whose technique did not begin and remain rigid and crystallized, has been in the direction of more and more variety. This is displayed impressively by the development of Shakespeare and of Keats. Little such development is shown in the technique of more rigid minor poets.

A few examples must suffice. The flow-1 er-de-luce being one! O, these 11 lack. The Winter's Tale, William Shakespeare. One of the most praised lines in Keats is: Robs not I one light seed from the feath-1 er'd grass. Hyperion, John Keats. Keats has at least one line, in the same pattern, consisting of five trochees: Thea!

Where is Saturn? Robert Frost has such masterly lines as the following, in the same five-foot iambic pattern: And spread her apron to it. She put out her hand. Strange how such innocence gets its own way. The Black Cottage, Robert Frost. And the saw snarled and rattled, snarled and rattled.

But the hand was gone already. In this last line the monosyllable So is followed by a pause that takes the place of a foot and a half. One of Frost's most triumphant variations is: Little—less—nothing! And that ended it. Alison Gross, Old English Ballad. Where the chaf-1 finch sings on the or-1 chard bough. Home-Thoughts, from Abroad, Robert Browning.

So numerous are the variations to which the metric pattern in English can be adapted, to the greater naturalness of the poetry. Accent Pattern Instead of Metric Coleridge, in one poem, abandoned the formal metric foot altogether, in favor of a rediscovered Old English method of letting the line pattern consist of a definite number of accents, with any number of unaccented syllables, occurring in any order.

And the owls have awak- ened the crow- ing cock. I lb-1 whoo! How drow-1 sily it crew. Christabel, Samuel Taylor Coleridge. This follows the same method of accent versification.

Walter de la Mare's most famous poem is built around a pattern of three accents to the line, as the second and fourth line below indicate; he uses unaccented syllables where he pleases: But on-1 ly a host of phantom listeners That dwelt in the lone house then, Stood lis-1 tening in the qui-1 et of the moonlight To that voice from the world of men.

The Listeners, Walter de la Mare. Other modern poets have done as much, or more. Variety within uniformity. Blank Verse and Free Verse Blank verse means simply unrhymed verse. Any line pattern, if unrhymed, is Barbaric Practices - Various - Fenland Funland (Cassette) verse.

Heroic blank verse is unrhymed five-foot iambic poetry or verse. Most of Shakespeare is written in heroic blank verse. Heroic couplets, beloved of Dryden and Pope, are pairs of five-foot iambic lines rhymed with each other. Free verse may be rhymed or unrhymed, although it is usually unrhymed, since rhyming is an even more unnatural convention of poetry than meter; and the poet who has abandoned formal meter will hardly, as a rule, still use the device of rhyming.

Free verse is verse without a metric pattern, but with a wider pattern than meter allows. It still tends toward regularity, rather than variety, and the final court of appeals as to whether any example should be classified as poetry or prose from a standpoint of content, or as verse or prose from a standpoint of technique, is the individual poet or reader himself.

To many readers, the following are all poetry: Lord, thou hast been our dwelling-place in all generations. Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God. Thou turnest man to destruction; and sayest, return, ye children of men. The Ninetieth Psalm. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate—we cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or to detract.

The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here; but it can never forget what they did here. The Gettysburg Address, Abraham Lincoln. Out of the cradle endlessly rocking, out of the mockingbird's throat, the musical shuttle, out of the Ninth-month midnight, over the sterile sands, and the fields beyond, where the child leaving his bed wandered alone, bareheaded, barefoot, down from the showered halo, up from the mystic play of shadows twining and twisting as if they were alive.

Walt Whitman used the artificial line division of poetry to present the third of these selections; the King James version of the Bible and Lincoln used the natural line division so familiar in the printing of prose. Little or nothing is added by the artificial line division: Out of the cradle endlessly rocking, Out of the mocking-bird's throat, the musical shuttle, Out of the Ninth-month midnight, Over the sterile sands, and the fields beyond, where the child leaving his bed wandered alone, bareheaded, barefoot, Down from the showered halo, Up from the mystic play of shadows twining and twisting as if they were alive.

It is poetry, to many, in either form; and the first form is the more natural and readable. Scan the Whitman selection, or any of the others, and the tendency toward regularity of rhythm becomes apparent: a wider regularity, perhaps only an up rhythm or a down rhythm, but still inevitably there.

This distinguishes free verse from prose, from the technical point of view. At times writers of free verse let their lines reach surprising lengths, no matter how lovely the music is: thus Sandburg.

Cool Tombs, Carl Sandburg. Again the lines can be extremely brief: It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on. Fog, Carl Sandburg. The free verse writer devises his own line-division pattern. This form, eliminating the devices of meter and rhyme, calls on the poet to avoid the inconsequential and the trivial, and to write down only his important utterances. If rhyme is a shelter for mediocrity, as Shelley wrote in his preface to The Revolt of Islam, free verse is a test of the best that the poet has in him.

Line Length in Verse Oliver Wendell Holmes, himself a doctor, advanced the theory that line length in verse marked physiologically the normal breathing of the poet. In other words, a breath should be taken at the end of each line; and the line should be no longer than the poet's ability to hold his breath. No artificial line division is used in prose, to indicate where a breath should be taken. There is no greater reason for artificial line division in poetry.

It still remains true that the long Greek lines, each consisting of six feet, called for huge-breasted warriorbards to chant them; that the norm of English verse, the five-foot iambic line, indicates a lesser chest expansion in the typical English poet; and that the briefer modern tendency shows a further deterioration in the chest expansion of poets. Where poetry consists in end-stopped lines—lines with a natural pause at the end of each line—there is more reason for an artificial line division.

Shakespeare began so; many poets never get beyond this, in the main. But when we come to poetry like— We are such stuff As dreams are made on, and our little life.

A sonnet set up in this manner appears: O bitter moon, O cold and bitter moon, climbing your midnight hillside of bleak sky, the earth, as you, once knew a blazing noon. Night brings the silver hour when she will die. We shall be cold as you are, and as bitter, icily circling toward a tepid fire, playing at life with our deceitful glitter, past joy, past hope, forever past desire.

Yet still the forest lifts its leafy wings to flutter for a while before the chill. And still the careless heart is gay, and sings in the green temple on the dusty hill. And the gulls tumble, and the homing ships peer for the harbor.

And the sand drips. The Flight of the Eagle, v, Clement Wood. In an earlier volume, this had appeared with the usual line division of poetry as ordinarily printed. Rhyme can occur of course in ordinary prose, although this usage is extremely rare. Where the rhythm of verse is used, as in the sonnet quoted, it is possible for poets to use the line and paragraph division usual to prose, if this is desired.

Common Name, or Explanation A verse containing one metrical foot. A verse containing two metrical feet. A measure consisting of two metrical feet; a ditrochee. A verse containing three metrical feet. A verse containing four metrical feet. A verse containing five metrical feet.

A verse containing six metrical feet. A verse containing eight metrical feet. A strophic verse of two lines, usually called a couplet today. Three unaccented syllables Three accented syllables Accent, unaccent, accent Unaccent, accent, accent Accent, accent, unaccent Two trochees regarded as a compound foot Accent, unaccent, unaccent, unaccent Accent, unaccent, unaccent, accent Three accents and one unaccent: of the first, second, third or fourth class, depending on the location of the unaccented syllable OTHER TERMS.

