Dont Stop - 2 Nazty* - Indecent Exposure (Cassette, Album)


The hiring of Andy Coulson has become a major political test and source of discomfort for Cameron, who brought the erstwhile tabloid editor into the heart of his operations at 10 Downing St. Coulson, who resigned as Camerons aide in January, was arrested last week by police in a renewed probe into hack- ing at the now-defunct tabloid. Jan Brewers legal-defense site for the law known as SB raised money for an intangible service youre paying for a lawyer, said state Sen.

Steve Smith. This, you can taste and smell what youre getting youre paying for a secure border. The launch of buildtheborderfence. Officials made a positive prognosis this week after scaling several hurdles in decommissioning the facility, which was damaged March 11 when a tsunami disabled the plants cooling system.

The flooding led to partial meltdowns of the reactors that released radio- activity in the atmosphere and prompt- ed the evacuation of tens of thousands of nearby residents. In recent weeks, engineers have established an improvised cooling system to circulate water through the damaged reactors. Police say the year- old pilot and his year-old female passenger were hospitalized with serious injuries but were expected to survive.

Their names had not been released pending family notification. Officials credit the pilot for landing about feet from the Indian Fields Elementary School in Dayton. The incident is being investigated. Atlantis has checked out perfectly for NASAs last space shuttle landing ever. The four astronauts tested Atlantis flight systems Wednesday, their last full day in orbit. The shuttle and its crew are aiming for a touchdown at a. Excellent weather is forecast in Florida.

As their day flight neared an end, the crew deployed a satellite. With the push of a button, they ejected a little 8-pound experiment from a can in At- lantis payload bay. The mini-satellite is covered with experimental solar cells. Mission Control congratulated the crew for releasing the th and final pay- load of the year shuttle era. Astronaut Rex Walheim read a poem to mark the occasion. Flight controllers applauded back in Houston. Shuttle commander Christopher Fer- guson and his three crewmates checked their critical flight systems for todays planned landing.

Atlantis departed the International Space Station on Tuesday, after restock- ing it with a years worth of supplies. NASA already is working with pri- vate companies eager to take over car- go runs and astronaut flights to the space station. The first supply trip is expected to take place by the end of this year. Atlantis is set for a landing today. But Congress must act to raise the debt ceiling by Aug.

Obama has repeatedly calledfor a debt- limit increase that would car- ry the govern- ment through toarguing that the politi- cal environ- ment for anoth- er increase would only growmore chal- lenging with the White House and Congress at stake in Press secretary Jay Carney said at his daily briefing Wednesday that the president still believes that.

But, if both sides agree to something significant, we will support themeasures neededtofi- nalize the details of that. We need to be sure that that fail-safeoptionis there, evenas we pursue aggressively the possibili- ty of doing something bigger, Carney told reporters.

A plan based on a legislative maneuver devised by Senate Mi- nority Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky may be that fail-safe option, or perhaps it would be a simple extension for a matter of weeks or months that wouldallow time for the Gang of Six plan to move through. It is unclear, though, which if any plan could pass the Democratic-controlled SenateandRepublican-ledHouse. Both par- ties leadership will be coming to the White House Wednesday for separate meetings.

Obama may be open to bargain Short-term deal would raise debt ceiling, but only if deficit reduction agreement close. MEMOLI Tribune Washington Bureau We need to be sure that that fail-safe option is there, even as we pur- sue ag- gressively the possi- bility of doing something bigger.

Exhausted, rail-thin women are stumbling into refugee camps in Kenya and Ethiopia with dead babies and bleeding feet, having left weaker family members behind. Somalia is facing its worst food security crisis in the last 20 years, said Mark Bowden, the U. The crisis is the worst sincewhen hundreds of thousands of Somalis starved to death, Bowden said. That famine prompted intervention by an international peacekeep- ing force, but it eventually pulled out after two American Black Hawk helicopters were shot down in Since then, Western nations have mainly sought to contain the threat of terrorismfromSo- malia an anarchic nation where the weak government battles Islamic militants on landandpirates hijackships for millions of dollars at sea.

Parts of south- ern Somalia are suffering from a devastating famine, a U. Three people pre- sumed dead after being swept over a rag- ing waterfall in Yosemite National Park ignored warning signs and crossed a bar- ricade to pose for photographs, a witness said Wednesday. In addition, other hikers on the trail above the foot Vernal Falls warned the group that conditions in the Merced River were treacherous.

People come up here and they think its Disneyland, said Jake Bibee. Everyone was screaming, Bibee, 28, said. People were praying. What I will Dont Stop - 2 Nazty* - Indecent Exposure (Cassette away with me forever is the look on that grown mans face as he was floating down that river knowing he was going to die and nobody could help them.

The group of about 10 family members and friends had taken the day trip to see Vernal Falls, a treacherous drop on the swift Merced River made even more dan- gerous this year because of the record snowmelt now under way. A metal barricade separates hikers fromthe river where it pools amid a slick slab of granite before crashing over the precipice. Bibee said he was mortified when he reached the top of the Mist Trail and found members of the group on the river side of the barricade.

One man, he said, was posing near the waterfall with a screaming young girl in his arms while a teenage girl snapped photographs. As themancomplied, another manand woman in the group crossed the barri- cade and made their way to a rock in the middle of the river to pose for photo- graphs.

Thats when the woman started to slip, Bibee said. He reached for her and fell in. Thenanother one triedtohelpand she falls in the water. We literally watched themget swept over the edge of Vernal Falls. In a visit to the Asian country, Clinton challenged India to expand its traditional sphere of interest from South Asia to neighboring regions where it can help the United States blunt Chinas increasing assertiveness.

Free Pickup. Call Anytime. Making smart decisions about your homes heating and air con- ditioning systemcan have a big eect on your utility bills and your comfort. The Service Experts www. Omar Jermaine Redditt, 29, of Park Avenue, was arraigned Wednesday on charges of re- sisting arrest, endangering the welfare of children, two counts of DUI and a related traffic of- fense. According to court papers, just after midnight Wednesday police were called to a two-car crash on Hazle and Dana streets in the city, with possi- ble injuries to a 4-year-old.

When police arrived, Perry Buckner and Marissa Corbet said they were driving south- bound on Hazle Street when Redditts vehicle pulled out in front of them. Buckner and Corbet said there was a young child in Redditts vehicle who was not restrained.

Redditt told police it was just him in the vehicle at the time of the crash. Police said they detected a strong odor of an intoxicating beverage on Reddits breath and that he had glassy eyes and slurred speech. Police said Redditt would not comply with orders to sit in the back of a police cruiser and that an officer suffered bruising and swelling of his el- bow because force was used. Paramedics told police an unknown male arrived at the scene after the crash and took the child, identified as Red- ditts son, and that the child was driven away by a woman.

Police said Kerry Zellner ar- rived on the scene and told po- lice she was the one who drove off with the child before the child could receive medical at- tention for a head injury.

Police went to a Holland Street home where the childs grandmother, Javette Uggiano, refused medical treatment for the child and signed a waiver. Police said Redditt was driv- ing with a BAC of. An adult driver in Pennsyl- vania is considered intoxicated with a BAC of. His son suffered a head injury, police said. Butler, O. Wilkes-Barre Provincial Tower Bldg. Charles M. Carpenter Dr. Chas M. Carpenter Carpenter Dental brings the Valley the most advanced dental technology and techniques.

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New patients welcome anaccident reconstructionreport and toxicology results, which are expectedto take several weeks. But the teenagers who at- tended the memorial service, held just down the road from Crestwood High School, where Madry played hockey and la- crosse, werent focused on the teens last moments. Memorial service organizers said they didnt want to talk about his death, choosingrather toremem- ber his life.

WaitingtosignthebookforMa- dry, attendees stoodinclusters of 10 to 20, as teens often do, but spoke only in whispers. Many held back tears or hid them be- hind dark sunglasses, but broke into mourning as they embraced. The event was organized by Madrys classmate AndrewBrod- ginski through a Facebook page.

Brodginski and others set up a small memorial for Madry on a folding table in front of the book- signing table. It contained a pic- ture of Madry frombehind, seem- ing to move forward into the clouds, and flanked by his date of birthanddeath. Another teenreada poeminre- membrance of Madry featuring the lines howcould this happen, we havent a clue, and one mo- ment you were here and now youre gone. It hurts sobad, we just want to scream, she continued. Please saveusfromthishorribledream.

Gallagher, a former Crest- wood student who said he had known Madry since Middle School said he hoped the song would help others deal with the sadness andsense of loss brought onby Madrys death. I chosetodothat songbecause anyone can relate to it, he said. Its a song thats helped me through some hard times. If I can play a song that helps people feel better, I will. If loveisalaborIll slavetill the end, the songs lyrics read. I wont crossthesestreetsuntil you holdmy hand.

