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Behind The Glass - Culture Shock (15) - Culture Shock (File, MP3)

29.01.2022

Quimbaya lime container; 5th—9th century; gold; height: mm 9. Byzantine scyphate ; —; diameter: 25 mm 0. Pre-Columbian pendant with two bat-head warriors who carry spears; 11th—16th century; gold; overall: The symbol Au is from the Latin : aurumthe Latin word for "gold". Outside chemistry, gold is mentioned in a variety of expressions, most often associated with intrinsic worth.

Winners of athletic events and other graded competitions are usually awarded a gold medal. Many awards such as the Nobel Prize are made from gold as well. Aristotle in his ethics used gold symbolism when referring to what is now known as the golden mean. Similarly, gold is associated with perfect or divine principles, such as in the case of the golden ratio and the golden rule.

Gold is further associated with the wisdom of aging and fruition. The fiftieth wedding anniversary is golden. A person's most valued or most successful latter years are sometimes considered "golden years". The height of a civilization is referred to as a golden age. The British Gold Coast Ghana today and the Guinea region were among of the main centres of European trade in slaves and gold.

The British Guinea coin was minted from gold extracted from this area. British interests were represented by the Royal African Companywhich shipped more African slaves to the Americas than any other company in the history of the Atlantic slave trade.

In some forms of Christianity and Judaismgold has been associated both with holiness and evil. In the Book of Exodusthe Golden Calf is a symbol of idolatrywhile in the Book of GenesisAbraham was said to be rich in gold and silverand Moses was instructed to cover the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant with pure gold. In Byzantine iconography the halos of ChristMary and the Christian saints are often golden. In Islam[98] gold along with silk [99] [] is often cited as being forbidden for men to wear.

According to Christopher Columbusthose who had something of gold were in possession of something of great value on Earth and a substance to even help souls to paradise. Wedding rings are typically made of gold. It is long lasting and unaffected by the passage of time and may aid in the ring symbolism of eternal vows before God and the perfection the marriage signifies. In Orthodox Christian wedding ceremonies, the wedded couple is adorned with a golden crown though some opt for wreaths, instead during the ceremony, an amalgamation of symbolic rites.

On 24 AugustIsraeli archaeologists discovered a trove of early Islamic gold coins near the central city of Yavne. Analysis of the extremely rare collection of gold coins indicated that they were from the late 9th century.

Dating to around 1, years back, the gold coins were from the Abbasid Caliphate. The World Gold Council states that as of the end of"there weretonnes of stocks in existence above ground". This can be represented by a cube with an edge length of about 21 metres 69 ft. Inthe world's largest gold producer by far was China with tonnes.

The second-largest producer, Australiamined tonnes in the same year, followed by Russia with tonnes. In China with tonnes overtook South Africa as the world's largest gold producer, the first time since that South Africa has not been the largest. As of [update]China was the world's leading gold-mining country, followed in order by Australia, Russia, the MP3) States, Canada, and Peru. South Africa, which had dominated world gold production for most of the 20th century, had declined to sixth place.

In South America, the controversial project Pascua Lama aims at exploitation of rich fields in the high mountains of Atacama Desertat the border between Chile and Argentina. It has been estimated that up to one-quarter of the yearly global gold production originates from artisanal or small scale mining. The city of Johannesburg located in South Africa was founded as a result of the Witwatersrand Gold Rush which resulted in the discovery of some of the largest natural gold deposits in recorded history.

The gold fields are confined to the northern and north-western edges of the Witwatersrand basinwhich is a 5—7 km 3. The gold is found only in six areas where archean rivers from the north and north-west formed extensive pebbly Braided river deltas before draining into the "Witwatersrand sea" where the rest of the Witwatersrand sediments were deposited. The Second Boer War of — between the British Empire and the Afrikaner Boers was at least partly over the rights of miners and possession of the gold wealth in South Africa.