Explanation Verse not defective in the last foot; verse complete in its number of syllables. The lighter or unstressed part of a foot, especially in quantitative verse; later, the accented syllable of a foot. A break in a verse caused by the ending of a word within a foot.

A masculine caesura follows the thesis or stressed part of a foot. A feminine caesura follows the arsis or caesura comes after the third half foot, which means in the second foot; a penthemimeral caesura, after the fifth half foot; a hepthemimeral caesura, after the seventh half foot; and so on.

A bucolic caesura, in dactylic hexameter, is a caesura occurring in the fourth foot, especially in pastoral poetry. Verse lacking a syllable at the beginning, or terminating in an imperfect foot. The break caused by the coincidence of the end of a foot with the end of a word.

Bucolic diaeresis, a diaeresis occurring in the fourth foot, especially in pastoral poetry. The extension of the sentence beyond the limitations of the distich. Metrical stress. The heavier or stressed part of a foot in classical prosody, especially in quantitative verse; later, the unaccented syllable or syllables of a verse. Rhyme is the identity in sound of an accented vowel in a word, usually the last one accented, and of all consonantal and vowel sounds following it; with a difference in the sound of the consonant immediately preceding the accented vowel.

Rhyme deals exclusively with sounds and has nothing to do with spelling. The rhyming dictionary terminating this book is strictly phonetic and therefore logical and useful. Correct rhymes may be spelled alike: ate, plate, mate, abate, syncopate. They may be spelled differently: ate, bait, straight, freight. In this case the spelling is immaterial. We knew then that the active ones on the surface were MAR.

We also knew from Sitchin that MAR. This information was corroborated by that obtained by the senior author from C. Turnage in the late s Turnagepersonal communication. So the Earthbound Anunnaki Council of Twelve or governing council nomenklatura is most probably composed as shown below. By awarding himself the rank of 60, Marduk signals that he is also king of the incoming planet.

The surprise in the council was the presence of Nuskum, a majordomo and servant of the EN. We also received indications that both NA. And we also received oblique confirmation that NER. If this is correct, it can only be due to their reported cementing of allegiance and relationship to and with the King — purportedly to be none other than NAN. Turnage personal communication This latter indication raises the expectation that MAR.

Besides reported contacts with humans at loyalty sessions6 said to be carried out on American military bases Army and Air Forcewe could not find any indications of actual, direct contacts between Anunnaki leadership and human loyalists — except in the scientific field, where several informants have given us information on the presence of Anunnaki at underground installations and laboratories on the U.

So how, then, would Anunnaki and humans interface in the pursuit of programs said to have been laid out by the Anunnaki supreme leader, for and on whose behalf humans worked and served at the apparent pleasure and dispensation from the latter?

Again, hints helped very much in guiding our decipherments. We asked questions of informants who had provided us with information before. However, replies to our questions were not given at the time of the meeting in which they were asked. How do Anunnaki have humans organized? Follow the toes of Daniel and the hills of the last book. Last book? We wrestled with this hint for nearly nine months, before running into a truck driver at a truck stop restaurant in Casa Grande, Arizona, on a research trip to Texas.

He, in turn, told us about several pastors well versed on the book of revelation, and turned us on to a series of books by a man from Ohio, Larry Wilson. So we took a chance and asked Robert to decipher the meaning of the hint, without telling him what or why we were asking.

With this piece in place, we took on the next hint — which was a follow on the one before. Each king is a shepherd and a center of its own constellation. We asked in the course of the second one the very question above, and were made aware that we must first ask ourselves what the Anunnaki bidding i. As we shall see, at the end we will have to deal with three exopolitical perspectives: the Earthbound Anunnaki kisamthe Kingdom Anunnaki Useanesdaand ours as a species or biokind.

We started deciphering what the metaorganization of the Anunnaki phenomenon is to gain some understanding of their objectives and plans. Figure 2 helped us to graphically think about the interrelationships among the parts of the whole. Informant Eleven and Informant Ninewere our conduits for the hints, so we went back to them for decipherment of their meaning. The result is information graphically represented in Figure 2. The emerging construct presented some problems at the time.

One consisted of what were the power centers referred to by Eleven and Nine. The other was the geographic or GPS location of these groups on Earth surface. Power Centers Nine asked that we look at what is happening in the world today and follow the seeming conflagration of conflicts and discern the forces operating sub-rosa i.

Conflict, we were warned, would not necessarily mean war, as in armed conflict. Instead, conflict or more properly, a drama of control and hegemony was said to be dramatized confrontation of forces or vectors with a specific target audience or audiences, procuring a sociopolitical response often involving fear.

Eleven and Nine put it in perspective for us. Take a closer look at who are the people involved at these levels, and then have a good look at who is involved in the so-called Committee, and you may see some of the same names.

So we started looking into these groups mentioned by our informants. But the tone is set from above and not dictated by self-interests of the membership of hidden institutions, according to Nine. The PEHI website articles offer several examples of how this takes place. Who, then, are the penultimate puppet masters, to borrow a van der Reijden Barbaric Practices - Various - Fenland Funland (Cassette), and what are the layers to the top? It is also something of a blueprint for policies that seemed to me to cut across a wide swath of organizations, not just here U.

So where did this coordination and centralized policy making emanate from? We had heard of certain people who had been referred to by these two informants as the Olympians. We quietly researched indicia on the connection between these groups, the free-masons Scottish Rite and the Anunnaki Ningishzidda. Who is the god to which these people direct their entreaties? None other than to the Hermes Ningishzidda of Egyptian lore. And yet, our intelligence on this particular Anunnaki indicates that he had changed sides, now said to be in service to the rightful Anunnaki King, Nannar Turnagepersonal communication to the senior author; Nine ; tertiary sources.

Is this patent disinformation on the part of Masonic leaders to their own? Or a ruse whereby the claim to subordination of an important figure, such as Ningishzidda, to the will and purpose of the supreme Earthbound Anunnaki leader a part of his plan? It is known that he had the Babylonian Enuma Elish rewritten to suit his purposes see Sitchin This remains a mystery as of this writing.

The Olympians, nevertheless, remain at the top of the pyramidal metastructure of Anunnaki influence, control and command of earthly minion international organizations and institutions. Work in this area continues, and will be reported in future essays.

Locations on Earth The other problem presented by our emerging construct lay in the location of these power centers and, in particular, the central command-and-control center for the Anunnaki leadership on Earth.

At the outset, inwe started by looking at each of the geographic locations commonly associated with each of the centers. We then focused on the probable main metropolitan centers where identifiable headquarters were located. And finally we simply realized the interconnections of each of the organizations at each of the levels see Figure 3 defied mere geographic positioning.

Therefore, we began to focus on the probable location s of the earthbound Anunnaki on the Earth. Each of these men was, at the time of our individual meetings with each of them, an owner-operator truck driver. All of them, independently of each other, confirmed for us that there was Anunnaki presence in the area, including craft activity.

