Sound color is once again the trickiest to define. Some artists even have signature ad-libs—grunts, moans, yelps, or other noises that are easily identifiable. His injuries required his jaw to be wired shut in order to heal correctly. He recorded the track with his jaw wired shut, resulting in the unusual sound of his voice on the song. Beat boxing is the skill of using the voice to imitate the sounds of drums, other percussion instruments, and turntable techniques.
In light of the poverty experienced by many early hip-hop artists, the story goes that beat boxing developed as a way to supply beats for rappers who could not afford turntables or a drum machine.
In hip hop, the style was pioneered in the early s by Doug E. Beat boxing, like turntablism, has split off from mainstream hip hop and become an art form in itself, with artists like Beardyman, Rahzel formerly of The RootsEklips, Bellatrix, and Tom Thum among the most well-known and respected practitioners. While there are many ways rappers can naturally change their voice, there are more ways that technology can alter its sound. Even the simple act of performing into a microphone and amplifying the voice changes it, denaturalizes it.
Producers can add delay and reverb, both of which create a sense of space. The main difference between delay and reverb is the amount of time it takes for the reflection of the original sound to hit your ear: with reverb, the original sound is still present, as if you were making the sound in a small room; with delay, the original sound has dissipated, as if you were making the sound in a canyon.
A posse cut is a song that features several artists, often from different labels, with each getting a verse. Songs by early rap groups are de facto posse cuts—the form certainly hearkens back to the cipher—they featured members of a particular crew or label.
T-Pain is a fine singer without the software, but the program adds a unique sound color or timbre to his voice. Rather than there being smooth glides from syllable to syllable as happens naturally when we sing or talk, the software makes it sound as though there are many little discrete steps as T-Pain moves from one pitch to another.
Ludacris raps the first verse Most of his lines start off with very short, fast notes and end with slightly longer, slower notes that drag behind the beat. After a repetition of the hookRick Ross delivers the second verse On just about every other beat, the text in his verse is highlighted with LP) echo.
His voice is the lowest-pitched of all the artists on the track and sounds more laid-back than the first two rappers: he works fewer syllables into each beat.
This drawl is most noticeable at the ends of the first four lines. One particularly interesting feature of this song is how the voices are normalized in terms of pitch. In graffiti, we can imagine long, uninterrupted bursts from a spray can, or the unbroken line of a magic marker. Rupture might also happen as one dancer leaves the floor and another one enters. Transitions from footwork to floor work to spin could also be understood as ruptures although one could make a similarly strong case that the transitions flow from one to the other, particularly in the case of skilled dancers.
In hip hop, flow most commonly refers to the synthesis of musical rhythm and lyrics. Similarly, their rhythmic choices can shed new light on the lyrics they have composed. Krims contrasts the sung style common to much early rap with effusive styles found in rap after about This style tends to feature end rhyme and very little internal rhyme, which often emphasizes clear line breaks.
Rhythmically, the sung style is not particularly complex. The effusive styles downplay the role of pitch and more closely resemble natural speech.
This style was pioneered by MCs like Rakim and Nas in the late s and early s. The effusive style is so named because of the tendency of one line to spill into the next, an important point of contrast to the clear breaks of the sung style. Effusive style tends to be more complicated than the sung style: it features internal rhymes as well as end rhymes, and it features more sophisticated rhythms that not only divide but subdivide the beat. Put another way, there tend to be more notes or syllables packed into each beat in this style than in the sung style.
Most rap after about uses the speech-effusive style, although there are a few artists who tend to favor the percussion-effusive style. The percussion-effusive style treats the voice more like a percussion instrument, featuring sharp attacks. B-Real of Cypress Hill is perhaps the most well-known practitioner of this style.
In Figure 3. Most of the important words occur on the beat, and, for the most part, the beginnings of multisyllabic words also fall on strong beats. Beats are mostly divided into groups of two or three. Biggie groups the lines into pairs using internal rhyme in boldface and a gradual decline in the pitch of his voice.
The internal rhyme also serves to blur the line endings. Cadence is another concept we can use when talking about flows. Cadence can be understood as how quickly the MC is rapping; maybe how many words per minute or second or whatever. Cadence is not necessarily dependent upon tempo: a rapper could conceivably achieve a high syllabic density in a song with a slow tempo, and vice versa.