During the 19th century, gold rushes occurred whenever large gold deposits were discovered. Grasberg mine located in PapuaIndonesia is the largest gold mine in the world. Gold extraction is most economical in large, easily mined deposits. Ore grades as little as 0. Typical ore grades in open-pit mines are 1—5 ppm; ore grades in underground or hard rock mines are usually at least 3 ppm.

Because ore grades of 30 ppm are usually needed before gold is visible to the naked eye, in most gold mines the gold is invisible. After initial production, gold is often subsequently refined industrially by the Wohlwill process which is based on electrolysis or by the Miller processthat is chlorination in the melt.

The Wohlwill process results in higher purity, but is more complex and is only applied in small-scale installations. As ofthe amount of CO 2 produced in mining a kilogram of gold is 16 tonnes, while recycling a kilogram of gold produces 53 kilograms of CO 2 equivalent.

Approximately 30 percent of the global gold supply is recycled and not mined as of Corporations are starting to adopt gold recycling including jewelry companies such as Generation Collection and computer companies including Dell. According to World Gold CouncilChina is the world's largest single consumer of gold in and toppled India for the first time with Chinese consumption increasing by 32 percent in a year, while that of India only rose by 13 percent and world consumption rose by 21 percent.

Unlike India where gold is mainly used for jewelry, China uses gold for manufacturing and retail. Gold production is associated with contribution to hazardous pollution. Low-grade gold ore may contain less than one ppm gold metal; such ore is ground and mixed with sodium cyanide to dissolve the gold. Cyanide is a highly poisonous chemical, which can kill living creatures when exposed in minute quantities.

Many cyanide spills [] from gold mines have occurred in both developed and developing countries which killed aquatic life in long stretches of affected rivers. Environmentalists consider these events major environmental disasters. When sulfide-bearing minerals in these ore dumps are exposed to air and water, the sulfide transforms into sulfuric acid which in turn dissolves these heavy metals facilitating their passage into surface water and ground water.

This process is called acid mine drainage. These gold ore dumps are long term, highly hazardous wastes second only to nuclear waste dumps. It was once common to use mercury to recover gold from ore, but today the use of mercury is largely limited to small-scale individual miners. Mercury can then enter into the human food chain in the form of methylmercury. Mercury poisoning in humans causes incurable brain function damage and severe retardation.

Gold extraction is also a highly energy intensive industry, extracting ore from deep mines and grinding the large quantity of ore for further chemical extraction requires nearly 25 kWh of electricity per gram of gold produced. Gold has been widely used throughout the world as money[] for efficient indirect exchange versus barterand to store wealth in hoards.

For exchange purposes, mints produce standardized gold bullion coinsbars and other units of fixed weight and purity. Bills that mature into gold coin and gold certificates convertible into gold coin at the issuing bank added to the circulating stock of gold standard money in most 19th century industrial economies.

In preparation for World War I the warring nations moved to fractional gold standards, inflating their currencies to finance the war effort. Post-war, the victorious countries, most notably Britain, gradually restored gold-convertibility, but international flows of gold via bills of exchange remained embargoed; international shipments were made MP3) for bilateral trades or to pay war reparations.

After World War II gold was replaced by a system of nominally convertible currencies related by fixed exchange rates following the Bretton Woods system. Gold standards and the direct convertibility of currencies to gold have been abandoned by world governments, led in by the United States' refusal to redeem its dollars in gold.

Fiat currency now fills most monetary roles. Central banks continue to keep a portion of their liquid reserves as gold in some form, and metals exchanges such as the London Bullion Market Association still clear transactions denominated in gold, including future delivery contracts. Today, gold mining output is declining. Inventory above ground would satisfy many decades of industrial and even artisan uses at current prices.

The gold proportion fineness of alloys is measured by karat k. Pure gold commercially termed fine gold is designated as 24 karat, abbreviated 24k. English gold coins intended for circulation from into the s were typically a standard 22k alloy called crown gold[] for hardness American gold coins for circulation after contain an alloy of 0.