To us, the main concern about aliens on Earth seemed to be the presence of multiple groups whose origin, biologic typing, biophysical characteristics, and exopolitical objectives spanned a wide range of issues, most of them given mythical, speculative and hypothetical treatments. Of all of his books, only a portion of the last chapter of his Genesis Revisited Sitchin is useful in the decipherment of possible and probable exopolitical Anunnaki Earthbound policies.

Why is it? Was he approached by elements from the grid we are suggesting in this essay and told to not go any further regarding the Anunnaki presence on Earth in the late 20th century? It is quite possible, as we have sent emails to his son Eric concerning these questions but have yet to receive replies.

And, specifically, why these policies? In considering these questions, we must walk in their moccasins to grasp the circumstances driving his and their choices; we also have to take into consideration the probable policies and imperatives of the incoming Kingdom. And last, but definitely not least, we must examine the probable scenarios which will evolve as consequences of present course of events and current levels of control and influence over the population of the planet by the aforementioned grid.

The last two sets are beyond the scope of this essay. Probable Scope of Earthbound Anunnaki Exopolitical Policies We share, with others, that the driving force behind probable Anunnaki policies in the 21st century is Marduk, and his bipolar objectives: to increase his numbers, and to delay the inevitable confrontation with the newly appointed EN.

Our current intelligence on Marduk is that he is what could best be described as a generalist in terms of education and training originally conducted by his father, the EN. Lacking the profound knowledge of the Tree of Life consisting of biology, biotechnology and bioenergetics given by the EN.

More specifically, the number of Anunnaki in his ranks. Tactically and strategically speaking, we suspect that he is realizing, or has arrived at, a limitation of range and reach, given the Anunnaki numbers reportedly to be in the range available under his command. We know from tertiary sources who once served in special operations of high above black SCIs that Anunnaki targets had been sanctioned in the past, and more than one had perished at the cross hair of snipers of unknown source control.

So it is not surprising to learn they now work in pairs, whenever appearing in the open e. Furthermore, what weaponry would come off from their push of this priority upon their minions? As we proceeded with our reasoning, we also asked ourselves just what would be reasons powerful enough for Marduk to invest time, resources and political capital in developing the means to increase Anunnaki numbers loyal to him on Earth.

The man sits atop a highly volatile network of organizations that must require expenditure of time, manipulation, control, command and sensitivity to real-time intelligence to maintain hegemony over ten satraps.

In spite of his millennia of experience with lulu human shepherds, there is the inescapable reality of normal, traditional political manipulation and cajoling to get his program underway and moving forward on target.

This would mean a rather complex and hierarchical system of rewards and punishments based on fear, retribution, regal attention, and access.

If the EN. LIL lord of the command made the decision in council not to make humans aware of the impending flood some 12, years ago Sitchin; Allan and Delair, the excess human population on Earth in these end times would have to be disposed of by other means — war, pestilence, hunger, disease, drugs, etc.

In itself, this constitutes another complex field of study, and would therefore be beyond the scope of our present essay. Suffice it say that this appears to be, indeed, a working aspect of the tasks entrusted to the Anunnaki network of minion organizations.

Again, this appears to be carried within a framework of complete, plausible deniability for Marduk and his Council of Twelve who, when the time arrives for him to make his appearance on Earth will afford him a relatively pristine PR image — one which, we suspect, he will make use in advancing his anticipated program of complete domination of all aspects of life, limb and survival on Earth, if we are to take the prophecies in Daniel and Revelations as true which, we might add, we do.

Where do these policies leave us, biokind of the Earth panspermed by Anunnaki someyears ago? Obviously, an institutional response to the situation generated by these interpretations of Anunnaki influence and policies is out of the question, as the institutions which govern and order our lives are eminently penetrated and controlled by the very vectors we see are out to destroy us.

Therefore, we suggest our response sets need to be extrainstitutional and more formless and decentralized but thoroughly integrated. Perhaps Al-Qaida could teach us a thing or two. This is not to say we suggest open and direct action against the institutions and organizations our indicia are showing to be associated with Anunnaki priorities and programs. Does that mean we also need a Bin Ladin-like leader, whose ethereal nature makes him a moving target hard to hit?

No, not at all. And we are also not suggesting it. What we are suggesting is not a war or even resistance to Marduk or those who carry out his plans and objectives. This would be, indeed, futile to borrow a phrase from Roddenberry and his Star Trek Next Generation paradigm. What we are suggesting, instead, is the development of a network of canton-like like-minded and like-disposed peoples who accept, realize, choose to, and develop means to open themselves to possibilities.

We know The Kingdom is coming back, and The Kingdom and humankind are bound to each other by genetic makeup and past, some of which must be unlearned and undone in the present so that a peaceful future could be possible for both — them and us. One of our first tasks would be to figure out what is it they expect from us upon extra-institutional contact, and what are the positions and past events we need unlearned and undone so we, too, may be free to move onward and upward in a renewed and completely reconceptualized view of ourselves with them and with the galactic community of which more than one of our informants tell us there are nearly life forms in our vicinity.

Then there is the matter of the dedicated human said to be returning with them, who is to assume the combined offices of EN. It would be nice to know what his sixty epithet names will be; this will tell us a great deal of what to expect from what he is to offer to the remnant humankind left after the forecast defeat and imprisonment of Marduk, following some final confrontation of forces prophesied in biblical sources.

All of the preceding would require of us that we change our views of what is to come and face them, not in religious or doctrinal ways, but rather in well-informed and thoughtful exopolitical and scriptural ways. Why scriptural as well? We contend it is not an accident that much of what written patrimony left to us has been altered and in some cases changed completely to suit doctrinal and institutional hegemonies and power.

Will it also work for us? We are not suggesting it will not. We are asking that we begin a dialogue on these two seemingly diametrically opposed options, and learn what we may already know deep within us all what is best for us.

ENDNOTES 1 After much debate between us, we settled on identifying them by number in the sequence in which we came in contact with them and were able to complete the vetting of their bona fides.

We were not able to obtain complete and unassailable vetting of the qualifications and service record of one of them, and this individual is identified as so in the text. Informant Two was a technically training individual who also worked in the White House at or around the time of the first meeting with the people from the incoming; we received word earlier this year of his demise due to natural causes. Informant Five was a military officer in some kind of staff position in the Pentagon, quite possibly midlevel in rank but attached to a high ranking officer with access to information.

Informant Six and Informant Nine were also military officers during the same period as Informant Five, and quite possibly knew each other, or knew of each other. Both held higher ranks quite possibly lieutenant colonels or higher at the time. Informant Seven and Informant Eight were both military and civilians during their careers; their vetting indicates both to have served in intelligence services.

As military officers, Informant Seven and Informant Eight were noncommissioned officers in staff positions at very high levels in both of the lead agencies of interest to us. One of them Informant Seven had a scientific background MS in a highly technical area. In one case Informant Eleventhe individual served in several projects, and on different time periods in the same project. Since then it also has come to mean an individual, of any species of living thing, which lacks the pigments that other members of its race normally have.

Albinos occur among all races of men, almost all species of domestic animals, and a wide variety of wild species. Technically speaking, the word "albinism" refers to a group of inherited conditions. People with albinism have little or no pigment in their eyes, skin, or hair. They have inherited genes that do not make the usual amounts of a pigment called melanin. Recent research has used analysis of DNA, the chemical that encodes genetic information, to arrive at a more firm classification system for albinism.