And then they were silent again, leaving in small groups to grieve privately. The Crestwood student died Monday as the result of a car crash that is still under investigation.

The car he was in was driven by a year-old male, authorities have said. In lieu of flowers, an account has been established in the name of the family. City council held its second and final reading of the proposed home rule study ordinance at Wednesday nights council meet- ing.

Council member Mike Lom- bardo said the primary motiva- ting factor for the move to home rule would be to reduce property taxes. He was joined in his stance by council member Joe Chernaus- kas, who pointed out the city could no longer look solely to property taxincreases as a means to increase revenue, as much of the citys senior citizen popula- tion will not be able to adjust to any increases.

City resident Jim Norris, who was eager to start the home rule discussionat the beginningof the meeting, stated his concerns that home rule would lead to the city levying more taxes on residents. But Joe Moskowitz, city man- ager, said it was premature to worry about excess taxation be- cause the home rule study has not even been approved by vot- ers.

He said it was not the citys intention to overburden its resi- dents with taxes. Norris said he trusts the inten- tions of the current administra- tion, but he is skeptical of what future administrations might do with the same taxing authority. Lombardo then said that caps and safeguards could be written intoanyfuturehomerulecharter.

In the upcoming November election, city voters will be faced with a ballot question to approve or deny the home rule study as well as a slate of candidates to serve on the study commission. Seven candidates will ulti- mately be elected if the study measure passes. Prospective candidates will have to file petitions with the names of registered city voters in order toqualifyfor the November ballot.

Moskowitz has contacted Lu- zerne County Director of Elec- tions Leonard Piazza to confirm the exact number of signatures that will be required, but he esti- mated that it will be between 80 and The filing deadline has not yet been determined. Also on Wednesday, the coun- cil held the first reading of an or- dinance to regulate the place- ment and maintenance of private collection bins within city limits. He said he hopes that, once en- acted, the ordinance will give the city the ability to prevent the mess or eyesore that prompted the initial complaints.

Daniel Kosisky of Jenkins Township was appointed as a fire department trainee. Pittston council OKs putting home rule on November ballot Main reason for a new government is to deal with the tax burden, official says.

An expert re- tained by Chief Gathering LLC for a township zoning hearing Wednesday night said there would be no effect on the Dal- las School District campus if a pipeline leak occurred at a pro- posed metering facility to be lo- cated within 1, feet of the closest school building.

Chief attorneys several months ago retained the expert in fire and explosion risk analysis to provide an overview of the proposed project. Reza said there are several fac- tors involved in the potential for natural gas flowing from a Chief gathering line through a meter- ing site to the Transco interstate pipeline to leak and potentially damage neighboring structures. He said he was told to determine the risk of damage to the Dallas Middle School, which is the clos- est structure to the metering sta- tion at 1, feet, and the Fellow- ship Free Evangelical Church on Hildebrandt Road, which is about feet away.

Reza said there would be no damage to either structure in the worst-case scenario. He also said natural gas, which is primarily composed of me- thane and ethane, needs to main- tain a certain percentage of con- centration to become combusti- ble. The flammable cloud sur- rounding the proposed metering station would only reach to feet in one of Rezas calculations.

He said that if all these factors were present and all the pipe- lines safeguards, including auto- matic shut-down valves, failed, the school and church exceed this distance and would not be damaged should the gas leak be ignited. Reza said he was not instruct- ed to calculate the risk of nearby houses in the area located on Fairground Road. He said the area in which the pipeline associated with the me- tering station would be located fits the description of a class 1 level area, a regulation created by the federal Department of Transportation.

A class 1 level, which determines the wall thick- ness, engineering controls and other aspects of the pipeline, would typically be implemented because there are fewer than 10 occupied structures within yards of the pipeline. Chief plans to utilize a class 4 level pipeline for the project, the highest federally regulated level. Reza said he based his calcula- tions on the assumption Chief would implement the highest pipeline integrity management program for its planned meter- ing station, but the program has not yet been determined because the plans have not been ap- proved.

Through negotiations, Chief has agreed to remove aspects of its operation from the site, in- cluding an 8,gallon under- ground tank of the flammable odorant mercaptan and a foot communications tower. Expert says gas metering facility would pose little risk in Dallas Twp. Chief Gathering LLC wants approval to construct facility that would be near schools. Thursday in the Dallas Middle School audi- torium. A funeral home representative can call the obituary desk atsend a fax to or e-mail to tlo- bits timesleader.

If you fax or e-mail, please call to confirm. Obituaries must be submitted by 9 p. Sunday through Thursday and p. Friday and Saturday. Obituaries must be sent by a funeral home or crematory, or must name who is hand- ling arrangements, with address and phone number. How blessed are we who put our faith in Jesus, who is the resurrection and the life! You have journeyed from death to eternal life and still live in His presence, where your life has changed; but, did not end.

Praise God for all the good things He has given you throughout your earthly life! Our Heavenly Father knows how worthy you are of the promises of Christ and are most deserving of Heaven. Rejoice in His Kingdom and be glad in it! Now your eyes are seeing. How difcult it is for us to bear the pain of parting; but, we have Jesus promise and take comfort in knowing that one day we will be united again in one family, in our heavenly home.

Honoring the Memory of Angelo J. Stephens Episcopal Church, 35 S. Franklin St. Office of Christian Burial at a. Marys Byzantine Catholic Church, N. Friends and rela- tives call to 10 a. Friday at the funeral home.

Family and friends call 9 a. LOVE Blanche, funeral 11 a. July 30, in the Mehoopany Methodist Church. Mass of Christian Burial at a. Friday, and 2 to 4 p. Meade St.

Friends may call 5 to 8 p. Friday at the Little Flower Manor. Friday in Grontkowski Funeral Home P. Green St. Mass of Christian Burial at 10 a.

Faustina Parish, St. Marys Church, Hanover Street, Nanticoke. Calling hours 5 to 8 p. Memorial service at 7 p. Private arrangements are un- der the care of the Thomas P. Kear- ney Funeral Home Inc. Please visit www. Bill was born in NewJersey and was raised in New York. Army Veteran, Bill exten- sively traveled the world and the United States.

Eventually, Bill chose Wilkes-Barre to be his final home. He will be sorely missed by his family and friends. She was born September 7,in Al- tas, Okla. Lees Stone and the late Tommy Pitcher Stone. She was employed for 35 years as a hoagie maker at Reds Subs in Plymouth. Jimmie was an active member for 47 years of the Plymouth Fra- ternal Order of Eagles, was the sec- retary of the Ladies Auxiliary for 35 years, andwas also a member of the state hall of fame.

A Funeral Service will be held at 7 p. Ed- ward Gospodinsky officiating. Friends may call from 5 to 7 p. In lieu of flowers, memorial do- nations canbe made toVicki Long.

Born in Ne- wark, N. He was formerly employedas a truck salesman. Boley was preced- ed in death by his daughter There- sa and son Jared. Memorial service will be held at the convenience of the family. Arrangements are by the Yeosock Funeral Home, 40 S. Arrangement details and a complete obituary will be an- nounced by Davis-Dinelli Funeral Home, E. Broad St.

L awrence Robey A. He was a graduate of Nanticoke High School, class ofand a member of St. Marys Church, now St. Faustina Parish. He then continued his educa- tion at Kings College, Wilkes- Barre, and, at the same time, he worked for Duplin Silk Mill as a stock boy.

Lawrence was proud of and served with the U. After being honorably dis- charged, he joined the American Legion Post No. Postal Service working in the Nanticoke area for 30 years. Lawrence was preceded in death, in addition to his parents, by a daughter, Christine Stewart. Presently surviving are his wife of more than 50 years, the former Helen Baran; sons, Lawrence J. Funeral Services will be held at a. Friday from the Grontkowski Funeral Home P.

James Nash officiating. Interment will be in St. Marys Cemetery, Wana- mie. Friends and Relatives are in- vited to join the family for calling hour from5 to 8 p. Lawrence Robey A. Robacheski July 18, K enneth S. Pahler Jr. Pahler Sr. He loved fishing and riding dirt bikes. He was preceded in death by his paternal grandmother, Gertrude Pahler; maternal grandparents, El- mer and Elizabeth Searfoss; uncle William Pahler; and nephew Bra- dley M.

Surviving, in addition to his par- ents, are his 3 year old twin sons, James and Jacob, Naples, Fla. Market St. Kenneth S. July 20, B rian Madry, 16, of Evergreen Lake Drive, Mountain Top, died early Monday morning, July 18,as a result from injuries sustained in an automobile acci- dent.

Brian was born in Suffern, N. Brian was a loving son, brother and friend. He was currently en- rolled at Crestwood High School and was looking forward to at- tending college in Florida. His favorite hockey team was the New Jersey Devils. He played many sports including ice hockey, la- crosse and blitz football for Crest- wood. Brian will be deeply missed by his loving family and many friends. He was preceded in death by his paternal grandparents, Mr.