Although the prices of some platinum group metals can be much higher, gold has long been considered the most desirable of precious metalsand its value has been used as the standard for many currencies. Gold has been used as a symbol for purity, value, royalty, and particularly roles that combine these properties.

Gold as a sign of wealth and prestige was ridiculed by Thomas More in his treatise Utopia. On that imaginary island, gold is so abundant that it is used to make chains for slaves, tableware, and lavatory seats. When ambassadors from other countries arrive, dressed in ostentatious gold jewels and badges, the Utopians mistake them for menial servants, paying homage instead to the most modestly dressed of their party.

The special issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin contains the highest purity gold of any bullion coinat Inthe United States Mint began producing the American Buffalo gold bullion coin with a purity of The Australian Gold Kangaroos were first coined in as the Australian Gold Nugget but changed the reverse design in Like other precious metals, gold is measured by troy weight and by grams. The proportion of gold in the alloy is measured by karat kwith 24 karat 24k being pure gold, and lower karat numbers proportionally less.

The purity of a gold bar or coin can also be expressed as a decimal figure ranging from 0 to 1, known as the millesimal finenesssuch as 0. The price of gold MP3) determined through trading in the gold and derivatives markets, but a procedure known as the Gold Fixing in Londonoriginating in Septemberprovides a daily benchmark price to the industry. The afternoon fixing was introduced in to provide a price when US markets are open.

Historically gold coinage was widely used as currency; when paper money was introduced, it typically was a receipt redeemable for gold coin or bullion. In a monetary system known as the gold standarda certain weight of gold was given the name of a unit of currency. Byit was becoming hard to maintain this price, and a pool of US and European banks agreed to manipulate the market to prevent further currency devaluation against increased gold demand. Bullion Depository at Fort Knox.

In the World Gold Council estimated total global gold supply to be 3, tonnes and demand to be 3, tonnes, giving a surplus of tonnes. In lategold markets experienced renewed momentum upwards due to increased demand and a weakening US dollar.

Because of the softness of pure 24k gold, it is usually alloyed with base metals for use in jewelry, altering its hardness and ductility, melting point, color and other properties. Alloys with lower karat ratingtypically 22k, 18k, 14k or 10k, contain higher percentages of copper or other base metals or silver or palladium in the alloy.

The Japanese craft of Mokume-gane exploits the color contrasts between laminated colored gold alloys to produce decorative wood-grain effects. Bythe gold jewelry industry was escalating despite a dip in gold prices.

Gold solder is used for joining the components of gold jewelry by high-temperature hard soldering or brazing. If the work is to be of hallmarking quality, the gold solder alloy must match the fineness purity of the work, and alloy formulas are manufactured to color-match yellow and white gold. Gold solder is usually made in at least three melting-point ranges referred to as Easy, Medium and Hard. By using the hard, high-melting point solder first, followed by solders with progressively lower melting points, goldsmiths can assemble complex items with several separate soldered joints.

Gold can also be made into thread and used in embroidery. For example, according to the World Gold Council, a typical cell phone may contain 50 mg of gold, worth about 50 cents. Though gold is attacked by free chlorine, its good conductivity and general resistance to oxidation and corrosion in other environments including resistance to non-chlorinated acids has led to its widespread industrial use in the electronic era as a thin-layer coating on electrical connectorsthereby ensuring good connection.

For example, gold is used in the connectors of the more expensive electronics cables, such as audio, video and USB cables.

Mroz Article: The Real Wikipedia? Part Two: Please, Mr. Wales, Remain Seated by J. Not only has he done no research whatsoever on the historical question he pretends to study, he has no knowledge of even the basics of a research methodology.

Fletcher Prouty reference site: www. Buckley was a CIA officer with E. John K. Randy Robertson; beginning at Dr. Robertson is a Board certified Diagnostic radiologist Dr.