Type 1 albinism also called tyrosinase-related albinism is the type involving almost no pigmentation. Type 1 albinism results from a genetic defect in an enzyme called tyrosinase. This enzyme helps the body to change the amino acid tyrosine into pigment. An amino acid is a "building block" of protein, and comes from protein in the diet. Type 2, a type with slight pigmentation, results from a defect in a different gene called the "P" gene.

The most common theme to the replies we received was that matters were getting out of hand. Perhaps Nine put it best. But, in the very end, they put their pants on just like we do, they bleed just like we do, and they can be taken out and can die just like we do. So why not let them deal with their issues, and we decide what is best for our kind. They have a kind of polymind, if I can coin a term here. By that I mean, they all share mind at will — thoughts, feelings and images, I believe.

This, to me, is what makes them superior to us at the moment. The most amazing aspect of the coincidence of pertinent internet and information derived through informant communication is the seeming accuracy of what is already in the public domain, albeit marginalized. Establishing reliability for both is, of course, quite another matter.

These are people who, often and repeatedly, were at sites, places and events they talked about, seen and heard people close up and personal at the circles of power, and had one or more opportunities to be in the presence of Earthbound Anunnaki.

Those who did could even tell the difference between those who are here and those who are coming by the feel of their presence, the experience of their emotional signatures imprinted on their skin. Most of our informants except Three have made mention of them. These sessions are said to be continuing, and do take place at unspecified intervals. Amidst the rich array or opinions featured in this debate, three broad schools of thought about China have dominated.

The G-7 and China in the management of the international financial system. From then on, membership in the Group of Seven, or G7, was fixed, although 15 developing countries' leaders met with the G7 leaders on the eve of the Paris Summit, and the USSR and then Russia participated in a post-summit dialogue with the G7 since The Denver Summit of the Eight was a milestone, marking full Russian participation in all but financial and certain economic discussions; and the Birmingham Summit saw full Russian participation, giving birth to the Group of Eight, or G8 although the G7 continued to function along side the formal summits.

At the Kananaskis Summit in Canada init was announced that Russia would host the G8 Summit inthus completing its process of becoming a full member. Questions of East-West economic relations, energy, and terrorism have also been of recurrent concern.

From this initial foundation the summit agenda has broadened considerably to include microeconomic issues such as employment and the information highway, transnational issues such as the environment, crime and drugs, and a host of political-security issues ranging from human rights through regional security to arms control. The summit also gives direction to the international community by setting priorities, defining new issues and providing guidance to established international organizations.

At times it arrives at decisions that address pressing problems or shape international order more generally. The summit members comply modestly with the decisions and consensus generated by and codified at their annual meeting. Compliance is particularly high in regard to agreements on international trade and energy, and on the part of Britain, Canada, and Germany. Summit decisions often create and build international regimes to deal with new international challenges, and catalyze, revitalize and reform existing international institutions.

It has also become a prime occasion for non-governmental and civil society organizations to advocate on behalf of their concerns. There is a ninth member of both the G7 and G8: the European Union. At the leaders' level, the EU is represented by both the president of the European Commission and the rotating president of the European Council. The G20 is the Group of Twenty finance ministers and central bank governors, who meet annually.

This is different from another G20, often referred to as the G20 developing countries, which is involved in specifically in trade issues relating to the World Trade Organization and does not include any members of the G8. The L20, or Leaders Twenty, is a concept proposing regular meetings of the leaders of 20 countries representing both industrialized and developing countries, similar to the G An additional factor, quite important to us, that added to our adoption of product from these sources to our information grid was the rather uncanny similarities in the working hypotheses each of us had been working on independent of one another.

Their email address is: wuas wake-up. Both offer Christian-oriented, scripture-based information well anchored in information derived from the books of Daniel and Revelation. When the Earth nearly died: Compelling evidence of a world cataclysm 11, years ago. Gateway Books, Allan, D. Cataclysm: Compelling evidence of a cosmic catastrophe in 9, BC. Bear and Co, Benton, M. When life nearly died: The greatest mass extinction of all time. Bryant, L.

UFO politics at the White House. Invisible College Press, New York, Collins, R. Exempt from disclosure. Peregrine, Vandalia, OH, Colaw, John. Coleman, J. American West Publishers, Corso, P. The day after Roswell.

Diane Publishing, Dolan, R. UFOs and the national security state. Keyhole Publishing, Freer, N. The alien question: An expanded perspective — A White Paper www. God games: What do we do forever? Book Tree, Escondido, CA, Breaking the Godspell. Good, T. Unearthly disclosure: Barbaric Practices - Various - Fenland Funland (Cassette) interests in the control of extraterrestrial intelligence.

Century Publications, London, Good, T. Alien bases: The evidence for extraterrestrial colonization of Earth. Arrow, Beyond top secret: The worldwide UFO security threat. William Morrow, N. Above top secret. Maccabee, B. Llewellyn Publications, St. Paul, MN, Marrs, J. Alien agenda. HarperCollins, N. Ryan, W. Simon and Schuster, N. Salla, M. Exopolitics Journal 1, 1,www. ETs are on the Moon and Mars: The photographic evidence.

Flying Disk Publications, Turnage, C. Personal communication to the senior author, War in Heaven: The case for a solar system war. Sitchin, Z. The 12th Planet. Avon Books, New York, The Wars of Gods and Men. Genesis Revisited. The Cosmic Code. Bordon arborden foundationreportsinlifephysics. He leads a team of gnosive researchers dedicated to extension neurosensing a proprietary method of gnosive research for the accessing of information cumuli interfaced by physical-gnosive means.

He is also one of several scientists working on an evolving Working Model from information derived from this research as an alternative to the Standard Model in physics and cosmology. Roy W. At present, he serves as project manager for two Foundation One programs — physical-gnosive research and futures scenarios.

He also serves in the oversight group that manages the public information and upcoming presence projection on the internet of all Foundation activities. I continue to think that most high-profile individuals follow a script, and that Earth is on a timetable which might not be alterable. I continue to think I should simply engage in a Neo Science-Fiction exercise in futility. My threads aren't really science-fiction, but they're not science, religion, politics, or anything in particular. I'm encouraging deep-study for a select-few, but I'm NOT telling anyone how to live, or what to do.

I'm feeling completely out of synch with mainstream-society. I don't watch TV. I rarely go to movies. I read books no one else reads. I think about things most people consider pure unmitigated poppycock!! I basically create a research-laboratory or launching-pad for Sirius-Researchers. The churches would reject me, but so would the New-Age crowd.

I think I've completely marginalized myself, and I think I'm becoming increasingly isolated. This is probably a bad-sign, as far as behavioral-scientists are concerned, but I think my organic and soul issues have a lot to do with this, and are mostly untreatable. I think I am utterly-screwed, and I think this is part of someone's plan. I think some of you might know who that someone is. I'll continue my reposting project, but don't expect much new material.

I'm not posting on other threads or websites. I'm mostly keeping to myself on this particular thread. I continue to think the Bible should be studied in an academic-environment, but that the rank and file should NOT be force-fed someone's theological-constructs.