Daniel Madry Sr. Surviving, along with his par- ents, are brothers, Michael and Matthew Madry, at home; pater- nal step-grandmother, Bobbi Ma- dry; maternal grandfather George Burker; maternal step-grandmoth- er, Lucia Nickson-Burker; as well as numerous aunts, uncles, cou- sins and many friends also sur- vive, along with his dog, Eli. Family and friends of Brian may call from5 to 7 p. Friday at the George A. A Mass of Christian Burial will be held at 11 a. Sat- urday in St.

Family and friends are asked to go directly to the church and may gather from 10 a. Private inter- ment will be held at a later date at the convenience of the family.

She was a resident of her Huntington Township home for over 45 years. LeValley was preceded in deathby her husband, MarvinL. Surviving are her two sons, Mar- vin B. She was the last member of her immediate fam- ily. Friends will be received from 10 to 11 a. Services will beginat 11 a. The burial will be in Moss- ville Cemetery, Fairmount Town- ship.

For online condolences, please visit www. San Angelo, a. John F. Sandi, 96, died Wednesday, Ju- ly 20,from natural causes. DeSimone, since in Passaic, N. John graduated from Pittston High School in and upon graduation received a gold pin award for 12 years of perfect school attendance.

Rising to the rank of Office Manager, John retired after 40 years of service with the company. John was a dedicated and life- long member of St. Roccos Fides Club. John also dedicated many years of service to the Knights of Co- lumbus and most especially to President John F. Kennedy Coun- cil John was also preceded in death by his lifelong friend Nellie Lucarelli. A Mass of Christian Burial will be at 11 a. Roccos R. Church in Pittston. Entomb- ment will follow at the San Ange- lo family mausoleum in St.

Roc- cos R. Cemetery in Pittston Township. In lieu of flowers, donations can be made to St. San Angelo July 20, T ammy A. Tammywas agraduateof North- west Area High School.

She was employed in the office of Benton Foundry, Benton. She was preceded in death by brother Mark Martin. Surviving, inadditiontoher par- ents, are her husband, George Stuart Jr. Martin, Exeter; and Timmy A. Memorial services will be held at 2 p. Tammy A. Andrew Marko, executive di- rector of the Northeast Pennsyl- vania School District Health Trust, discussed the effort Wednesday during the regular monthly meeting of the groups board of trustees.

Marko said he had approached Blue Cross with the idea, arguing that sharp cuts in education funding have led to pay freezes, spending reductions and layoffs. I asked if they could help dis- tricts through this, Marko said. The trust is self-insured, mean- ing it devises coverage options, sets and collects premiums and disperses benefits.

But since its inception in, it has contract- ed Blue Cross to actually manage much of that work. Blue Cross does not provide the insurance coverage. Marko said the current con- tract runs through the school year, and that the two sides are negotiating reductions in various charges in that con- tract.

But the trust wants to include language in the renegotiated contract that would offer some guarantee of low prices when compared to what Blue Cross charges other schools or school organizations for the same ser- vice. Health Trust attorney Robert Mariani said he is working on language that would ensure no school organization smaller than the trust got a better rate.

Because we are one of the largest groups, Mariani said, the rate for us ought to be lower than any smaller group. The tentative agreement for lower rates in the current contract is subject to including that lan- guage. In an unrelated matter that could cost the trust millions, Mariani said there was no news on a lawsuit filed by Pittston Ar- ea and Dallas school districts. The two withdrewfromthe trust incontending the trust built up an excess surplus by overcharging districts.

They sued in to get what they claimis their part of the sur- plus. The trust contends the agree- ment signed by all members clearly states any money paid by members stays with the trust un- less it is completely dissolved.

Anon-jury trial concluded July 7 in Luzerne County Court. Both sides are awaiting Judge Lewis Wetzels ruling. Mariani said he has no infor- mation on the status of that deci- sion. He just kept on rollin, racing down his familys backyard in a wagon. Residents of Charles Street on Tuesday night brought their concerns to borough council. They said theyve con- sistently complained to Courtdale police since Memorial Day about extremely loud music.

I cant go into any roomof my house to get away from it. Ive called the police three different times, and as soon as they leave, the volume is back up, said Charles Street resident John Novy. While neighborhood residents are frustrated, officer John Fronzoni urged them to be patient and wait for the due process of the law. In order to handle it, one thing we need is a victim, because without a victim there is no crime. What deter- mines that is for residents to come to the magistrate and say that they have been affected by this, Fronzoni said.

Council also updated residents on the status of the Evans Street bridge project. The project, which was slat- ed to be completed this month, has been put on hold be- cause of incorrect survey data. An estimated completion date has been pushed back to October. In other business, Luzerne County requested the borough approve several address changes on stretches of Memorial Highway.

The addresses of one residential lo- cation, as well as the former Wasserotts along Routewill be altered to be numerically consecutive and more convenient for emergency responders. Brad Huzzard, 19, of Taylor, was arraigned on three counts of rob- bery, two counts of aggravated as- sault, two counts of simple assault and one count each of criminal con- spiracy, theft and two weapons charges.

Police had been unable to locate Huzzard immediately after the inci- dent. Huzzard and two other men were charged in the June 25 incident in which Pittston police say the men ordered food from the Golden Star Chinese Restaurant on North Main Street.

Ronald Perschau, Jr. Perschau recently waived his right to a preliminary hearing and is facing related charges in Luzerne County Court. According to the criminal com- plaints: Police said the restaurant re- ceived an order from a blocked phone number at about p.

Saturday for three orders of General Tsos chickentobe deliveredat a res- idence on Lyons Lane, a dark alley near Main Street. Police said that when the employ- ee, Ping Zheng, arrived in the alley Perschau, Rios andHuzzardassault- ed him. Police said the three men placeda pellet gunto Zhengs throat and struck himin the head while de- manding money. While officers were still on Lyons Lane, they learned Rios was sitting in a vehicle nearby.

Rios told police, according to the complaint, he was hanging out with Perschau and Huzzard but did not take part in the assault and robbery.

Police found Perschau at a resi- dence in Taylor. Police allege he told them Rios planned the assault and robbery, the complaint says. Assault suspect arraigned Brad Huzzard is one of three men charged in the robbery of a Chinese food delivery man.

First day for collections will be Saturday, July Pay- ments must be received by Sept. Hours during the rebate period at the bor- ough building are Tuesday and Wednesday, 5 to 7 p. Payers should bring the entire bill; the receipt is on the bottom of the bill.

Home collections are avail- able to anyone by calling the office at In andToyota Scion of Scranton was recognized with the prestigious Presidents Award for excellence in each of a series of categories, including Customer Sales Satisfaction and Customer Service Satisfaction.

Finance and lease offers require tier 1 plus credit approval through Toyota Financial Services. All leases are based on 12, miles per year. No security deposit required for all leases. Available unit counts include both in stock and incoming units for all model years and trim levels for series described.

Vehicle must be in stock units Prior sales excluded. Later on in this introductory section, we will cover these areas in more depth. However, it is important that you understand how the test is constructed. Within the three major sections, there are different types of questions, and unlike the old written test, these questions are integrated within a section.

For example, in the old exam, you would first be asked seven Sentence Completion Questions, then nine Analogies, and so on. On the CAT, these questions are integrated within the Verbal section, and you wont know what type of question you will be asked next. The Analytical Writing Measure was formerly a separate, independent test.

However, as of Octoberit replaced the Analytical Ability section. We have prepared this book in order to give you practice answering the different questions as well as in-depth review material.

Obviously, you wont encounter the randomized and adaptive questions in the book, so instead, we focus here on comprehension. You must first understand what the different questions are that you will encounter, in order for you to do well on the actual test. The first part of the book is a Diagnostic Test. In actuality, we have presented three separate tests, one in each of the subject areas. Its purpose is to help you zero in on those specific topics that give you trouble.

Armed with this knowledge, you can then focus your studying on those areas that need more review. The point is to save you time and effort, and it doesnt make sense to study an entire course if you really only need to focus on one or two sections. Therefore, it is important in this studying process to take the Diagnostic Test, check your answers carefully reading the explanations, if necessaryand then identify those areas that need additional work.

In the second section of the book, each type of question is reviewed. Various strategies for attacking each type of question are presented. Following each set of strategies, there are also additional review questions in order for you to practice the material. But keep in mind that depending upon how you scored on your Diagnostic Test, you may not have to read this entire book. Following the review section are six complete Practice Teststwo in each of the three subject areas.

Depending upon the amount of time you have to study prior to taking the actual GRE, you should try to take these tests under actual conditions, if possible. Score your tests and then check the explanations of those questions you answered incorrectly. However you normally study, we strongly recommend that you try to follow one of the courses of study presented in the GRE Study Plans below.