Robertson and Dr. Robertson Synchronizing the Zapruder film with the audio recording of the assassination Dr. Maybe they WC didn't want her on the stairs at that time Why? The title track of the Clash 's double album was the band's biggest UK hit on first release.

See files for discussion to help reach a consensus on what to do. Main article: New wave music. Main article: Post-punk. The Fall 's ode to amphetamines. Smith tunelessly screaming", writes Toby Creswellit "mostly resembles the Legendary Stardust Cowboy 's ' Paralysed ' for its live feel and sense of abandon Main article: Hardcore Behind The Glass - Culture Shock (15) - Culture Shock (File.

Main article: Oi! Main article: Anarcho-punk. Main article: Pop-punk. Main article: Alternative rock. Further information: Queercore.

Further information: Riot grrrl. The first U. Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved August 24, Retrieved on January 17, ISBN Archived from the original on April 13, Retrieved February 21, PM Press, Several sources incorrectly ascribe the illustration to the leading fanzine of the London punk scene, Sniffin' Glue e.

Robb ascribes it to the Stranglers ' in-house fanzine, Strangled p. The Guardian. July 20, Bad Music. Routledge, Page Cultural Critique. Retrieved on December 17, See also Laingpp.

And It Don't Stop. Archived from the original on April 17, Retrieved April 17, Trouser Press. Archived from the original on October 22, Retrieved October 23, Archived from the original on January 23, Retrieved December 19, October 20, Rolling Stone.

Archived from the original on September 14, Retrieved October 10, Durham : Duke University Press. Archived from the original on September 30, Retrieved December 13, New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, Retrieved April 27, Routledge, London. Archived from the original on March 14, Retrieved June 22, CBS News.

January 8, Archived from the original on February 25, Retrieved October 20, The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved March 15, Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 8, Retrieved May 3, Archived from the original on November 12, Retrieved January 11, Note that Taylor misidentifies the year of publication as p. Village Voice. Archived from the original on September 3, Retrieved July 23, December Archived from the original on May 7, Retrieved November 19, He indicates that much "punk" fanfare in early 70s was in relation to mids garage rock and artists perceived as following in that tradition.

Fall He refers to an album by the Other Half as "acid punk. Omnibus Press. Archived from the original on August 19, Retrieved September 10, Arista Records.

Archived from the original on November 3, Strongmanp. However, the Richard Hell anthology album Spurts includes a live Television recording of the song that he dates "spring Archived from the original on November 2, The Love Club is no more it operated in the basement till a month ago.

Aztec Lounge This is only partly punk—the bar crowd is actually friendly. Retrieved on September 11, ; Robbpp. The quote has been incorrectly ascribed to McLaren e. Robbp. June 27, Archived from the original on December 24, Retrieved December 29, Quote: Robbp. Retrieved on November 19, December 9, Archived from the original on October 12, Retrieved October 22, Mercury poisoning in humans causes incurable brain function damage and severe retardation.

Gold extraction is also a highly energy intensive industry, extracting ore from deep mines and grinding the large quantity of ore for further chemical extraction requires nearly 25 kWh of electricity per gram of gold produced. Gold has been widely used throughout the world as money[] for efficient indirect exchange versus barterand to store wealth in hoards.

For exchange purposes, mints produce standardized gold bullion coinsbars and other units of fixed weight and purity. Bills that mature into gold coin and gold certificates convertible into gold coin at the issuing bank added to the circulating stock of gold standard money in most 19th century industrial economies. In preparation for World War I the warring nations moved to fractional gold standards, inflating their currencies to finance the war effort. Post-war, the victorious countries, most notably Britain, gradually restored gold-convertibility, but international flows of gold via bills of exchange remained embargoed; international shipments were made exclusively for bilateral trades or to pay war reparations.

After World War II gold was replaced by a system of nominally convertible currencies related by fixed exchange rates following the Bretton Woods system.

Gold standards and the direct convertibility of currencies to gold have been abandoned by world governments, led in by the United States' refusal to redeem its dollars in gold.