Try mating your idealism with your pragmatism. Try reading Job through Isaiah and Luke through Jude side by side, straight-through, over and over as a historical place of beginning. What would a decade of this approach yield?? I think we might be entering into a Great Disappointment regarding Life, the Universe, and Everything. There might not be much left in a couple of decades. Look long and hard at AD to regarding the excrement contacting the blower on so many levels.

I'll probably continue considering positive and negative possibilities in my search for a useable future. Rampant-Robotics, Artificial-Intelligence, Spiritual-Wickedness, and Genetic-Experimentation might unleash unimaginable-horrors upon humanity. Are Some of You Lunatic-Reactionaries?? What Would Art Bell Say?? Please remember that this thread is a mental and spiritual gymnasium which is intended to make all of us think -- and that it does not necessarily reflect my true views.

What about mostly studying materials which are at least five years old, but less than five hundred years old, so as to be able to gain a proper perspective, yet still be able to verify sources, and know something about authorship?

Wouldn't this help to avoid sensationalism, and also avoid having to deal with fragments, obscure ancient languages, or the deciphering of hieroglyphics? AD to AD ? Just a thought. It presently has nearlyviews increasing daily. How does this original-thread from compare with this present-thread??

Garbage In, Garbage Out?? What Would Kerry Cassidy Say?? What Would Sherry Shriner Say?? That's All I'm Going to Say. I like to read the Bible, but how do I really know that what I'm reading is accurate, or that it is what the original authors actually wrote? I continue to be interested in idealistic theology, but I have become somewhat pessimistic regarding using the Bible as a modern infallible standard.

Anyway, the info-war will be ongoing and problematic. I'm going to see what sort of mileage I can get out of Responsibility and the U. Constitution, at least as being a frame of reference or a base camp. I don't wish to be harsh and narrow, but I do wish to avoid becoming lost at sea, or to avoid beating upon the rocks of who knows what absurdities? There is so much information to wade through. How should we properly sort everything out? If you don't stand for something, you tend to fall for anything.

If one does not believe in God, the problem is that they will then be much more likely to believe in just about anything. I like thinking about a Vatican-Based Namaste Constitutional Responsible Freedom United States of the Solar System, regardless of where it should be headquartered, or who should preside over it.

At this point, it is a mental and spiritual exercise for me. It's an ultimate neo-reformation, if you will. Admittedly, the problems connected with implementation and application would be huge. It might not work, but thinking about it might help us to determine what would work. I'm finding it to be a helpful starting point.

Look at the pluralistic mass of information I have collected in connection with these few words!!! How is the human audience to relate to superhumanbeings when the whole thrust of the production has been to prove how normal, how 'like us', the Greeks were?

Inthe designers for two productions of Ion by the RSC at the Barbican [OUdb] and the Actors' Touring Company [OUdb]and for the RNT production of Women of Troy [OUdb] were still unable to deal satisfactorily with the gods, other than malang them, in contrast with the convincing accessibility of the human roles, over-dressed, sometimes almost camp, puppets. What in Greek theatre was an opportunity for spectacular effect, with use of the stage machinery, elaborate set piece structures like chariots or winged horses being flown in, gorgeous costumes, masks and crowned wigs, could run the risk of looking like pantomime in contrast with the human characters.

Clearly, it would seem important to distinguish between humans and gods, even though Christianculture audiences unlike, perhaps, Hindu audiences might be surprised to see how human, in their emotions and failings, are the gods of Greek tragedy. But if the whole thrust of modem mediation is to show how 'real', how 'human' are the characters of Greek tragedy, does this not inevitably lead to the gods, in their otherness from humans, being less real, less credible, less worthy of sympathy or respect?

And will this effect not also inevitably lead to a bathetic or anti-climactic ending in those plays in which the gods make appearances ex machina to resolve the action? Yet the horrors reported in Greek tragedy - the self-blindingof Oedipus, the mangling'of - Hippolytus, the napalming of Glauke or of Herakles, the killing of Astyanax are quite as terrible as what could be played in a production of a Jacobean tragedy or presented in a Hammer Horror film. Even the cinema of violence films by Kubrick, Peckinpah and Tarantino has its own conventions of artifice, so that the special effects of violence are noted critically by audiences who appreciate them.

In live theatre, after the shock and the influence of Artaud, it has become apparent that the realistic representationof violence, like much conceptual art, can be a cul-de-sac: exciting on first viewing, but leading nowhere, and increasinglytedious to re- enter. Like other forms of spectacle, it cannot be its own justification and must serve the whole piece. It should, then, be possible for a modern audience to accept the mediation of horror through the conventions of Greek tragedy, just as it would its mediation through the conventions of the cinema, or of live theatre.

In each case, the violence is not real, nor is it simply narrative, - but carries a metaphoric weight, and is being used by the artist - playwright or director as one of the form's conventional tools. However, it is part of the thesis of this study that Greek tragedy has informed even commercial English theatre over the last thirty years sometimesby circuitous and unexpected routes to the extent that elements which might be thought of as typical of ancient Greek theatre are now lively and at work in the performance place.

One would include among these elements: an awareness of theatre as the exercise of the ambiguous 'other' from serious radical theatre dealing with feminist, gay and other political issues, right through to drag acts at rites of passage occasions like Hen Nights ; the place of theatre in educating the young soon-to-becitizen; and the recognition that theatre is not a mirror, but a representation of life - that is, that it can be used prescriptively and reconstructively, as well as descriptively.

It could be said that in all these elements, theatre provides a therapy for society, and by more than just the purging of pity and terror which Renaissance and later commentators simplistically believed Aristotle to have described.

Of course, the kinds of changes described earlier as taking place in English theatre Mer-theKitchen-Sink were not brought about solely because of a rediscovery of the subjects and forms of Greek theatre. The reaction against realism was, as has been indicated, activated by influences nearer home both in place and time, with theatre theoretician-practitionerslike Brook seeking to return theatre to its ritual, therapeutic and communal roots and free it from what he saw as stifling conventions and commercial restrictions.

Brook attacked what he described as the 'Deadly Theatre' of established convention, where there is neither surprise, violence nor joy for the spirit, and called for a 'Holy Theatre' which would rediscover ritual. Hall's diaries reveal an irritation that his Greek production had been preempted, but also his determinationto 'get it right', waiting for Harrison's translation, spending?

The two very different productions were inevitably compared, and judgements made about their relative merits. Of greatest positive interest to those who cared for classics or theatre was that such serious commitment was given in the two major English theatres to the process of 'translating' the plays for modern audiences.

The attempt made in this study to investigate the ways modern theatre has received and mediated ancient tragedy needs a caveat. The process recorded is one in which a wide range of people may be interested, from the philologist motivated by desire to ascertain the proper placing of a stress or the likely reading of an obliterated letter, to the theatre administrator who is looking for a box-office certainty, or the sports sciences undergraduate who wants to try choreographing a Greek chorus.

The reasons modem English people have for coming to Greek tragedy - either on - paper or in performance are very different and very various, and have little apparent resemblance to the reasons Greeks of the fifth century had for attending the dramatic festivals.

There are indeed moves to bring together scholarshipand live theatre, but in spite of the best efforts of academics and of theatre practitioners who are also classicists, productions in commercial theatre continue to be more concerned with translating the theatrical potential of an original into a modern context than with putting on stage a practical exhibition of scholarly research.