These plans offer approaches that will best use your available time. The plans are flexible, as any plan should be. After you take the Diagnostic Test, revise the study plan to fit your needs, weaknesses, and schedule. Lets take a closer look at the components of the exam, in order to prepare you for what you will encounterassuming this is the first time youve picked up a GRE review book. If youve already taken the test and are studying to take it again or youve used another book prior to this, youre probably very familiar with the different types of questions that you will encounter.

In that case, skip this chapter and move on to the Diagnostic Test and the review sections. The AWM consists of two analytical writing tasks. The first minute assignment is an Issue task. The second is an Argument task. The Issue task asks you to write from any perspective on a given opinion, and youll have a choice from two tasks randomly selected by the computer.

The Argument task asks you to critique an argument by analyzing the issues presented, how logical it is, and so on. You are not asked to take sides.

There are a total of 30 questions in this section, as follows: 1. Sentence Completion6 questions Dont Stop - 2 Nazty* - Indecent Exposure (Cassette questions Reading Comprehension8 questions Antonyms9 questions.

Each Verbal Ability test is only 30 minutes, so time is of the essence. Throughout this book, we continually stress the idea of making time count, and one of the most important time-savers is to be intimately familiar with the directions for the questions.

If you have to take the time to read them over again when you take the actual GRE, youre losing time. Keep in mind that with 30 questions to be answered in 30 minutes, you have about 1 minute to answer each question.

This portion of the GRE essentially is a test of vocabulary. The stronger your vocabulary, the easier it will be to answer the questions in the Antonyms, Sentence Completions, and Analogies.

The Reading Comprehension test will measure your ability to understand reading passages, and a command of vocabulary will be useful here as well. The review units will give you some strong pointers and additional practice. There are several basic skills involved in this section, and in order to do well, you must learn those skills. You are asked to solve problems and to utilize mathematical reasoning.

Fortunately, most of the mathematics on this test is high school level and should not be that difficult. Unfortunately, by the time you have reached your last year in college or have been out of college for some time and are getting ready to take the GRE, you have probably forgotten most of your high school math. We have provided you with a basic math review, covering all of the topics that will be included on this portion of the test.

The mathematics section of the test includes three main areas and contains 28 questions to be 1 answered in 45 minutesabout 1 minutes per question. Quantitative Comparisons14 questions 2.

Basic Mathematics9 questions 3. Data Analysis5 questions. Quantitative Comparisons The Quantitative Comparison questions require you to be able to reason quickly and accurately about two quantities provided. Thus, not only does this section require you to have mathematical ability, but it also requires a sense of logic and reasoning.

The chapter on Quantitative Comparisons offers numerous fully explained examples as well as dozens of practice questions. Basic Mathematics Basic Mathematics involves traditional computational skills and includes arithmetic, algebra, and geometry.

Fortunately, even if your math skills are somewhat weak, you can develop strong questionanswering skills, that improve your chances of accurately narrowing your choices. Data Analysis The Data Analysis section is a test of interpretation of charts, graphs, and tables. Much of the information is fairly clear, but many of the questions require you to analyze the material, select the data required, and then perform a variety of calculations.

Dont be misled by apparently easy answers. Its likely that youll have to perform one or more mathematical operations in order to find the correct answer. Although these may have appeared earlier in this chapter, they are important enough for you to read them againand learn them.

You do not need to be computer literate in order to take the test. You will receive a tutorial before the exam, so that you are totally familiar with the computer, word processing, answering a test question, and using the mouse. You must answer every question as it is presented to you. If you dont answer a question and accept it at the time, you cannot get the next question. As we said earlier, take more time on the early questions, since they will count for more than those at the end of the test.

Questions are not grouped by type within each section. Thus, you might find it disruptive to jump back and forth from one question type to another, but you should learn to develop your own method of dealing with this. During the test, there is a time display that you can turn on or off. When there are 5 minutes remaining for a section, the time will automatically turn on and flash briefly to alert you. It will be helpful, though, to occasionally monitor how much time remains.

Use the process of elimination. One of the basic methods of answering multiple-choice questions is the process of elimination. Cross off the wrong answers and work toward the correct one. Eliminate those that are obviously incorrect. Select the one that strikes you as correct right from the start. The more choices you eliminate, the better your odds are for getting the correct answer. Now that you have a good idea of what the exam consists of and how it is presented, its time to begin studying.

Try to pick a study plan that makes sense to youits good discipline for test preparation. Then start by taking the Diagnostic Tests that follow. By the time you have completed all of the material in this book, you should be ready to score high on the actual GRE. Good luck! We offer you these different study plans to help maximize your time and studying. The first is a Week Plan that involves concentrated studying and a focus on the sample test results.

The second is the Week Plan, or Semester Plan, that is favored by schools. Finally, the Panic Plan is for those of you who have only a few weeks to prepare. Obviously, the more time you have to prepare, the easier it will be to review all of the material and find yourself somewhat more relaxed when taking the actual exam. These plans are not set in stonefeel free to modify them to suit your needs and your own study habits. But start immediately. The more you study and review the questions, the better your results will be.

Diagnostic Test Take the entire paper-and-pencil Diagnostic Test in one sitting. Save the grading for Lesson 2. Lesson 2 Diagnostic Answers Spend the time checking all of your answers and reading through the explanations.

Although these first two lessons are an enormous amount of work, it is well worth it to be able to analyze your strengths and weaknesses at this point. It will enable you to select those subject areas that you should focus on and the areas in which to spend the most amount of time studying. Once you have determined the areas that need further study, amend this plan to suit your own needs.

If you have done well on the Diagnostic Test, you might just want to take each of the Practice Tests separately or section by section, carefully checking your answers as you complete each portion of the test.

Write outlines for several Issue essays. Write a response to the issue in Unit 1. Lesson 2. Write outlines for several Argument essays. You can select any of them. Write a response to the argument in Unit 1. Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Read through the overview section for Reading Comprehension, and then answer the questions in Unit 5. Try to apply some of the Reading Comprehension strategies offered in the Red Alert. You may find it useful to pace yourself through this review by returning to it over the remaining weeks.

Lesson 1 Mathematics Review This is the major mathematics overview section. Begin with Quantitative Ability Strategies. It is in this Red Alert section that you can review all of the mathematics that will be covered on the test. In this first lesson, start with Arithmetic and read up to Decimals.

Answer the questions that accompany each subsection. This is somewhat complicated material, especially if you have been away from mathematics for some time. By working through the accompanying problems, you will begin to get a feel again for the types of questions that you might encounter as well as help yourself to refresh your knowledge of the subject. Answer the questions and make sure you understand the answers before you move on to a new topic.

Study the review material and take the quiz. Lesson 1 Quantitative Comparisons This section of the GRE seems to present a lot more problems than many of the other sections on the test, perhaps because it involves as much reasoning as it does computational skills. Read through the Red Alert and answer the questions. Lesson 2 Mathematics Review This is the home stretch.

Complete unit on Data Analysis. Now its time to move on to the practice tests and evaluate your progress. Analytical Writing Measure Practice Test 1 This is a somewhat difficult portion of the test, unless youre an excellent writer.

Write the two essays that are presented here. Check your response against the sample response. Verbal Ability Practice Tests Take the two tests and answer all of the questions you can, and then guess at those you dont know. Circle those questions that you guessed at, so that you can zero in on those specific answers and so that you dont delude yourself into thinking that you really knew those answers in the first place. There is a lot of work here, so it would make sense to break this and subsequent lessons into separate time periods during the day.

It is more important to understand the type of question and to make sure you have memorized the directions for every part of the test. Check all of your answers. Keep track of those types of questions that are still giving you problems. Quantitative Ability Practice Tests Take the two Mathematics tests and answer all of the questions you can.

Again, circle those questions that you guessed at, so that you can zero in on those specific answers. Try to break this lesson into two separate mini-lessons. Check all of your answers to all parts of the test. Keep a written record of what types of questions gave you problems. By now, you should be ready for this test-taking format. Carefully check your understanding of the answers. Take the test as many times as you need. Lesson 2 Final Review Its time to do a final review of your understanding of all of the parts of the tests.

Try to analyze everything youve learned by using the book and taking the paper-and-pencil and the CAT tests. Whats left to review? Consult your notes and go back to the book to reread whatever you had trouble with. You can spread out your plan into one lesson a week. This plan is ideal because you are not under any pressure and can take more time to review the material in the Red Alert chapters. You will also have enough time to go back and double-check the answers to those questions that might have given you problems.

The basis for all test success is practice, practice, practice. School pressures may be great or your job may monopolize your time. You cant do everything at once. With this in mind, perhaps we can offer a few helpful hints to get you through this period. Weve said it earlier, and it bears repeating. Its a way of saving time when you take the actual test and of maximizing the time you have to work on the questions.

Read the introduction to this book. It will help you be prepared for the different types of questions you will encounter and give you an idea of how much time you will have on each section of the test. By doing so, you will have had some practice answering the types of questions that will appear on the actual test.