Fiat currency now fills most monetary roles. Central banks continue to keep a portion of their liquid reserves as gold in some form, and metals exchanges such as the London Bullion Market Association still clear transactions denominated in gold, including future delivery contracts. Today, gold mining output is declining. Inventory above ground would satisfy many decades of MP3) and even artisan uses at current prices.

The gold proportion fineness of alloys is measured by karat k. Pure gold commercially termed fine gold is designated as 24 karat, abbreviated 24k.

English gold coins intended for circulation from into the s were typically a standard 22k alloy called crown gold[] for hardness American gold coins for circulation after contain an alloy of 0. Although the prices of some platinum group metals can be much higher, gold has long been considered the most desirable of precious metalsand its value has been used as the standard for many currencies.

Gold has been used as a symbol for purity, value, royalty, and particularly roles that combine these properties. Gold as a sign of wealth and prestige was ridiculed by Thomas More in his treatise Utopia. On that imaginary island, gold is so abundant that it is used to make chains for slaves, tableware, and lavatory seats. When ambassadors from other countries arrive, dressed in ostentatious gold jewels and badges, the Utopians mistake them for menial servants, paying homage instead to the most modestly dressed of their party.

The special issue Canadian Gold Maple Leaf coin contains the highest purity gold Behind The Glass - Culture Shock (15) - Culture Shock (File any bullion coinat Inthe United States Mint began producing the American Buffalo gold bullion coin with a purity of The Australian Gold Kangaroos were first coined in as the Australian Gold Nugget but changed the reverse design in Like other precious metals, gold is measured by troy weight and by grams.

The proportion of gold in the alloy is measured by karat kwith 24 karat 24k being pure gold, and lower karat numbers proportionally less. The purity of a gold bar or coin can also be expressed as a decimal figure ranging from 0 to 1, known as the millesimal finenesssuch as 0.

The price of gold is determined through trading in the gold and derivatives markets, but a procedure known as the Gold Fixing in Londonoriginating in Septemberprovides a daily benchmark price to the industry. The afternoon fixing was introduced in to provide a price when US markets are open. Historically gold coinage was widely used as currency; when paper money was introduced, it typically was a receipt redeemable for gold coin or bullion.

In a monetary system known as the gold standarda certain weight of gold was given the name of a unit of currency. Byit was becoming hard to maintain this price, and a pool of US and European banks agreed to manipulate the market to prevent further currency devaluation against increased gold demand. Bullion Depository at Fort Knox. In the World Gold Council estimated total global gold supply to be 3, tonnes and demand to be 3, tonnes, giving a surplus of tonnes.

In lategold markets experienced renewed momentum upwards due to increased demand and a weakening US dollar. Because of the softness of pure 24k gold, it is usually alloyed with base metals for use in jewelry, altering its hardness and ductility, melting point, color and other properties.

Alloys with lower karat ratingtypically 22k, 18k, 14k or 10k, contain higher percentages of copper or other base metals or silver or palladium in the alloy. The Japanese craft of Mokume-gane exploits the color contrasts between laminated colored gold alloys to produce decorative wood-grain effects.

Bythe gold jewelry industry was escalating despite a dip in gold prices. Gold solder is used for joining the components of gold jewelry by high-temperature hard soldering or brazing. If the work is to be of hallmarking quality, the gold solder alloy must match the fineness purity of the work, and alloy formulas are manufactured to color-match yellow and white gold.

Gold solder is usually made in at least three melting-point ranges referred to as Easy, Medium and Hard. By using the hard, high-melting point solder first, followed by solders with progressively lower melting points, goldsmiths can assemble complex items with several separate soldered joints. Gold can also be made into thread and used in embroidery. For example, according to the World Gold Council, a typical cell phone may contain 50 mg of gold, worth about 50 cents.