Similarly, theatre practitioners or those concerned with theatre history must be patient with what may seem pedantic nit-picking or irrelevant hypothesising over matters of authenticity or authorial intentionality.

For its perceived 'relevance' to a number of movements in Britain in the sixties, seventies and eighties, and for the variety of versions it spawned in those decades, there is no more appropriate play with which to begin than Euripides' Bucchue.

Marincola,gives an account of the failure of Phrynichus's The Capture of Miletus, a story too near to home to be acceptable as theatre: ' The author was fined a thousand drachmas for reminding them of their own evils, and they forbade anybody ever to put the play on the stage again'. The Fall issue was similarly focused, with, for example, C. Thomas on 'Matriarchy in Early Greece'.

See, also, Hall in Easterlingon the contrast of 'Periclean' and tragic women. For the rest, it can be either. See Barber, Edmunds in Zimmerman, compares Aristotle and Artaud. They need fleshing out from prompt copies, publicity materials and reviews from a wide range of publications. Walton's example shows the danger of relying on one piece of subjective secondaxy evidence; one photograph of the set in question e.

Steinberg37 would have set the record straight. Some old chestnuts about authorial intentionality, sanctity of the text, 'relevance' and authenticity are addressed by Marowitz in his chapter 'Seven American Misconceptions'.

Dewey on language in communicationbeing vehicle or medium, but adds his third category; language as exhibit. Although this late fifth-century Attic volute-hater clearly shows the cast and chorus of a satyr play, it remains a major source of information about masks and costume for Greek theatre. In both cases the curiosity value rather than the theatrical impact of the attempt is what marks it. He argues for the greater fidelity to the m t of the fifthcentury experience of tragedy of Pasolini's Edipo Re than of Cacoyanni's critically better received Iphigenia.

A spokeswomanfor the RNT is quoted as asserting that its audience was 'predominantly middle-class, middle-aged and white'. Their legacy is still apparent in performance and installation art. These are almost a foreign language in themselves.

This programme prepared the audience for the lively, non-scholarly, physical-theatre-influenced production they were to see. Heath, ,30 : 'One should handle the chorus as one of the actors; it should be a part of the whole, and should contribute to the performance not as in Euripides, but as in Sophocles. This is not quite the impression given in the West End performance: the threewoman chorus was a homely presence, not full of confidence so much as secure in their own ordinarinessand awareness of belonging to Corinth; of having their own place in society, however humble, in a way that Medea does not.

Coincidentally,I had recently seen the RSC Murder in the Cathedral, and was shuck by the similarity of chorus costume dark headscarves, saggy skirts and cardigans - and by the use, as in Eliot, of the 'three ages of woman' in chorus characterisation. So, for example, Iphigenia's innocence and reactions as a private individual are expressed by her bare face, but when she takes on her role as victim-saviour of the Greek forces, she assumes a mask.

An article in The independent, 14 August by Georgina Brown, on Sir Peter Hall's rehearsals for the Oedipus Plays describes a cast confronting masks in terms of people who feel threatened. Hall says: 'Put a mask on a group of actors an4 if they do anything at all, they become very primitive It's a completely liberating device LadaRichards addresses this issue from the standpoint of acting theory, writing of the possibility of using Brechtian or Stanislavskian approaches to Athenian comedy and tragedy.

Her first play, Blasted and her Phaedra's Love required realistic playing of stomach-turning scenes of violence. Her third play, Cleansed, used a more representational than realistic approach, but presented a number of horrific shocks to the audience's collective system.

The focus is on those aspects of the original which relate to women perceived to be possessed of a certain power - a power whch is itself, because of its Dionysiac nature, strange, ambivalent and threatening to male norms, and which is the more apparently dangerous to those male norms because wielded by or channelled through women. I do not, therefore, privilege some themes which have, justifiably, preoccupied commentatorson the Bacchae: the name of Euripides' statement on religious belief and cultic practice; the struggle of rational against irrational personalised in Pentheus and Dionysus except insofar as this is seen as a male versus female oppositionor the psychological realism of the characterisation of male characters.

This is not, of course, to say that these original themes have not exercised the minds of late twentieth-centuryplaywrights; Shaffer and Rudkin particularly have dealt with them, the former with the god against man struggle, the latter with a more structuralistrevisiting of archetypal narratives of sick lands, sacrifice and scapegoating. The aspect of English theatre with which this chapter is particularly concerned is its revivified and increasingly multiform nature over the second half of this century.

These encounters gave rise to a number of versions of the Bacchae, with modem 'translators' adapting the original to serve specific contemporary situations. As is always the case with translations, writers do not start from the same premises, 44 or share the same information, preoccupations or assumptions about their source.

However, it is possible to identrfy, in the modern versions singled out for analysis in this chapter, responses to the original's challenging treatment of the problem of women possessed of and possessed by a more-than-human power; the implications of that power for society as a whole, and the implications for the individual woman of the exercise of that power.

The context of the original play When considering the particular 'transgressive and dangerous women'3 of the Bacchae and its late twentieth-century descendants, one can distinguish between the Chorus and the sole female role in the play, Agave. The Chorus of Lydian women who have followed the Dionysud exarchos across Tmolus to Thebes are true Bacchantes; Agave represents those Theban women driven mad and turned into maenads by the power of Dionysus. Girard, designates these two groups as respectively 'authentic' and 'inauthentic', but wonders whether the portraits of each type may not, in the play, be equally distorted for dramatic purposes; the 'homicidal frenzy' of the 'inauthenticbacchae' balanced by the 'idyllic portrait of the bacchanal' Both groups, the non-rational followers of a cult which offers release through a form of intoxication or 'engoddedness', and those who, for their resistance to the god, are driven mad, are represented in modern plays which own a debt to the Bacchue.

Also of particular interest is the woman who, as leader or 'priestess' of the inauthentic maenads, destroys a defining aspect of herself in carrying out, as the god's tool, the sacrificial murder of her son.

It may also be argued that Pentheus, too, in his female disguise, becomes an 'inauthentic' or faux-bacchant, and self-destructs as man, attempting a visual self-constructionas woman, before being destroyed as sacrificialanimal.

The maenads of Euripides' posthumously performed play B. Visual images of maenads on pots from the sixth century through to post B. Ina Lycurgus trilogy by Polyphrasmon was produced; Aeschylus himself produced two Dionysus tetralogies, and inXenocles won a first prize with a Bukchui play. Seaford 37having summed up evidence of bacchic activity, concludes that: Although it is clear from all this that maenadism was actually practised ie. Although Bacchae describes mythical rather than actual maenads, various details of the description may correspond to actual practice.

But we do not know whether this actual practice included exotic activity The male imagination may easily have endowed with savagery rituals from which males were excluded and which were celebrated in wild places. Dodds Xxiihad gone so far as to assert that: By Euripides' time there was little or nothing in the official Athenian cults which could inspire the descriptionsin the purodos and the messenger speeches, or had any real relevance to the savage and primitive story of Pentheus' [sic] punishment.