Musicologist Alyssa Woods notes that slow cadences are not in any way inferior to faster cadences; rather, they can evoke different meanings laid-back versus agitated, for instance. The placement of rhyming syllables 2. The placement of accented syllables 3. The degree of correspondence between syntactic units and measures 4. The number of syllables per beat Articulative techniques 1. The amount of legato [smoothness or connection] or staccato [clipped, separated] used 2.
The degree of articulation of the consonants 3. The second articulative technique deals with accent: how forcefully the rapper projects the consonant sounds. The more forcefully the rapper projects these sounds, the more percussion-effusive the flow is. It can be difficult to hear whether the rapper is ahead of or behind the beat, but these aspects of flow can evoke meaning as well: rapping behind the beat might sound laid-back, whereas rapping ahead of the beat might suggest aggression or anxiety.
Rupture is any interruption in flow. Tricia Rose describes two kinds of rupture with respect to rap music: when scratching interrupts the flow, or when one musical passage is interrupted by another. This song is a short masterclass in flow and rupture. There are a quite a few obvious points of rupture in the song, and they are given in the list below. As you listen, take note as to what happens in each, using the three types of rupture presented above. Find two other instances of rupture in this song and describe them.
How does he negotiate the ruptures? Words are invested with layers of meaning, including not just dictionary definitions and figurative meanings, but also connotations of race, class, and place. Language thus becomes a tool for reinforcing power structures and for challenging those structures already in place.
Among the most often heard criticisms of the genre during its infancy was that rappers do not use proper English in their lyrics. Such a claim carries with it political, class, and racial baggage: it offers a prime example of how a culture can invest words with meaning beyond their dictionary definitions.
The word brought with it connotations of a lifestyle that was difficult to escape. While some argue that the word is so hurtful it should be eliminated from the vocabulary, others contend that reclaiming the word allows them to divest it of its hurtful power.
Tupac insisted that N. Robin D. We talk one way when we are having dinner with our parents or meeting with a professor, and we talk another way when we get together with friends or take care of children. His claim is even more apparent in the case of artists who are bilingual in the more traditional sense of the word.
Poetic concerns aside, in each case the language choices made by these artists constitute a form of resistance, and they include some listeners while excluding others. Loren Kajikawa suggests that rappers can project race based on their language choices. Whiteness, argues Kajikawa, is a dynamic construct, one that shifts with respect to the construction of blackness in mainstream hip hop. My name is. The likelihood of his enjoying the success that he did on the heels of either parody or skills alone is small.
Such language assumes a particular level of education and self-awareness among his listeners, who he acknowledges are primarily white. He also mentions the Central District, Beacon Hill, and the South End, which refer to neighborhoods in Seattle that were at one time predominantly composed of minorities but are rapidly becoming gentrified. Heavy autotune and other effects further cloud the text. The website Genius. Song lyrics and other texts are regularly added to the website, and users can sign in and annotate them, providing a way in for those who might be unfamiliar with the language.
The verse starts with Zolanski reciting lines 1—4 in a percussion-effusive near-monotone that almost bears a Jamaican accent. Minaj uses transformative rhyme to create the end rhymes and some internal rhyme. The first word of each of the first four lines begins on beat 1 of the measure each line below corresponds to one bar.
The first four lines, which appear in Figure 3. In line 5, Minaj switches to a sung-style flow, and each line now begins before beat 1. Kanye adds cymbal hits on beats 2 and 4 beginning in line 5, perhaps to compensate for the shift from percussion-effusive to sung style. Figure 3. For lines 13—14, Minaj switches personae to Harajuku Barbie: in the video, we see a pink-haired Nicki dressed in a white wedding gown, tied to a chair, addressing the camera directly, which visually reflects the shift.
The end of line 12 overlaps with the beginning of line 13, reinforcing the sense that there are indeed two different voices at play. These lines, which appear in Figure 3. Lines 16—20, which appear in Figure 3. Including his name and the name of his song reinforces the Jamaican sensibilities that Minaj is trying to evoke in her Zolanski lines.
Lines 21—27 Figure 3. The words in boldface are accentuated by a synthesizer hit. Fif- ty bum out? Lines 28—29 are closer to a sung-style old school flow, as they feature clear end rhymes and an overall descent in pitch.