Though gold is attacked by free chlorine, its good conductivity and general resistance to oxidation and corrosion in other environments including resistance to non-chlorinated acids has led to its widespread industrial use in the electronic era as a thin-layer coating on electrical connectorsthereby ensuring good connection.

For example, gold is used in the connectors of the more expensive electronics cables, such as audio, video and USB cables. The benefit of using gold over other connector metals such as tin in these applications has been debated; gold connectors are often criticized by audio-visual experts as unnecessary for most consumers and seen as simply a marketing ploy. However, the use of gold in other applications in electronic sliding contacts in highly humid or corrosive atmospheres, and in use for contacts with a very high failure cost certain computerscommunications equipment, spacecraftjet aircraft engines remains very common.

Besides sliding electrical contacts, gold is also used in electrical contacts because of its resistance to corrosionelectrical conductivityductility and lack of toxicity. Fine gold wires are used to connect semiconductor devices to their packages through a process known as wire bonding. The concentration of free electrons in gold metal is 5. For example, gold electrical wires were used during some of the Manhattan Project 's atomic experiments, but large high-current silver wires were used in the calutron isotope separator magnets in the project.

Metallic and gold compounds have long been used for medicinal purposes. Gold, usually as the metal, is perhaps the most anciently administered medicine apparently by shamanic practitioners [] and known to Dioscorides. Even some modern esotericists and forms of alternative medicine assign metallic gold a healing power. In the 19th century gold had a reputation as an anxiolytica therapy for nervous disorders.

Depressionepilepsymigraineand glandular problems such as amenorrhea and impotence were treated, and most notably alcoholism Keeley, The apparent paradox of the actual toxicology of the substance suggests the possibility of serious gaps in the understanding of the action of gold in physiology.

Some gold salts do have anti-inflammatory properties and at present two are still used as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of arthritis and other similar conditions in the US sodium aurothiomalate and auranofin. These drugs have been explored as a means to help to reduce the pain and swelling of rheumatoid arthritisand also historically against tuberculosis and some parasites. Gold alloys are used in restorative dentistryespecially in tooth restorations, such as crowns and permanent bridges.

The gold alloys' slight malleability facilitates the creation of a superior molar mating surface with other teeth and produces results that are generally more satisfactory than those produced by the creation of porcelain crowns. The use of gold crowns in more prominent teeth such as incisors is favored in some cultures and discouraged in others.

Colloidal gold preparations suspensions of gold nanoparticles in water are intensely red- coloredand can be made with tightly controlled particle sizes up to a few tens of nanometers across by reduction of gold chloride with citrate or ascorbate ions.

Colloidal gold is used in research applications in medicine, biology and materials science. The technique of immunogold labeling exploits the ability of the gold particles to adsorb protein molecules onto their surfaces.

Colloidal gold particles coated with specific antibodies can be used as probes for the presence and position of antigens on the surfaces of cells. Gold, or alloys of gold and palladiumare applied as conductive coating to biological specimens and other non-conducting materials such as plastics and glass to be viewed in a scanning electron microscope.

The coating, which is usually applied by sputtering with an argon plasmahas a triple role in this application. Gold's very high electrical conductivity drains electrical charge to earth, and its very high density provides stopping power for electrons in the electron beamhelping to limit the depth to which the electron beam penetrates the specimen.

This improves definition of the position and topography of the specimen surface and increases the spatial resolution of the image. Gold also produces a high output of secondary electrons when irradiated by an electron beam, and these low-energy electrons are the most commonly used signal source used in the scanning electron microscope.

The isotope gold half-life 2. Pure metallic elemental gold is non-toxic and non-irritating when ingested [] and is sometimes used as a food decoration in the form of gold leaf. Although the gold ion is toxic, the acceptance of metallic gold as a food additive is due to its relative chemical inertness, and resistance to being corroded or transformed into soluble salts gold compounds by any known chemical process which would be encountered in the human body.

Soluble compounds gold salts such as gold chloride are toxic to the liver and kidneys. Common cyanide salts of gold such as potassium gold cyanide, used in gold electroplatingare toxic by virtue of both their cyanide and gold content.