The implication is that by the time Euripides, exiled in Macedonia where, however, Dodds says, 'the Dionysiac cult was still in the 4th century sufficiently primitive to include such rites as snake handling' xxiiiwas revisiting the Dionysuflentheus story with his own agenda, back in Athens the respectable citizen wives and daughters were showing no more than a restrained ecstatic reverence to the established cult at'the Anthesteria and the Lenaia, while the women's role at the City Dionysia was interpreted and undertaken by actors and by young men at the transitional point of passage into manhood.

Because Dionysus combined patronage of theatre with tutelary responsibility for viticulture, a n 4 himself a foreigner, epitomised the wild and rampantly fertile world beyond the city limits, it is not surprising that his worship should involve apparent potential for extreme licence, but, because 46 the cult was a recognised and accepted one, there may well have been a male Qctated hidden agenda of control.

So, a man might allow the women of his oikos to attend the Lenaia secure in the knowledge that whatever they did was done within the limits of custom and ritual, and was sanctioned by the wider community for the sake of the general good. Seaford 44talking of the community's need 'to renew and unite itself through the imagined entry of a powerful outsider', points out that this unity requires 'the symbolic incorporation of marginal elements', and that, since women constituted a marginal element, the acceptance of Dionysus in all his 'otherness' signalled also 'its integration of women'.

Elsewhere, moreover7. To obviate such drastic measures, Dionysiac worship actually becomes a tool of state control, releasing all ages and classes of women temporarily from the absolute power of their kyrios. The extent to which the cult was indeed integrated into the polis is indicated by the importance of the great City Dionysia with its superstructure of performance-relatedadministration and politicking. Their physical weakness and as Aristotle saw it1 l botched anatomy meant that their emotional and moral capacities were likely to be similarly distorted; they were prone to irrationality, overemotionalism, deviousness.

If they got drunk, sang, danced, entertained male visitors - behaved, in short, like hetairai - they would disgrace their family, and this may be the common Athenian fear, not just his personal, mytluc anxiety, which Euripides' Pentheus expresses. The rituals involved in the Eleusinian mysteries of Demeter or in the Panathenaea did not wholly cater for this element of female liminality; in both ceremonies, male worshippers were involved, and though the Mysteries involved dancing and dramatic re-enactment of myth by female participants, solemnity and order were important aspects of celebration.

Even the Thesmophoria, which was a [email protected] festival, was an attempt to control fertility by ritual balance: Only free women of unblemished reputation were permitted to participate in the Thesmophoria. They were chaste for three days in preparation for the festival and continued to abstain during the course of it. Yet they indulged in the foul language and obscenities characteristicof fertility rituals.

Ritual maenadsm, on the other hand, involved a number of subversions and transgressions; it became licit for women to leave the oikos and the polis both male-controlled spacesand go out into the wild; young, old, married,unmarried,wives, virgins - all had rights in the worship of the alien god.

Domestic, political and class boundaries, as well as that which divides 'us' from 'other' GreeWforeigner,maleffemale, citizedslave - all these demarcation lines might be, again, licitly, crossed by maenads hollny mad or out of their 'proper' minds. In itself, the requirement, or intention of becoming enfheos - through drink, or through extreme physical activity not necessarily, despite Pentheus's anxieties, sexual - is an astonishing deliberate surrender of the virtue of restraint.

Either mainas mad or bakchais frenziedthe maenads are 48 liberated from normal constraints to be other than themselves. Rehm13while admitting that 'we cannot know what the experience of maenadism was like', contests that its 'organized nature militates against the popular notion of mass hysteria and uncontrolled violence'. The sacrificial element in Bacchic celebration inevitably attracts debate even by critics who are primarily concerned with literary matters; Euripides' Bacchae is the major extant literary text on the theme, and focuses on the perverted sacrifice of an unknowing unaccepting victim.

FoleyCh. She wisely urges caution in using an evolutionist approach on literary texts, since one is tempted into anachronismsand hypotheses. Girardcategorically says that the murder of Pentheus 'is performed in accordance with Dionysiac practice', and talks of 'the rite' ambiguously, not making it clear whether sacrificial spamgmos generally, or Pentheus's murder in particular, or both together, are intended.

Seaford puts emphasis on the literary construct's implicit recording of ritual, while showing that theatre can provide an enactment nearer to the mythical actuality than can religious ritual: [aetiologicalmyth] typically spells out what cannot be fully enacted in the ritual i. Both the element of communal guilt and the question of perversion of role specifically, mother and priestess clearly need to be examined in regard to the Bacchae.

This sounds a very different matter from the ecstatic immediacy of 'eis oros eis oros' of the Chorus at lines and suggesting the indifference to physical pain and the conviction of increased or unlimited capability which Dionysiac possession seems to give to devotees.

Perhaps the Delphi oreibusiu was an extreme example, but clearly some degree of relatively strenuous activity was required of participants in the ceremonies, in order, as Rehm13 puts it, to translate 'physical exhaustion into spiritual well-being and [merge] individual consciousnesswith that of the group'. Dodds xiv-xvi writes of dervishes, the Tarantella and St. Vitus' Dance, and the last twenty years have added marathon and long-distance running to the list of physical activities which are known to produce a sensation of euphoria - a 'high' - before eventual exhaustion.

The same feeling of exhilaration as part of a group activity is felt by amateur actors working towards a single performance, where dedication of considerablephysical and mental activity to a species of agon may be said to reproduce tolerably accurately the experience of working as part of a chorus for the dramatic festivals.

The very idea of women of mixed ages and status dancing in a semi-publicway, outside in contrast to the enclosed and private dancing in the Demeter mysteriesmust have had transgressive overtones. As is still the case in modem Greece, - dancing for enjoyment was a male group activity a peaceable form of physical exercise which encouraged male group bonding.

The dancing or running constitutes part of the pompe, and the ugon which occurs as the sacrificial element of the ceremony involves celebrants in a state of 'engoddedness' - though to what extent they are 'out of their minds' it is impossible to say. Similarly, the omophugiu which is 'referred to in the regulations of the Dionysiac cult at Miletus B. Clearly, the elements which, structuralistspoint out, are included to help define what divides man from animals flesh eaten 50 raw, torn apart, not cut with manufactured blades, and communality of guilt-implication are going to be those which invoke distaste or indeed revulsion from 'civilised' humanity, just as they are meant to.

It is something a civilisd man or woman would never normally do - and so is precisely the kind of activity to be expected of a worshipper of Dionysus, the god who disrupts boundaries, and deals in the liminal areas between god and man, man and beast. Euripides has his Bacchae make only one approbatory reference to omophagaand recoil in horror from the reality of Agave's invitation to feast on her catchsubsequently humouring or are they responding with heavy irony?

However 'normal' ritual sparagmos and omophaga were inthe point being made is that Agave's act was transgressive, not just in terms of the ' n o d or nomoi of the oikos or polis, but in terms of Bacchic worship itself.

EuriDides' Bacchic Chorus A civic congregation of bacchae might be expected to divide into three groups, imitating the mythical instances of maenadism: three daughters of Minyas at Orchomenos, three daughters for Proetus, three daughters for Cadmus. But the 'authentic' bacchae of the Chorus are a lone group, following their exarchos, whose nature is surely deliberately ambiguous. It was, of course, an established convention that the Chorus should neither leave the stage, be fragmented other than into semi-choruses, nor take part in the action as such.