These lines appear in Figure 3. By evoking two different personae, we have the opportunity to compare and contrast techniques that a single rapper can use in a verse. Within each persona, there is considerable variation in voice, language choices, and approaches to flow. Compare and contrast the flow of the rappers on this track.
Alternatively, choose another posse cut and discuss the voices of the rappers on that track. Find a verse by a rapper that you like and rewrite it in the voice of another rapper. Consider elements of flow, rupture, and language choices. Do any of these definitions make sense in the context of the song? What meaning s does the context of the song imply? University of Michigan, See also Woods Reprinted in The Hip Hop Reader. Rap music consists of the rhythmic delivery of text over a looped beat.
These two primary elements—MCing and DJing—arose from long traditions of figurative language and dance music that happened to coalesce in a unique way in the South Bronx during the s. In African culture, the spoken word has power to influence the future.
The practices of the griots came to America via the slave trade and have undergone some transformations but nonetheless continued to advance the power of the word. Music enhances these powers by engaging not just the mind but the body as well.
In this chapter, we will consider some of the linguistic and musical precursors of rap. Griots occupied a unique position in society because they functioned as mediators between the nobility and the people. They had the permission of the community to speak freely—to give good news and bad—and receiving this news, or listening to the stories of the griot, had the power to impact what happened later that day, that week, or that year.
The story of Sundiata, which Rubin And Cherise - Various - Arista AOR Sampler (Vinyl since been committed to print, was transmitted orally from generation to generation over hundreds of years by griots. To facilitate memorizing these long tales, the text was often set to music and accompanied by some sort of string instrument, like a guitar.
These traditions were brought to America by the transatlantic slave trade from the s to thes. The traditions were adapted by the slaves and their ancestors: traces of the practices can be found in black storytelling traditions like toasting and Signifyin g to be discussed below. To do so, Signifyin g relies on the flexibility of language and the multiplicity of available meanings.
Signifyin g encompasses a number of black oral traditions including toasting and the dozens. It is typically full of profanity, humor, and boasting and is handed down through oral tradition.
These toasts were usually presented informally—on street corners, in barbershops, and in bars. The poem features three characters: a monkey, a lion, and an elephant. The tale is told in rhyming couplets and is often embellished with profanity.
In an effort to enrage the lion, the monkey resorts to the dozens Typically, participants stand in a circle a cipher and trade insults until someone cries or a fight breaks out. Here, the monkey implies that the elephant has said all kinds of lewd things about various members of his family. This is not unique to Signifyin gor to black aesthetics, but is rather a common thread among all types of improvisation, as LP) will see in the next chapter.
The ending of the poem also tends toward the formulaic, as Gates notes. He recorded several moderately successful comedy albums in the late s and early s, but his career hit a turning point in when, as a clerk in a record store, he used to pay a regular visitor to recite toasts about Dolemite. Moore recorded the toasts and began incorporating his own versions into his routines.
Record-store owners typically kept the albums behind the counter in plain brown wrappers, to be sold only to those who asked. InMoore marshaled his savings and produced a film version of Dolemite. The movie has become a cult classic and is an important film in the blaxploitation genre. The Disco Godfather features Moore as a good guy, a former cop investigating an angel-dust ring; it was a flop, and Moore retreated to stand-up gigs.
Their raunchy comedy resurfaced in the work of Slick Rick, 2 Live Crew, and others. The insulting nature of the dozens manifests itself in contemporary rap in several ways, most noticeably in rap beefs or diss tracks.
In the early days of hip-hop culture, Afrika Bambaataa saw the potential for rap music and break dancing to be a nonviolent means of settling disputes among the otherwise violent rival gangs in the Bronx: the power of the word sublimated the need for violence. Furthermore, the process of looping serves to recontextualize the sample: the end of it becomes juxtaposed against the beginning in a way that likely was not intended by the original artist s.
In the best beats, in fact, a virtual call-and-response develops in which a break actually answers itself. After Jamaica gained independence from the United Kingdom inthe island nation quickly fell into turmoil. The liberation also resulted in a large exodus of Jamaicans and other West Indians, with many settling in the South Bronx.
There were three components of Jamaican musical culture that influenced early hip-hop culture: the sound system, reggae and dub, and toasting. The mobile DJs were so called because they would transport their sound systems from place to place, often setting up in parks or other community gathering spaces, as opposed to club DJs, who worked at a fixed location. Selectors—as the DJs were called—would manipulate the sounds of the records they were playing by adjusting the treble and bass controls and by fading some instruments and frequencies out, only to bring them back dramatically later.