It will be great practice, not only for understanding how the test works, but also for more computer experience. Focus whatever time you have left on those specific areas of the test that gave you the most difficulty when you took the practice tests in this book. Whatever time you have before the exam, keep in mind that the more you practice on the actual question types that will appear on the exam, the better you will come to understand them, thereby improving your chances for a higher score.

Note: On page 27, a sample response is provided for the first issue only. While your essay will be quite different, compare it to the sample in terms of organization, grammar, and logic. Students would benefit if they worked in groups rather than working alone on major class projects. In todays technological world, printed books are not as important as they once were. The computer has replaced the printed page. Directions: Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. Time30 minutes.

The following advertisement appeared in a big-city want-ad section: In a dead-end job? Tired of being bossed around? Want the independent lifestyle of being in business for yourself? Then telemarketing is for you! Work in the privacy of your own home, inviting clients to take advantage of our tremendous super-values, money-savers, coupon specials, and one-time-only offers!

No time clock! No quotas! No deadlines! Work from our huge list of potential customers, right at your own desk or easy chair or stay in bed! Starter kit, first client list, phone dialogue check-off list, tips on how to keep them interested, what to do about cranks and hang-upsthe whole package comes to your mailbox in five days!

This is how you can start being in charge of your life. Beneath the sentence are five lettered words or sets of words. Choose the word or set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. A charades. A Dissuaded. A irascible. A quixotic. A benign. Choose the lettered word or phrase that is more nearly opposite in meaning from the word in capital letters. Since some of the questions require you to distinguish fine shades of meaning, be sure to consider all the choices before deciding which one is best.

After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.

There is some evidence to suggest that Neanderthals were cannibalistic. The cave dwellers, who lived as long asyears ago, were an important link in the evolution of humankind. They had brains as large as modern man and developed a culture of their own that included the burying of their dead with perhaps a religious ceremonial aspect attached to the custom.

In addition, they made jewelry-like ornaments that demonstrate a sense of creativity and aestheticism. However, in a recent report in Science magazine, there is evidence presented that shows that Neanderthals may have slaughtered some of their numbers and actually butchered them for the meat.

Since Neanderthals were cave-dwellers, the evidence was discovered in one such cave near the Rhone River in France. Shockingly enough, human bones were found that bore the signs of deliberate butchering. The bones were from adults, teenagers, and even children of six or seven years of age and wereyears old.

They were found next to deer bones. Not unlike those bones, the human bones showed signs of slashes at the joints like the elbow, foot, and ankle, indicating that muscles and tendons were deliberately cut to facilitate the removal of meat.

Flint could have been used for this purpose. Some bones had been smashed to remove their marrow, and skulls had been broken to remove the brains. Although this likelihood of cannibalism is substantiated by this ancient evidence, what cannot be proven is whether it was a regularly practiced custom among the Neanderthals to methodically slaughter their own kind or only practice cannibalism out of the necessity caused by famine. While many cultures throughout time and from around the world have placed a taboo on such practices, instances of cannibalism have occurred as tradition, religious ritual, or out of necessity in other places and eras.

The practice of the Neanderthals may be one of the earliest precedence for such behavior and forever taint the image of early man as a primitive brute rather than the growing consensus that they, with a brain as large as contemporary man, were more like us than not. The burying of the dead with an attendant religious ceremony would be a benchmark of cultural development because it is A typical of most species to acknowledge mortality and mourn the passing of their own kind.

B a ritual that has been practiced historically by humans in many cultures throughout the world. C foreign to all species that have been observed in nature. D indicative of a species with the brain size of modern man. E atypical of cave dwellers from the same region and time in France. As used in line 6 aestheticism most closely means A the ability to manipulate metals. B a capacity to polish gem stones. C an ability to evaluate the financial worth of objects.

D an appreciation of beauty. E both A and B. The main point of the article is that Neanderthals did practice cannibalism as A supported by evidence that was discovered. B part of their culture. C a necessity because of famine. D a religious ritual. E a regularly practiced custom or out of need. In a seemingly repeating cycle, two diet fads seem to follow one another; the Low-Carb carbohydrate approach versus the High-Carb method.

Currently, the former is the one in vogue with millions of people across the America eating a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. So bring on the bacon, ham, eggs, cheese and any other high-fat food, but eliminate as many carbohydrates as possible like pasta, bread, fruit, soda, and high-sugar alcoholic beverages. The many versions of Low-Carb diets decrease carbohydrates, thereby, causing blood-sugar levels to fall. This causes the pancreas to produce less insulin. Insulin stimulates energy and without this resource, the body is forced to burn fat reserves to create needed energy.

The result is a quick loss in weight. Conversely, when one eats carbohydrates they are reduced by enzymes into simple sugars. These sugars stimulate the pancreas to produce insulin, which allows sugars to enter tissue. Although cells use the sugar for energy, the excess sugars are stored as fat.

Since many Americans, especially young people, have high-sugar diets, most of the excess is stored as fat. If blood levels can be dropped low enough, the body will burn this excess fat. While this mechanism is agreed upon by many scientists, there is some disagreement about how people lose weight on Low-Carb diets. Most people who write the diet books are not medical doctors and have come under criticism for not understanding the process of weight loss and the harmful effects of Low-Carb, high-protein diets.

According to some doctors and scientists, the reason why people lose weight on these diets is that by reducing the ingestion of carbs, there is a corresponding reduction in caloric intake; therefore, people are simply consuming less calories. Similarly, since Americans traditionally have eaten so much sugar and sugar products, when the consumption of those are reduced, caloric intake is lessened, and it results in a weight loss.

In addition to the misunderstandings regarding the process of weight loss, these. The lack of fiber in the diet can cause constipation, weakness, nausea, as well as dehydration.

Also, the high-protein diet is a great strain on the kidneys. These are major bad health effects compared to the additional side-effect of halitosis bad breath. The important thing to remember about diets is that unless they involve a change of lifestyle that can be maintained for a lifetime, they are just a quick fix for short-term weight loss, not a solution to an ongoing problem.

In addition, even some of these short-term solutions can affect health adversely, so when one considers a change in eating habits, consulting a doctor who is a specialist in this area would be beneficial. A Low-Carb diet affects the blood sugar level by A having enzymes reduce the blood sugar into simple sugars, which are more readably burned. B causing the pancreas to produce less insulin, thereby lowering the blood sugar level and the energy level.

C stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin to burn excess fat that has been stored. D allowing excess sugars to be secreted so they cant be stored as excess fat in the cells of the body. E lowering it through lack of absorption of sugar by the cells in tissue. The passage implies that the debate between designers of these diets and doctors and scientists centers on the process of weight loss and adverse effects on health in regards to A whether excess fat is burned or there is simply less intake of calories.

B the kinds of adverse health effects that may result. C which diet, Low-Carb or High-Carb, is more effective for weight loss. Select the lettered pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair. You are to compare the two quantities and choose: A if the quantity in Column A is greater; B if the quantity in Column B is greater; C if the two quantities are equal; D if the relationship cannot be determined from the information given.

Numbers: All numbers used are real numbers. Figures: Position of points, angles, regions, etc. Lines shown as straight can be assumed to be straight. Figures can be assumed to lie in a plane unless otherwise indicated. Figures that accompany questions are intended to provide information useful in answering the questions. However, unless a note states that a figure is drawn to scale, you should solve these problems NOT by estimating sizes by sight or by measurement, but by using your knowledge of mathematics.

Directions: Each of the questions has five answer choices. For each of these questions, select the best of the answer choices given. In the equation p 5 qr, if q is multiplied by 7 and r is divided by 7, then p is A multiplied by 7 B multiplied by 49 C divided by 7 D divided by 49 E left unchanged. This represents what percent of increase in the price of the cassette deck?

How many minutes would it take a typist to complete a word letter if 1 he can type 2 words in 10 seconds? In the figure above, PQRS is a parallelogram. If a 5 50, then what is the value of b? Four managers at Shop-Well receive incentive bonuses. If xy 0 and 15xy2 2 10xy3 5 0, what is the value of y? What was the amount of student aid provided through federal loans during the academic year?

By what percent did the amount of total aid awarded increase from the academic year to the academic year? Which of the following best describes the change in the amount of aid provided by state grants from the academic year to the academic year? A It remained constant. B It decreased slightly. C It increased slightly. D It more than doubled.

E It more than quadrupled. How much more grant money was awarded through other federal programs than through federal campus-based aid during the academic year? By approximately what percent did the amount of money awarded through Federal Pell Grants increase from the academic year to the academic year? Reading Comprehension Passage 1 1. E Passage 2 1. Mathematics 1. In the era of technological advancement in classroom resources and equipment and an increasing multicultural environment in the classroom, it is especially important for students of any age to learn to utilize all available resources, especially their peers, when in an academic setting.