Theirs is a normative voice - but not an Athenian normative voice, nor an 'authorial voice'; rather, it represents the norm of maenadism - whatever Euripides wanted that to be. Goldhdlff. The recognisable to their relatives in the audience young men uf the chorus, completing, perhaps, by their participation, the Athenian equivalent of the Duke of Edinburgh's Gold Medal Award, are permitted a degree of 'playing the other',16 but are kept within the bounds of appropriate behaviour; it is for the professional actors to play out the tragic transgressions and outrages.

Hence, the parodos, which gives a list of the characteristicsof maenads, starts with an armation of the holiness of the rites and its true observersbefore proceeding to the physicalities: the ivy-crowned thyrsus lthe snakes in the hair 1 0 2 4 the use of specific plants for garlands lothe fawnskins, the dancing in the mountains to the beat of drums.

The epode evokes the group ecstasy of the maenadsand asserts as normal the miracles of food and drink from rock and soil to which the Messenger is later to bear witness at 1 1, but may reserve the extreme sign of possession, the omophagia for a single celebrant. The first stasimon, after the condemnation of Pentheus's unholiness and folly where he thinks he is exhibiting holiness, in persecuting blasphemous immorality, and wisdompresents the image of 'peace elsewhere', specifically, in the second strophe, on Aphrodite's island, or Pieria, where in the presence of the Muses and Desire: 'it is lawful for bacchants to celebrate mysteries'Seaford, Thus, discreetly, maenadic sexual activity is acknowledged; it is an expression of freedom and happiness, not the furtive undergrowth groping of Pentheus's fears, nor, indeed, the boisterous congress with satyrs which pottery delighted in picturing.

But 'peace elsewhere' is also cited, at the end of the second antistrophe, in the minds of those who accept the of Dionysus to escape from the stresses of life, and, more importantly, avoid the 52 presumption or over-reaching which causes those stresses.

This yearning for escape through bacchic celebration is given, in the third stasimon, a hard edge, since it is coupled with the 'what is wisdom? At this point in the play - the turning point, since the audience waits, with the chorus, to see whether Pentheus has taken Dionysus's bait - the chorus implies a conflict of desires in humankind: the desire for a quiet life having survived the nets of the hunter, the rigours of labour on sea and shore, the often deluding hopes and ambitions and the instinctive and unavoidable desire to possess and exert power over others.

Personally, the chorus opines, 'the person whose life is happy from day to day, him I call blessed'Seaford, It should be enough for mankind to be able to say: 'well, we got through that one alright' - but maenads, in addition to recognising what leads to a quiet life, are initiated into the potential for bacchic high spots as well. In spite of that possible implication in the epode of the parodos that the audience is unlikely to witness any of those high spots of bacchic experience on stage, it can be argued that they do see the chorus possessed.

The second and fourth stasimons show how threatening indeed, potentially dangerous, a pack of women the collective noun is used advisedly can be. Pentheus's threat against the bacchae at 5 is rendered more frightening to them because he has shown he has the power to implement his more serious one against the god himself in the person as the maenads assume of their leader.

During their condemnation of Pentheus in the antistrophethe chorus whip themselves up to a state of excitement by enumerating the affronts offeredto the god by the king's action against their 'fellowdancer' and the threats against them. The Bacchae are shown to be most dangerous, because most active, irrational and inspired, when threatened. Their invocation however mad they are is effective at least for them, since it produces a miraculous freeing of their leader by the god's manipulation of natural disaster forces.

Dramatically, it may be, the invocation of Dionysus is most effectively answered, not by attempting spectacular realism but by preserving ambiguity. This is effected if Dionysus's 53 speeches in dialogue with the chorus are from offstage, and the palace earthquake and rekindled fire at Semele's tomb are conjured in the audience's minds by the work of the chorus - or to put it more prosaically, following Verrall and the rationalists see Dodds,they are a figment of the chorus's communal imagination.

Jan Kott - whom no-one would describe as a rationalist - considers that this is and would have been in Greek theatre an appropriate way of conveying that possession of the mind and body. Hasring likened the invocationsof the chorus to the prophecies of Isaiah, to medieval hymns and Negro spirituals,l7 he contends that 'on a bare sbge, Greek as well as modern, the shaking of the earth is confirmed by the shaking of bodies. The miracles of the mysteries do not need pyrotechnics' Kott,If the second stasimon and the subsequent 'palace earthquake scene' have given the audience a taste of what bacchae are like when possessed by communal emotion, the messenger's account of the Theban maenads' spurugmos of the cattle, and their subsequent triumphal rampage through the villages of Hysiae and Erythrae make clear what such group possession can effect.

From this point, possessed maenadic activity passes into the province of the Cadmeian women, orchestratedby Dionysus. Certainly the chorus has the function, in the fourth stasimon, of summoningFrenzy to take over the Thebans the Lydians now know this is Dionysus's plan: they are not going to be involved or implicated in the vengeance he will take on Pentheus and his familyand they also pronounce final judgement on him, reprising their description of Pentheus as monstrous, earth-born, ungodly.

They anticipate the horror of Agave's murder of him, and the butchery that vengeance will exact. But they are the channels of Dionysus'sjudgement only, not its engines, and though exultant, as they should be, on Dionysus's behalf, at the news of Pentheus's death, receive Agave with pity not condemnation or triumphant mockery.

To the end of the play, they remain unpolluted by their 'inauthentic' sisters' activities, and deliver the platitude of the final tag at a remove from the horror. This, in itself, is one of Dionysus's s; like the bacchic chorus, the audience has the freedom to walk away from tragedies performed under Dionysus's authority, and in his theatre. It was a decade in which 'youth culture' was invented not necessarily by youthand in which boundaries which had previously been clearly delineated between child and adult, male and female, respectable and criminal were to be disrupted by two divergent drives: the invitation to ' turn on and drop out', and the challenge of radical activism, political or feminist.

The decade since the trend-setting of Osbome's Look Buck in Anger had seen theatre branch out also into absurdism in the work of, for example, Harold Pinter and N. Simpson and 'soft-protest' for example in the rock musical, Hair. Alternative theatre and performance art provided channels for feminist and politically active voices. The Bucchue appeared particularly appropriate for re-creation in the late sixties and early seventies, seeming as it did to ' deal with alternative cults, with female activism, with the defeat of tyrannic masculinity by ecstatic, alcohoYdrug-inspired group activity, orchestrated by an androppiously charismatic leader.

HiDDv maenads and The Disorderlv Women John Bowen's reflective foreword to his revised acting text of The Disorderly Women [OUdbl20] begins with the acknowledgement that 'at particular times [myths] may seem to have a particularly strong relevance, and it seems that now - Aprilas I write - is such a time for the myth of the Bacchae', and he notes the versions by Duffy, Robert Bolt, Rodney Milgate and the improvised version [OUdb] by The Performance Group in New York: Dionysus in ' Put this to someone born afterand he may tell you, "Qwte right.

Dionysus ought to win. Instinctive behaviour is what life is for. If my self were to return toit could only say, "I have seen the future, and it doesn't work". The Disorderly Women,then, is a work of pessimism. There is also another way in which hippy life fits the myth.

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