The selectors typically played a blend of American rhythm and blues—artists like Chuck Berry and Fats Domino—and Jamaican styles like ska and reggae. Reggae is a hybrid of African and European musics and often features themes of social protest, black power, and pride.
Boasts and insults are also prominent features, which undoubtedly came LP) the same African lineage as the Signifyin g practices detailed above. When record producers were finished recording a track, they would often create several different versions of the track: one as-is typically the A-side of the record and another with no vocals—just instrumentals the B-side. Remixes were, on occasion, also packaged along with the original, and cover versions in which artists would supply their own individual takes on a song were abundant.
This notion of versioning is central to much Jamaican musical culture, and many aspects of African-American music as well. Dub, another Jamaican musical style that would influence rap, came about as an accident. In the late s, recording engineer King Tubby was experimenting with fading the vocal and melodic tracks in and out on a reggae record he was working on.
Dub led to a new style of performing in which the mobile DJs would speak in rhyme over the dub versions. This became known as toasting or talk over note that this toasting is distinct from the toasting described in the previous section, although its origins are undoubtedly similar. In many regards, then, dub is a clear predecessor to rap. He actually began his DJ career in the South Bronx playing reggae records at parties, but they did not generate the excitement that funk records did, so he quickly abandoned them.
Artists who wear their hair in dreadlocks often do so as a nod to Jamaican culture. More recently, inrapper Snoop Dogg announced that following a visit to Jamaica, he had been rechristened as Snoop Lion by a Rastafarian priest. He released a reggae and dancehall—inspired album and a documentary chronicling his journey and transformation, both titled Reincarnated he has since returned to his original identity.
Their works featured bold pro-black themes, and many were self-published. Another group that emerged a few years later—in —was The Last Poets. Its seven original members tackled issues like poverty and racism, which were pervasive in the black community at the time. Their strong social and political messaging encouraged listeners to act and led to their involvement with groups such as SNCC and the Black Panther Party.
In performance, their poetry recitations were often accompanied by music: sometimes just bongos, and, later, a kind of free jazz. To that end, their performances situate them in the legacy of the griots.
They recorded several albums, most notably their debut, The Last Poets. Infighting over writing and licensing credits ultimately created rifts among the members, but two of the original members, Umar Bin Hassan and Abiodun Oyewole, continued to perform as The Last Poets into the early s. A simple drum accompaniment—short-short-long, short-short or high-high-low, high-high —supports the text throughout most of the track. Thematically, the track features themes of black power and white appropriation and critiques the complacency of the black community in the face of these issues.
The Apollo Theater was operated by Frank Schiffman and Leo Brecher from until the late s; Bin Hassan calls out the former at the mark in Rubin And Cherise - Various - Arista AOR Sampler (Vinyl poem. Despite not selling very well and enduring a host of legal troubles, the album represents one of the most direct early influences on rap. The album consists of an extended toast detailing the escapades of two street hustlers, Sport and Spoon.
Their first-person tales of life in the ghetto paved the way for gangsta rap. Many of these same artists also sampled tracks from it on their own albums. He continues, noting that origins are important, as they help to shape the future. While he was a student at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, however, he attended a Last Poets performance at the school.
Oyewole recalls Scott-Heron approaching him after the performance and asking about starting a group like the Poets. FUNK As a musical style, funk is a synthesis of the vocal stylings of soul, the driving beat of rock, and the improvisational nature of jazz. It emerged in the mids, a time of both progress and tragedy in the fight for civil rights. While segregation and other racist policies were being dismantled by Martin Luther King Jr.
Funk has several defining musical characteristics. The first, and perhaps most distinctive, is the drumming pattern. In a typical funk beat, the emphasis falls on the first beat of the measure, the downbeat. This shift in feel creates a strong sense of forward momentum, which is carried along by the way the drummer, and other musicians fill in the space before the next downbeat.
Many of the bands were very large and had a tribal or familial feel to them, and, as funk evolved in the s, grew more racially and gender diverse. Funk shares some musical and aesthetic attributes with rap music.
Funk is very repetitive, for instance, often repeating a single one- or two-bar idea for an entire song. This phrase is often harmonically static that is, consisting of only one or two chords but rhythmically very active.