There are rare cases of lethal gold poisoning from potassium gold cyanide. Gold metal was voted Allergen of the Year in by the American Contact Dermatitis Society; gold contact allergies affect mostly women.

A sample of the fungus Aspergillus niger was found growing from gold mining solution; and was found to contain cyano metal complexes, such as gold, silver, copper, iron and zinc. The fungus also plays a role in the solubilization of heavy metal sulfides. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the element. For other uses, see Gold disambiguation. For the anthology, see Element 79 anthology. Chemical element, symbol Au and atomic number P Pa 1 10 1 k 10 k k at T K Main article: Colored gold.

Main article: Isotopes of gold. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: List of countries by gold production.

Main articles: Gold mining and Gold prospecting. Main article: Gold extraction. Further information: Gold as an investment. Pure and Applied Chemistry. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. PMID ISBN Properties of Materials.

CRC Press. Its scarcity makes it a useful store of value; however, its relative rarity reduced its utility as a currency, especially for transactions in small denominations.

Smithsonian Books. Rarity is, nevertheless, in itself a source of value, and so is the degree of difficulty which surrounds the winning of the raw material, especially if it is exotic and has to be brought some distance. Gold is, geologically, a relatively rare material on earth and occurs only in specific places which are remote from most other places. Retrieved 28 May Advanced Media Solutions, Inc. According to music journalist Ben MyersBad Religion "layered their pissed off, politicized sound with the smoothest of harmonies"; Descendents "wrote almost surfy, Beach Boys-inspired songs about girls and food and being young ish ".

The mainstream pop punk of latter-day bands such as Blink is criticized by many punk rock fans; in critic Christine Di Bella's words, "It's punk taken to its most accessible point, a point where it barely reflects its lineage at all, except in the three-chord song structures. From on, punk rock crossed lines with many other popular music genres.

Los Angeles punk rock bands laid the groundwork for a wide variety of styles: the Flesh Eaters with deathrock ; the Plugz with Chicano punk ; and Gun Club with punk blues. The Meteorsfrom South Londonand the Cramps were innovators in the psychobilly fusion style. The underground punk rock movement inspired countless bands that either evolved from a punk rock sound or brought its outsider spirit to very different kinds of music.

The original punk explosion also had a long-term effect on the music industry, spurring the growth of the independent sector. Though commercially successful over an extended period, they maintained an underground-style, subcultural identity. The best of the American punk rockers have moved on. They have learned how to play their instruments. They have discovered melody, guitar solos and lyrics that are more than shouted political slogans.

Some of them have even discovered the Grateful Dead. Alternative rock encompasses a diverse set of styles—including indie rockgothic rockdream popshoegazeand grungeamong others—unified by their debt to punk rock and their origins outside of the musical mainstream. As American alternative bands like Sonic Youthwhich had grown out of the no wave scene, and Boston's Pixies started to gain larger audiences, major labels sought to capitalize on the underground market.

The band's members cited punk rock as a key influence on their style. In the s, the queercore movement developed around a number of punk bands with gay, lesbian, bisexual, or genderqueer members such as God Is My Co-PilotPansy DivisionTeam Dreschand Sister George.

Inspired by openly gay punk musicians of an earlier generation such as Jayne CountyPhrancand Randy Turnerand bands like Nervous Genderthe Screamersand Coilqueercore embraces a variety of punk and other alternative music styles. Queercore lyrics often treat the themes of prejudice, sexual identitygender identityand individual rights. The movement has continued into the 21st century, supported by festivals such as Queeruption. The riot grrrl movement, a significant aspect in the formation of the Third Wave feminist movement, was organized by taking the values and rhetoric of punk and using it to convey feminist messages.

