Strings can be closed or open and each one vibrates. Ref: TED. Strings are so small and tiny, its hard to comprehend. If an atom was enlarged to the size ofa string would only be about the size of a tree. You'll need a pretty powerful microscope to get that far.
In other words, a string is a millionth of a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a centimeter. Visually, it would be written as Ref: PBS. In the start there was just one string theory however over time that change. The SST provides some way in matching the two sciences up. All the five ST had to be reconciled otherwise all the work they had done would go out the window. Ed Witten worked out that they were all not all different theories, they were linked and were all different ways of viewing the same puzzle.
It know became M-Theory. Ref: Quora. According to some scientists there is a competing theory called Supergravity. In the most basic of explanation is Supergravity is combination of Supersymmetry and General Relativity. Supersymmetry is a theory that is used to unify the fundamental physical forces Gravity, Electromagnetism, Weak Nuclear, Strong Nuclear and proposes a physical symmetry between bosons and fermions.
Ref: Wikitionary. It is not much different from String Theory except it says that there are 11 dimensions. Although you might find on the internet that there could be more dimensions right up to 26 but most sites only talk about up to In his videoProfessor Michio Kaku, a world renowned theoretical physicist will say that if you go above 11, the universe will come unstable.
Therefore assumed that they don't exist. Trying to find out what the eleven dimensions are has proved to be hard.
There is information about the tenth dimensions so possibly the eleventh dimension is the zeroth dimension. If anyone finds the eleventh condition Parallel Worlds the zeroth condition, please do let us know. The ten dimensions are Ref: Ultraculture. Thinking out aloud, in our universe, everything is governed by our rules. Another universe may have a different set of rules. In our universe, people are white, brown and black.
In another universe people they could be blue, green or red in colour. Our sky is blue, in their the sky could be green or yellow. Where in our universe, magic is illusions, in theirs, magic is pure magic with dragons, warlocks and such like. Its likely though that fantasy and magic would inhabit another universe because that universe would have to obey the rules of physics. Whilst magic breaks the rules of physics, Orc s, Goblin s, Elves could exist though. Imagine that, instead of playing World of Warcraftyou're actually liviing the game.
In the room is a Cat, a radioactive substance, a Geiger counter and poison. When the substance has decayed and the Geiger realises this, it releases the poison to kill the cat. Only when you open the room would one state exist, dead or alive. In Multiverse, one universe, the cat would be dead, another, the cat would be alive. The Butterfly Effect is the name given to the theory that a tiny miniscule event can have far reaching consequences. The term was coined by American Scientist Edward Lorenz in the twentieth century to describe a theory that a butterfly flapping its wings could eventually cause a hurricane.
Ref: Wiki. The effect has been covered in films, most notably a film of the same name starring Ashton Kutcher who time travel s into the past to change miniscule things and then in the present have such wide ranging consequences.
The Many World Multiverse theory has caught the attention of science fiction writers of book, television and film. Here are just a few of the more famous ones. He was undescribably stupid and could not understand the simplest things in quantum mechanics. This new interpretation is called, in its various incarnations, post-Everett quantum mechanicsalternate histories, consistent histories, or decoherent histories. I will not be overly concerned with the detailed differences between these characterizations and will use the terms more or less interchangeably.
According to Feynman's idea, every possible history of Ken is equally real. DeWitt Physics Today. Bibcode : PhT See also Leslie E. DeWitt, Bryce ; Graham, R. Neill eds. Princeton Series in Physics. ISBN X. Fortschritte der Physik. Bibcode : ForPh. Reviews of Modern Physics. Bibcode : RvMP Archived from the original on Retrieved DeWittJohn A. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics. CiteSeerX Saunders ; J. Barrett ; A. Kent ; D. Wallace eds. Many Worlds? Everett, Quantum Theory and Reality.
Oxford University Press. Bitbol, Michel ed. OxBow Press. The Quantum Mechanics of Minds and Worlds. ISBN Parallel Worlds Geons, Black Holes and Quantum Foam.