In the following essay, I will explain three central reasons why students should, in fact, spend a sizeable amount of time working together in groups in the classroom, especially on large projects.

First, students who begin major academic projects in groups or teams develop one of the most common and most serviceable skills for idea generationbrainstorming. Participating in brainstorming sessions allows students to learn to think creatively, to think quickly, and to interact appropriately with peers.

Brainstorming is usually a flurry of ideas at first, then a redefining of those ideas, discussion of why an idea will or will not work, exclusion of ideas that the group believes will not work, and finally, a group decision that delineates the assigned project. Skills built by brainstorming are teamwork, listening, critical thinking, logic, compromise, communication, and organization.

Second, working as a group to test ideas or points of view is beneficial. Knowledge of the assigned project, researching skills, and reporting of ideas are all essential tasks that major academic projects require. Students working within a group or team must use their individual knowledge, research, and reporting to enhance the group project.

Personal gain is a secondary benefit to the responsibility to the team. Peer pressure compels individuals to bring only their best attributes to the team project. Knowing that each idea or issue. Third, the skills discussed above allow students to practice proficiencies that will be useful in almost any career. Placing students in situations that emulate workplaces promotes positive reinforcement of appropriate communication skills, problem-solving facility, teamwork, compromise, and the organization and completion of both small and large tasks.

Instead of reading about the workplace in a solitary assignment, students actually practice workplace skills with their group. This promotes successful activity on the job once a student has begun a career.

Of course, there are benefits to individual research and learning as well. Research can be conducted at the students own pace, the student can choose projects that are of great interest to him or her, and individual accomplishment is certainly a self-esteem booster for most students. However, group projects challenge the student to discover ways to learn in different styles from what he or she is used to, thereby expanding the methods of learning.

Also, working in groups helps students develop problem-solving skills, since not all students are working at the same pace with the same ideas, or in the same manner. Flexibility, empathy, and responsibility are all important aspects of group learning. For the reasons listed above, I believe that it is essential that students spend a sizeable amount of time working together in groups in the classroom.

The benefits far outweigh the negative aspects, and teamwork in the classroom promotes involvement, skill building, and a sense of accomplishment. The correct answer is B. Pique means irritation or resentment, while petulant means peevish. The context clue in this sentence is whined.

Choice Aexhaustion and unruly, can describe a childs condition; however, to say a fit of exhaustion is illogical. In choice Cif the child were crying, then he would not be apathetic, or without interest or feeling.

Choice D offers a similar contrast. Rage does not accompany indifference. Choice Einsouciance, or lighthearted nonchalance, does not logically exist with vexed, which means irritated.

The correct answer is C. In this sentence, celebrations and parties are context clues. Potables refer to something suitable for drinking; bibulous means inclined to drink. In choice Acharades is a party game; aesthetic refers to beauty. In choice Bcanaps are cocktail food; zany means goofy. In choice Dparsimony refers to stinginess while execrable means detestable.

In choice Efustian is a pretentious writing or speech while stupefied means astonished. The correct answer is D. Diligently prepared suggests hard work. In choice Dundaunted means undiscouraged while stringent means very strict. The original sentence, then, suggests that the student takes into account the strict requirements for graduation and works hard.

In choice Adissuaded means advised against, while negligible means insignificant. This pair does not logically complete the sentence.

Neither does the pair in choice B. Persuaded has a positive connotation, but acrimonious, which means caustic, has a negative connotation.

The choices in C begin well: undismayed is appropriate for a diligent student; however, marginal suggests the requirements are so easy, the student does not need to study much.

In choice Eaghast means horrified, while picayune means trivial. These words are paired illogically. This kind of sentence can often be approached by inserting some words that you can think of that will logically fit the context; then see if your choicesor at least one of themare among those offered.

Choice D presents inveterate, meaning chronic or confirmed; habitual is a close synonym. The choices offered in the other items are not logically paired to complete these blanks. Choice Airascible, means bad tempered while disputatious means controversial. In choice Bchaste means pure, while incorrigible means unmanageable. This is hardly surprising.

After all, the conglomerates they all belonged to had helped to Dont Stop - 2 Nazty* - Indecent Exposure (Cassette and promote these changes. Film after lm announced media breakthroughs and became marketing milestones. Dick Tracy was the rst 35 mm feature lm with a digital sound track. That same year, testifying to the longevity of hit movies, Top Gun became the rst VHS title to ship more than one million copies.

Batman Returns introduced the six- channel stereo sound system that is now industry standard: Dolby Digital. On a completely different scale, yet also a portent of things to come, was Eduardo Sanchez and Daniel Myricks low-budget independent horror lm The Blair Witch Project Although Blair Witch and other indie success stories testify to the increasing importance of economies of scale within the lm industry, they were exceptions.

Several also exerted control over television news coverage. The Big Six were oligopolies, controlling and channeling from a huge number of buyers. Although in- dependent lms, documentaries, and ction shorts offered alternatives, how many people saw them?

Everyone knows the Disney brand: its stamped all over theme parks, merchandise, and movies. It closed Touchstone Pictures in Add to this empire the lucrative lifelong loyalty of Disney viewers. Like all Big Six studios, Disney expanded during the s. Inthe company acquired Miramax. In it bought ABC television and radio. It also had music holdings Hollywood Records.

And thats just a partial list. A second Big Six company, Warner Bros. In TimeWarner bought Turner Broadcasting and New Line, thereby ensuring it would have cable down- stream channels and advertising venues. Comics, the Atlanta Hawks basketball team, and the Atlanta Braves baseball team. Talk about diversifying with an eye to what interested the nation! Sony Pictures, allied with Columbia Pictures, Tri-Star, and other lm and television companies, and owned Dont Stop - 2 Nazty* - Indecent Exposure (Cassette Tokyo-based electronics giant Sony Corporation, constituted a third Big Six company.

Sony also owned Epic Records, Sony Music International, and other music companies, and a vast array of electronic and electrical equipment manufacturing rms. Thinking globally, Sony was a partner in the Hispanic Telemundo broadcast group. Inthe corporation made trade headlines when, with Seagram, it merged the Sony Loews Theaters into Loews.

Only Paramounts owner, Viacom, could do the same. For Murdoch and News Corp. In addition to substantial liquor and beverage companies, Seagram boasted big music holdings, owning MCA, Decca, Motown, and others. It also owned the Sony Cineplex movie theater chain in partnership with Sony Entertainment and the Universal Studios theme park.

And in Seagram bought independent lm production company October Films. Last: Paramount Pictures. New Yorkbased Viacom bought Paramount in In it bought CBS.

Crucially, it owned the worlds largest video retail and rental chain, Blockbuster Entertainment Allen Like Disney and Warner Bros. Every Big Six company employed a different strategy as the decade pro- ceeded. All these economic tactics represented attempts to negotiate rising costs Gomery, Film Industry Star salaries were rising, thanks to powerful agents.

Increasingly, they also garnered a share of the prots. Blockbusters like Armageddon and Titanic had much higher price tags.

So why would anyone sink their money into a movie when they have always been notoriously risky investments? Thanks to their global con- nections, the Big Six could reduce risk by guaranteeing that their lms would be distributed in theaters around the world and seen in down- stream markets that they also controlled.

Its also no coincidence that international co-productions increasingly shared the costs of moviemaking. Films were also frequently shot abroad to save money and sidestep laws gov- erning stunt safety. And the studios found other ways to make a buck as well. InDisney signed a ten-year contract with McDonalds: the company knew from experience that offering product tie-ins e. Scripts were routinely vetted as companies looked for sequences that could be the source of new theme park rides: BackdraftTerminator 2, and Juras- sic Park all proved highly successful.

Music scores and songs could net stu- dios and their parent companies additional income, too. Presold properties based on popular novels, comic strips, and Broadway hits provided other safety nets. Some lms, Mortal Kombat among them, were based on popular video games. But the Big Six were not the only Hollywood players. But they were at best second-tier players. By mid-decade all found themselves afliated with a Big Six studio. Other mini-majors disappeared in the s: Orion led for bankruptcy inand although Carolco, partnered with Tri-Star, had three big hits with Total Recall, Terminator 2, and Basic Instinct, it too, went under when the expen- sive swashbuckler Cutthroat Island tanked at the box ofce.

Most inuential among the mini-majors were New Line and Miramax. Begun in the late s as a nontheatrical distributor catering to art and exploitation-oriented college audiences, New Line skillfully added sex- ploitation, gay lms, rock documentaries, and midnight specials to reach niche markets the majors ignored.

New Lines success captured Ted Turners attention: he bought it in The Weinstein brothers company, Miramax, also moved mainstream with a vengeance in the s. InMiramax launched a genre-lm oriented subdivision, Dimension Pictures. That same year the company became the rst mini-major to be purchased by a major, Disney. Known for aggressive marketing around controversyrecall the companys skillful promotion to U.