With riot grrrl, they were grounded in girl punk past, but also rooted in modern feminism. Lady Recordsexplains that without riot grrrl bands, "[women] would have all starved to death culturally. Bikini Kill's lead singer, Kathleen Hannathe iconic figure of riot grrrl, moved on to form the art punk group Le Tigre in Late s punk music was anti-conformity and anti-mainstream, and achieved limited commercial success.

By the s, punk rock was sufficiently ingrained in Western culture that punk trappings were often used to market highly commercial bands as "rebels". Marketers capitalized on the style and hipness of punk rock to such an extent that a ad campaign for an automobile, the Subaru Imprezaclaimed that the car was "like punk rock".

The next year, Green Day put out Dookiewhich sold nine million albums in the United States in just over two years. That June, Green Day's " Longview " reached number one on Billboard ' s Modern Rock Tracks chart and became a top forty airplay hit, arguably the first ever American punk song to do so; just one month later, the Offspring's " Come Out and Play " followed suit. Following the lead Boston 's Mighty Mighty Bosstones and Anaheim 's No Doubtska punk and ska-core became widely popular in the mids.

And Out Come the Wolvesthe album by Rancid became the first record in the ska revival to be certified gold; [] Sublime's self-titled album was certified platinum early in Green Day and Dookie ' s enormous sales paved the way for a host of bankable North American pop punk bands in the following decade.

The Offspring's album Americanareleased by the major Columbia label, debuted at number two on the album chart. A bootleg MP3 of Americana 's first single, " Pretty Fly for a White Guy ", made it onto the Internet and was downloaded a record 22 million times—illegally. While they were viewed as Green Day "acolytes", [] critics also found teen pop acts such as Britney Spearsthe Backstreet Boysand 'N Sync suitable points of comparison for Blink's sound and market niche.

In NovemberThe New Yorker described how the "giddily puerile" act had "become massively popular with the mainstream audience, a demographic formerly considered untouchable by punk-rock purists. Other new North American pop punk bands, though often critically dismissed, also achieved major sales in the first decade of the s.

The record included the number one U. Alternative hit " Fat Lip ", which incorporated verses of what one critic called "brat rap. The effect of commercialization on the music became an increasingly contentious issue.

As observed by scholar Ross Haenfler, many punk fans 'despise corporate punk rock', typified by bands Sum 41 and Blink From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Genre of rock music.

For the original s genre known as "punk" or "punk rock", see Garage rock. For the play by Simon Stephens, see Punk Rock play. See also: Punk subculture and List of punk artists and styles. Further information: Punk fashion.

See also: Garage rockProto-punkMod subcultureand Beat music. The chorus of the Ramones ' first single "is a primer on the punk take on rock rhythm With its "inflammatory, venomous lyrics [and] crude energy", the Sex Pistols ' debut single " Anarchy in the U.

Sounds magazine described " I'm Stranded " as "bloody incredible". As inchoate as its name suggests, the Germs ' " Forming " was the first L. The title track of the Clash 's double album was the band's biggest UK hit on first release. See files for discussion to help reach a consensus on what to do. Main article: New wave music. Main article: Post-punk. The Fall 's ode to amphetamines.

Smith tunelessly screaming", writes Toby Creswellit "mostly resembles the Legendary Stardust Cowboy 's ' Paralysed ' for its live feel and sense of abandon Main article: Hardcore punk. Main article: Oi! Main article: Anarcho-punk.

Main article: Pop-punk. Main article: Alternative rock. Further information: Queercore. Further information: Riot grrrl. The first U. Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved August 24, Retrieved on January 17, ISBN Archived from the original on April 13, Retrieved February 21, PM Press, Several sources incorrectly ascribe the illustration to the leading fanzine of the London punk scene, Sniffin' Glue e.

Robb ascribes it to the Stranglers ' in-house fanzine, Strangled p. The Guardian. July 20, Bad Music. Routledge, Page Cultural Critique. Retrieved on December 17, See also Laingpp. And It Don't Stop. Archived from the original on April 17, Retrieved April 17, Trouser Press.

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