Saunders; J. Barrett; A. Kent; D. An Introduction". Nature Physics. Bibcode : NatPh S2CID Parallel Worlds Philosophical Studies. Accessed 12 April Hartle Zurek ed. Complexity, Entropy, and the Physics of Information.
Brown; Christopher G. Timpson In Mary Bell; Shan Gao eds. Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 years of Bell's theorem. Cambridge University Press. International Journal of Theoretical Physics. Bibcode : IJTP Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Uncertainty Principle Ian Boddy. Tone Science Module No. Axiom DiN64 Ian Boddy. An Ascent DiN63 Scanner. Altair Redux Ian Boddy.
Altair DiN59 Ian Boddy. Each universe is far beyond what we can see and know about. Given its distance from Earth, it can't be seen, it is and probably will always be a theory. Ref: Futurism. Level Three is the one we are all more familiar with, the one where universes exist in the same time and space but different different dimensions. It is born out of the fact that some particles can be in the two places at once.
Some say that they pop into the other dimension and back again. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle governs this area of physics.
Whilst our knowledge finds it hard to believe that it can be in two places at once, the HUP states it must be in two places at once. Level Four parallel universe is Parallel Worlds where the universe doesn't exist, the universe didn't form, it is still gas. It is said that when a decision is made here, another decision is made elsewhere, another universe is spawned from the opposite action. Therefore, tweaking Newtons third Law, "For every action, there is an equal and opposite universe.
This is a catch all for all other types of multiverses that could exists that don't fall into the other types. Using ThoughtCoyou can see how they match up with Tegmarks' classifications. This is similar to Level 1, where the other universes are so far away that we have not and will probably never ever see another universe.
A Brane could collide with one another and therefore causing other universes to be created. It is the theory to help explain why the Big Bang occurred so many years ago. It is theorized that two branes collided and therefore causing the big bang.
If this was the cause, a brane collision, then it would mean that the multiverse is older than This is a theory that says each universe has its own rules. It means rules in our universe where life is based on oxygen, could be based on say nitrogen in order for life to exist. Although Thoughtco says only 1 and 4, I believe it should contain 2 as well because it mentions there being bubbles. This is equivalent to the bubble universe where each universe exists in its own bubble.
Each bubble is so far way that we are unable to see or detect. It seems to be hard to define what a brane is. According to this article on Columbia University's website, the term brane can mean different things to different people. Part of the problem comes what context the person is talking about.
Ref: Columbia. In terms Parallel Worlds the multiverse, our universe is just one brane and that there are other branes out there.
This is the multiverse that is favoured by the science fiction community in which there are similar galaxies but are different for slight reasons.
In a Holographic Multiverse, another universe would be a perfect mirrored image of our universe down to the smallest of items. Should there be an universe like that, there would be no point because you'd still not have won the lottery there.
To add to that, the identical universe could be time-lapsed, maybe a year or thousands of years behind. That's my theory, someone else has probably thought it too but I have not looked. This isn't a real-world multi-verse so to speak in the same way as the other multiverses. This multi-verse is created in a computer where the multiverse is simulated. Our technology has gotten to that level yet but who knows, one day may.
At the moment this is no one whole unifying theory of everything TOEat the moment the sciences of the Big Bang and String Theory don't match up. Big Bang is very large physics whilst String Theory is quantum physics, physics of the very small. In the beginning when people started talking about String Theory, they were able to match the two up perfectly.
However as more people researched the area, they found that there was no theory that could match them both up. They soon found that there was more than one string theory which destroyed the whole idea of a Theory of Everything. Ref: Physics. Conventional wisdom tells us that there are three dimensions, height, width and depth. Time is referred to as the fourth dimension and that dimension we can only go in one direction. String Theory holds that there are more dimensions that we can't see, they are at a subatomic size which not even our best microscope have been able to see.
At the very smallest, it is believed that there are strings that vibrate. Unmanned underwater vehicles UUVs can become more capable by leveraging technologies such as artificial intelligence AI.
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