Dont Stop - 2 Nazty* - Indecent Exposure (Cassette wonder Tarantino imitators sprang up everywhere. The Big Six also appreciated the fact that in the s these companies operated more efciently than earlier mini-majors had done. Typically they employed skeletal staffs. They concentrated on lm and didnt branch out to TV. They elded a few high-quality productions per year. They raised nancing with an eye to foreign markets.

And they typically distributed their lms through the majors Balio, Major Presence As a result, by decades end every Big Six studio had its own classics or art division to produce and market quasi- independent lms. All were part of larger studios. Chief for the future among hybrid com- panies, count Artisan and Lions Gate. Originally a distribution company founded inGood Machine had so many hits that in it engineered a rst-look deal with Twentieth Century Fox.

On the outer margins of independent production, there lay companies that proved harbingers of how media would function in the near future. These companies often mocked notions of propriety and ran circles around the MPAA censors.

Consider Atom Films. Downloads from Atom Films and other online companies were made possible by faster computers and by streaming video players like QuickTime, Real Video, and Windows Media Player Klinger A few feature-length lms pre- miered simultaneously on iFilm and in theaters: Ed Vilgas lm noir Dead Broke is an example.

But production and marketing are always just one part of the lm industry puzzle. You also have to think about distribu- tion and exhibition. The s brought new answers here, too. Megapics opened everywhere, showing on 2, to 3, screens at a time. Summers became the hot time to release a movie, with roughly half of all yearly box ofce monies coming in from lms that reached theaters from June to August.

In contrast, the brass ring for independently produced lms involved pickup by a big or mid-size distributor that could provide national often art-house release on maybe screens at a time.

This was also the kind of release accorded most foreign lms shown in the United States. For the Big Six, downstream viewing was partially assured by their net- work and cable TV holdings. Cognizant of cable TV penetration 74 percent of U. Release typically fol- lowed a preset, sequential pattern. First came theatrical distribution, then VHS release, pay-per-view television, premium cable TV, and, last, basic cable and broadcast TV.

Smaller distributors like Good Machine or Strand Releasing the latter specializing in gay lms instead booked their lms into city art theaters that specialized in showing independent and foreign lms to niche audiences. They hoped that buzz would build, thanks to critical praise and word of mouth, so that they could subsequently distrib- ute their lms in smaller cities. Censorship was a major concern to producers and distributors of all sizes, but it was especially troubling for independents.

Because NC prevented any mall screenings, all newspaper advertising, and all video pickups by the powerful Block- buster video rental chain, smaller companies like Killer Films usually pre- ferred to cut questionable material to avoid the rating. They had to be sure their lms would be seen. Everyone jockeyed for Oscar nominations, for which fall and winter releases were especially important.

Success on festival circuits was crucial, with Sundance and Toronto the most important places for getting an inde- pendent lm picked up for distribution. Both premiered independent lms that had been shown at festivals yet had limited or no theatrical release. Both also offered original programming and presented short lms, documentaries, and the occasional classic Eberwein The combination of all these markets meant that, if a distributor was lucky, prots could be huge. Total box ofce often spans more than a single year, however, especially for Academy Award winners or lms released late in the season.

The s also saw salient shifts in where prots originated. From on, the majors consistently earned more in rental income overseas than they did at home. By the mids, domestic and foreign video sales and rentals matched domestic box ofce Gomery, Film Industry But the majority of lms never saw theatrical release in the s; instead they played festival circuits, were screened on cable, or went straight to video.

The popularity of bootleg copies worried everyone, although the bigger studios clearly had more to lose by failing to control downstream markets. They introduced and won legislation to prevent illegal duplica- tion of VHS tapes, and they coded their video releases so that copying would be difcult.

Digital piracy loomed as a hot-button issue for the future. In the s, however, the majors failure to agree on digital sound and image systems explained in large part why digital rollout in theaters didnt happen. Such issues take us straight into a discussion of s exhibition. In- dependent chains dominated U. Lagging further behind were the studio-afliated Loews Cineplex and National Amusements chains.

To attract audiences, many of these exhibition chains built megaplexes that housed multiple screens under a single roof. Some art-house miniplexes, such as the Angelika Film Centers in Houston, Dallas, and New York, specialized in showing art, foreign, and independent lms in conditions of previously undreamt-of comfort Negra, Queen At the beginning of the decade, cities and certain smaller communities also housed independent art cinemas with one, two, or three screens.

Unfortunately, many of these had disappeared by Rising rents and competition from the megaplexes were only partially responsible. Domestic attendance climbed: U. This isnt to say that we usually saw movies in theaters. On the con- trary, movies were rapidly becoming things we watched at home using our videocassette recorders VCRs. By the end of the decade, VCRs were so popular that nine out of ten U.

They offered better-quality images, often included commentary and other extras, and took up less space than VHS tapes. Home theaters featuring large screens grew in popularity, making it easy to see movies again and again. Small wonder, then, that top stars, key directors, blockbusters, and cult hits were discussed everywhere, at dinner tables, at work, in chat rooms, on blogs. We grew used to seeing our favorites repeat- edly, in between daily doses of sports, weather, andfor younger viewers especiallyvideo games.

More occasionally we were aware of political events and cultural, eco- nomic, and demographic trends. American Politics and Culture: Of Peace and War, Sex and Violence A series of earth-shaking political transformations accompa- nied these corporate shifts and technological tidal waves. The decade began auspiciously on the world stage.

Infollowing the fall of the Berlin Wall the year before and a tumbling of Soviet bloc dominoes thereafter, East and West Germany were ofcially reunited. The same year white minority rule ended in South Africa, and Chile elected a civilian to the pres- idency, ending nearly two decades of a U. The following year the U.

By the end of the decade, Eastern Europe had undergone a radical makeover that was both good and bad. On the good side, Poland held its rst free parliamentary elections in decades in Former Soviet republics gained independence.

Czechoslovakia divided in without problem. Butthe bad sideYugoslavia slid into civil war, and from onward ethnic strife and genocide pervaded Bosnia to the point where in NATO nally intervened with air strikes in an effort to halt the killing. Ominously, the Middle East also continued to be a hot spot. Iraq invaded Kuwait and, notwithstanding baby steps toward peace, Israelis and Palestinians could not resolve their conict.

Mercifully for Americans, the United States engaged in no big foreign wars over the course of the decade. But condent of the U. One-term Republican president George H. Bush intervened in Panama, Iraq and Kuwait, and Somalia. But the United States looked away as extremist Hutu groups in Rwanda massacred anywhere fromto 1, Tutsis in This led many to charge that U.

Clinton, the man from Hope Arkansasdefeated Bush in the election in large part because of a recession and the presidents agreement to a tax increase despite his Read my lips, no new taxes! Its the economy, stupid was the Clinton campaigns mantra to remind everyone what the election was supposed to be about. Running a distant third in the November election, Texas billionaire H.

The desire to avoid Beltway insiders wasand would continue to bestrong. As the decade wore on, Americans divided bitterly once again. Race was often responsible, with Los Angeles erupting in riots in over the acquittal of four white policemen who had viciously beaten a black motorist, Rodney King, for speeding and running a red light. Unbe- knownst to the cops, a bystander had captured the incident on videotape.

Soon afterward, the media began airing the assault endlessly, and Ameri- cans watched in shock. But when the ofcers were acquitted and nearly a week of rioting resulted, it was King himself who asked in heartfelt hor- ror, People, I just want to say, you know, can we all get along? The Republican-led culture wars fueled national divisions.

In Newt Gingrich, the House Republican whip, stoked frustration with the failures of the Clinton administrations rst two years by appealing to hot- button conservative issues such as gay rights, gun control, multiculturalism, and a host of Religious Right favorites such as obscenity in the media and, as always, abortion.

With a national campaign touting its Contract with America, the Gingrich-led Republicans gained control of both the House and the Senate for the rst time in forty years. But Republican control of Congress did not resolve the nations ills, let alone end gridlock in Wash- ington. With the Congress and White House unable to agree on a budget, the government was forced to shut down twice into the wide disap- proval of Americans. To secure a second term, Clinton moved toward the center, abandoning a proposed plan for universal health care and backpedaling on his earlier support for gay rights.

As the decade drew to a close, things got nastier. A wide-ranging, ve- year investigation into the rst couples nancial dealings in Arkansas regarding an obscure land deal eventually focused on Bill Clintons sexual peccadilloes. Although Clinton at rst denied having had sexual relations with that woman, it became obvious that he had indeed engaged in an extramarital affair with White House intern Monica Lewinsky.

Pouncing upon a special prosecutors nding that Clinton had evidently lied under oath regarding the affair, Republicans in the House gleefully turned up the heat into full-scale impeachment proceedings. Meanwhile, Euro- peans wondered why we fussed so much about a political leaders private life. By the end of the decade, Americans had to admit that the personal seemed to have become political with a vengeance.