The emphasis on percussion—that is, not just using drums, but treating anything as a percussion instrument—finds its offspring in sample-based rap as well as the percussion-effusive style of rapping as discussed in the previous chapter.
Originally issued in on two sides of a 45 single, the extended version on the compilation album In the Jungle Groove is the version we will consider here. The song consists mostly of a repeated groove that is four beats long. The harmony rarely changes, sustaining one single chord throughout.
The key to this track and funk drumming in general is to listen to the smallest subdivisions of the beat, which in this song appear consistently in the hi-hat a small pair of cymbals that are open and closed via a pedal, but can also be played with sticks. The hi-hat keeps a constant pulse throughout that divides each beat into four equal parts. This constant subdivision is characteristic of funk drumming. The bass drum marks beat 1, as does the three-note horn figure. After saxophone and keyboard solos, the song seems to begin again as the introductory riff reappears.
These recordings were popular with hip-hop DJs for a few reasons. First, they represented a move away from disco, which was reigning at the time largely because it had been co-opted by white America. Second, they were often thought to embody strong notions about what it means to be black e.
Finally—and most importantly—they sounded good and were easy to dance to. While the popularity and, some would argue, the quality of funk waned into the late s and early s, the rise in popularity of hip hop over the next two decades led to a renewed interest in the genre, as hip-hop DJs, producers, and fans started chasing down the sounds that comprised their favorite tracks.
On one hand, it is easy to see the rise of hip hop as a reaction to disco, which had gotten its start among the marginalized communities i. On the other hand, hip hop owes many of its early technological foundations to disco. Artists and producers created lavish studio recordings, which were then played by DJs in clubs. In contrast to the mobile DJs described above, these DJs made their living in the clubs. The DJ rose to prominence around this time for two reasons: first, few bands agreed to play in clubs whose clientele consisted largely of these marginalized groups; second, hiring a DJ for the night was a lot less expensive than hiring a band.
Disco is fundamentally dance music, and imagining disco culture often brings to mind images of cocaine-filled parties at places like Studio 54 lasting into the small hours of the morning. The need for continuous music to support this scene resulted in extended club mixes of songs, which were often issued on inch records as opposed to the smaller 7-inch rpm singles. A inch record could hold anywhere from 15 to 22 minutes depending on the speed as opposed to the roughly four minutes of the 7-inch.
Disco DJs used a setup with two turntables linked by a crossfader to avoid any breaks in the music which would have, of course, led to breaks in the dancing. The crossfader allowed the DJ to transition smoothly between records, fading one out while gradually bringing up the volume on the other. Both the inch single and the two-turntable setup became important in the early days of hip hop. Disco was reaching the height of its popularity in the mids, just as rap music was getting its start.
The popularity of disco came about as a result of its appropriation by white culture, which was made most visible with the release of the movie Saturday Night Fever starring John Travolta. The soundtrack to the movie reinvigorated the career of the Bee Gees, an Australian group who had had some minor successes in the disco world.
The film and the soundtrack set many sales records at the time and provided an early success story of using a film to cross-promote an album and vice versa. Disco became a fixture on radio and television across the country, spreading it far beyond the urban context in which it had developed. Records such as Sesame Street Fever and Mickey Mouse Disco show how disco came to permeate every aspect of mainstream American culture. By the end of the s, however, disco faced a rapid decline in popularity.
Throughout the rise and fall of disco in mainstream American culture, there remained a strong subculture that sought to keep the music among the communities that had started it. Sylvia Robinson heard Lovebug Starski rapping over disco records at Harlem World, which prompted her and her son, Joey, to start scouting for rappers to sign to their failing record label.
Throughout the song, the lyrics are sung by a group. The texture thins out as instruments are removed and the bass line is simplified. The texture thickens with the addition of piano and synthesized strings. The bass line is embellished. The texture remains thick here, like the chorus. The lyrics are different, but the music is the same as in verse 1.
The instruments continue playing the repeated figure as the music fades out. Members of Chic eventually sued Sugar Hill for copyright infringement, but only after the rap song had become a hit. Musically, the song relies on two alternating chords. The bass line is the clearest place to hear the change: it alternates between a low note the open E string and a higher note the open A string.