Violence, sex, and disasters drove the media, with emphasis increas- ingly on personalities rather than policies. The unexpected deaths of John F. Kennedy Jr. For hours, journalists in helicopters tracked O. Simpsons white Ford Bronco as the former football star ed from police to avoid arrest for the murder of wife Nicole Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman. CNN dominated news coverage throughout the rst Gulf War.

Charges of pop singer Michael Jackson molesting children, Olympic gure skater Tonya Hardings hammer attack on competitor Nancy Kerrigans knee, the Clarence ThomasAnita Hill hearings, and the unsolved murder of six-year-old beauty queen JonBent Ramsey all received far more than the fteen seconds of fame Andy Warhol had pre- dicted everyone would enjoy.

Tragedies involving U. In former Army soldier and security guard Timothy McVeigh and friend Terry Nichols bombed the Oklahoma City federal courthouse: died and more than others were wounded. Thirty-eight members of the Heavens Gate cult committed suicide in California in Even today, the school shootings near Littleton, Colorado, count as the fourth worst school disaster in history: twelve students and one faculty member were killed and twenty-four other students wounded before the two teenage assailants killed themselves.

Natural disasters also made news, among them s Hurricane Andrew and s Hurricane Mitch. Andrew trashed Florida and Louisiana and was the second costliest natural disaster in U. Mitch ravaged Central America and caused nearly 11, deaths.

But most Americans are more interested in sports and entertainment than politics and current events. Baseball fans like my brother hated the strike that forced the cancellation of the World Series inand home runs proliferated as never before. On television, actors came to seem part of our families: we fell in love with the cast and characters of Cheers, Seinfeld, E. For those who wanted investigative, if soft, journalism there was still 60 Minutes.

The success of Will and Grace proved that s audiences were gradually warming to out gay characters. And the decade also brought us Buffy the Vampire Slayer and South Park: both had enormous followings. Yet on the TV downside, how about all those infomercials on cable TV? By the end of the decade there were nearly four million people work- ing for roughly one thousand telemarketing companies. Many older Americans still read books and daily newspapers, al- though several smaller newspapers disappeared and larger newspapers merged with media conglomerates.

Top-selling novels included the rst three titles in the Harry Potter series, and mysteries by Tony Hillerman, Sara Paretsky, and Sue Grafton books G through O of Graftons alphabetical series were published this decade. Note how many became hit movies. Nonction fans relished Madonnas controversial cof- fee table book, Sex, and lapped up radio conservative Rush Limbaugh and shock jocks Howard Sterns vituperative rants.

Testifying to how hard it was to begin and maintain a relationship at the end of the century, John Grays Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus topped nonction best- seller lists three years in a row.

The latter inaugurated a new trend, becoming a stage play after being a successful movie. The Cirque du Soleils inventive act moved to Las Vegas. Radio increasingly targeted niche audi- ences. Hip-hop and rap spoke to global audiences and inuenced fashion, too. By the end of the s, few could ignore Latin pop: Ricky Martin and Selena rocked. And while Brazils macarena dance craze was sweeping the United States, even Vice President Al Gore tried to prove he wasnt so humorless by offering his own version at the Democratic National Convention in which he stood completely still.

As globalization proceeded apace under President Clinton, the economy boomed. Fads like Beanie Babies, Tickle Me Elmo dolls, body piercing, tat- toos, and Pokemon testied to the amount of disposal income available. Superstores shot up, with Wal-Mart in the lead. New fabrics like tencel and other microbers appeared. In the Dow Jones average surpassed 3, for the rst time. Byit had topped 10, The U. By the end of the decade, roughly 12 percent of the total population was foreign-born; inthe gure had been more like 9 percent.

But did s movies recognize these new audiences? Which gen- res, stars, and directors were popular with audiences and critics? What aes- thetic impact did digital shooting and composition have? The Movies: Genres, Stars, and Auteurs Actionbroadly dened to include cop lms, spy movies, certain epic science ction lms, gangster extravaganzas, martial arts movies, and morewas without question the most popular s genre.

Increasing numbers of female viewers joined male viewers, delighting in the explosions, the special effects, the stunts, the buff male and female bod- ies. Other popular genres included horror lms, romantic comedies, and neo-noirs. Blair Witch, of course, had even greater success. Predictably, there were new entries in the endless Nightmare on Elm Street series starring the oh-so- creepy Freddy Krueger Robert Englund.

Toward the end of the decade supernatural horror pictures made a comeback. Millions of Americans glee- fully got goose bumps as a terried Haley Joel Osment admitted, I see dead people to kindly psychiatrist Bruce Willis in The Sixth Sense, number two at the box ofce. At the opposite end of the spectrum were odder couples. Gina Gershon and Jen- nifer Tilly played deadly lesbian lovers in independent favorite Bound Those who relished tracking serial killers thrilled to David Finchers Se7en Westerns and musicals languished as endless sequels and multiple remakes in other genres proliferated.

Studios tried to cash in on bankable stars and familiar titles as the decade progressed. There were three Home Alone lms,all showcasing child star Macaulay Culkin. Action franchises were ubiquitous. Live action and animated childrens lms lived on eternally, it seemed, as well.

Fueled by right-wing trumpeting of family values and our newfound love of CGI computer generated imagery effects, family friendly lms did very well in the s. Together with Tom Hanks whose variations on the boy-next- door many found adorableCruise was one of the decades most depend- able male stars. Comedians Jim Carrey and Robin Williams were consistently popular. Every popular s male star gured in one or more action lms.

Tellingly, however, with the exception of Will Smith in Independence Dayall the biggest s action stars wereas usualwhite. By decades end, the aging Schwarzenegger and Stal- lone looked ragged, yet they continued to make lms despite box ofce and critical ops. In their stead, offering a less beefy look and a blank perform- ance style, laconic newcomer Keanu Reeves emerged to captivate audiences with Speed and The Matrix By the mids, most white male stars were, in effect, like Reeves slimmer and slighter.

The ability to wear clothes wellsomething George Clooney did with panachereplaced full or partial male nudity. At the same time, few women climbed to the top of the box ofce charts. Female action stars like Linda Hamilton and Jamie Lee aka the body Curtis briey carried on the s emphasis on musculinity.

Jane, a lipstick lesbianinected femme-ininity was more prominent than musculinity in most late- s female action vehicles. Many s stars moved back and forth between big- and small-budget lms.

Superstars in particular looked for more diverse roles than studio pic- tures offered. Some jump-started agging careers by acting in independent lms: witness John Travoltas return to stardom as a result of Pulp Fiction. Other stars were primarily known for their work in independent lms. Har- vey Keitels name alone was enough to guarantee an independent lms production. Parker Posey stamped many a s indie lm with her street- wise chic see Negra Queen. Like the older Keitel, Steve Buscemi seemed omnipresent.

Ruby Rich proudly announced the birth of the new queer cinema New Queer Wave. Both groups of identity-oriented independent lms moved mainstream as the decade wore on. Set It Off was a riveting all-female action caper starring the divine Queen Latifah, and in the latter half of the decade the studios jumped on the black bandwagon to serve up buppy lms about black urban professionals like Waiting to ExhaleHow Stella Got Her Groove Backand The Wood By decades end Rich was already lamenting the death of a boldly experimental, politically engaged New Queer Cinema Queer and Present Danger.

For her, the most recent queer lms primarily used queer as a brand designed to reach audiences without promoting reection or action. Yet whether or not, like Rich, one regrets the movement of many in- dependents from the margins to the mainstream, theres no arguing with the fact that the s were the decade when independent directors, virtu- ally all of them white men, moved into the spotlight. A few women, among them Allison Anders and Kimberly Peirce, also earned acclaim and enjoyed decent box ofce scores.

To cite just a few examples: Bad Lieutenant follows an incredibly corrupt Catholic cop and offers a full-frontal view of actor Harvey Keitel; Citizen Ruth features Laura Dern as a pregnant, chemical-snifng, homeless woman around whom pro-life vs.

Quentin Tarantino towered over everyone, thanks to his box ofce and his blarney. Other s independents, such as Bryan Singer, would soon cross over to become studio directors. As a result, some critics increasingly complained that independent lmmaking was becoming more risk-adverse and less creative. They pejoratively labeled the more mainstream independents dependies. They also spoke sneeringly of Indiewood. But not all independent directors sold out even when they joined forces with the major studios.

And moving to the majors meant that more stars were available for casting. Tom Cruise, for example, after an exhausting two years of shooting Eyes Wide Shut, and with a divorce from wife and co-star Nicole Kidman in the ofng, readily agreed to star in P. Andersons bruis- ing investigation of wounded hyper-masculinity, Magnolia Alexan- der Paynes clever second film, Electionfeaturing Reese Witherspoon and Matthew Broderick, earned the rst Independent Spirit Award ever accorded a studio release.

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