Because it uses only two chords, it can be difficult to differentiate musically between the verse and chorus in this song. Although the chords do not change from verse to chorus, the texture does change. The bass line is embellished—it sounds more complicated—and other instruments are added, creating a fuller texture. Figures 4. Many early rap records—particularly those on the Sugar Hill label—use popular disco tracks underneath the rap.
As musicologist Loren Kajikawa observes, the disco handclaps and crowd noises appeared on many rap records, and many artists promoted themselves and their music as disco. Robert Ford Jr. The beats, subject matter, fashion, and other aspects began to crystallize into what we now know as hip hop.
What are some musical precursors to rap? What are some linguistic precursors to rap? How did each contribute to the development of rap? How is the power of the word or the power of the beat manifest in each of these precursors? Are there similarities across the different sources of early hip hop? For instance, what, if anything, do funk and disco have in common?
To what extent are any of these elements still present in contemporary rap music? Early hip hop emerged from the fusion of African-American and Caribbean styles, but contributions by Puerto Ricans and women—largely overlooked in many histories of hip hop—played an important role.
Hip hop was first and foremost party music, and it was the responsibility of the DJs and their MCs to keep the party going. Rap existed only as live performance in its early days and was primarily improvised: it would be almost five years until the first rap record was released.
Since its beginnings, rap has been a very self-aware genre, recording, revising, and repeating its histories. Beame had to put a freeze on hiring city employees and was ultimately forced to lay off nearly 38, city employees, including sanitation workers, teachers, police officers, and firefighters. Despite these efforts, the city was still on the verge of bankruptcy inand Beame petitioned the federal government for help. To that end, the mayor cracked down on the adult-entertainment industry that had taken over much of Times Square, and other illicit activity, finding any reason to put thousands of New Yorkers behind bars.
Thousands of manufacturing jobs dried up, leaving many unemployed. As it became increasingly difficult to keep apartment buildings filled with residents, landlords realized that they could make more money simply by burning down their buildings and collecting insurance money.
Between andnearly 30, fires were set in the Bronx: on one day inforty fires were set during a three-hour period. After the fire, vandals—sometimes hired by the landlords—would return to steal plumbing and wiring in order to sell it as scrap. This devastated the Bronx landscape and left many without homes; namely, those who could not afford to move to other, more expensive parts of the city or the suburbs.
Robert Moses was a visionary city planner who was active in New York City in the mid-twentieth century. Moses is responsible for creating thousands of acres of parks, hundreds of playgrounds, and public swimming pools he was an avid swimmer in his youth and was on the swim team as an undergraduate at Yale.
Moses believed that the hardworking mostly upper-class and white residents of Manhattan deserved opportunities to get out of the city and enjoy nature, to spend time at a nearby beach or park. To facilitate this, he claimed thousands of acres of land by using eminent domain laws, proceeding to build highways and bridges to allow those with automobiles only the wealthiest—again, typically white—residents to get away.
The Cross Bronx Expressway CBE was planned to be a stretch of highway only seven miles long, one mile of which was to cut right through the middle of one of the poorest neighborhoods in the country. Ultimately the CBE crossed streets, other expressways some of which were also in-progress Moses projectssubways and elevated train lines, sewers, and power lines.
The plan also required the Bronx River to be rerouted, something that one of the project engineers claimed was the least of their problems. As conditions in the Bronx worsened, and as the CBE construction became imminent, many of the middle-class mostly white residents moved to places like Long Island and New Jersey.
High-rise apartment buildings were constructed along the edges of the proposed highway in order to accommodate the displaced residents.
The city offered a small sum of money for relocation assistance. On January 1,the city took possession of buildings, and two weeks later it started shutting off heat and water in an effort to force people to vacate. Buildings were torn down floor by floor, ultimately forcing everyone living within to find a new place to live. Not long after construction finally got underway, the project stalled until Residents had to live in close quarters amid a half-demolished wasteland, and many familiar community gathering places—churches, schools, barbershops, nightclubs—were gone.
When construction finally resumed, residents were surrounded by the constant sound of earthmovers and blasting. When a lightning strike incapacitated one of the transformers outside of the city, the entire metropolis was plunged into darkness for twenty-four hours. Wiz: The light blew out— Caz: Went off.
The whole set went off. Wiz: Two lights blew out. Independent music sales from the artists of Singer Song! Singer Song brings the best of independent music to the net. Check out the original artists and buy their music online. Completely secure transactions. Go to music sales at Singer Song.
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