The first article asserts that "the song is, or was before it became corrupted, a narrative ballad. Such ballads are rare in Negro song So doubts are raised about whether 'St. James Infirmary' began life as a Negro song". The curious switchover from the actual death of the girl to the hypothetical death of the gambler creates some ambiguity too".
These liner notes are often used as a source for the history of "St. One example is an article by Rob Walker. James' Hospital was a real place and, if so, where it was. Goldstein claimed in the notes that "St. James" refers to London's St. James Hospitala religious foundation for the treatment of leprosy.
His references list an article by Kenneth Lodewick. That article states, giving no reference or source for the idea, that the phrase "St. James Hospital" refers to a hospital of that name in London. Another possibility suggested by Higginbotham on the basis of his claim that the song "St. James Infirmary" dates at least from the early nineteenth century, is the Infirmary section of the St James Workhouse which the St.
James Parish opened in on Poland Street, Piccadilly, and which continued well into the nineteenth century. James Infirmary was contemporaneous with the estimated advent of the song "The Unfortunate Lad", but it is not the London Lock Hospital. Another difficulty is that, out of the early versions of the song mentioned in the references given by Goldstein, only the one collected by Cecil Sharp in the Appalachians inand one found in Canada in the s, make use of the phrase "St.
The same statement appears in the Lodewick article referenced in those notes  The notes given in the source cited for this fragment, a collection of songs collected by William Forde and published by P. Joyce, state that the song was heard in Cork, not Dublin. As I was a-walking down by St.
James Hospital, I was a-walking down by there one day. What should I spy but Garden Of Joy Blues of my comrades All wrapped up in a flannel though warm was the day. The liner notes  state that Lloyd is singing a nineteenth century broadside version, but do not specify which. The Lloyd article cited in the references given in the liner notes,  refers to a version published by Such and to no other version. The title and words sung by Lloyd are not those of the Such broadside  which has no reference to St.
James and is not called "The Unfortunate Rake". Lloyd recorded a slightly different version inthis time calling the song "St James Hospital". Variations typically feature a narrator telling the story of a young man "cut down in his prime" occasionally, a young woman "cut down in her prime" as a result of morally questionable behaviour.
For example, when the song moved to America, gambling and alcohol became common causes of the youth's death. There are numerous versions of the song throughout the English-speaking world. For example, it evolved into other American standards such as " The Streets of Laredo ". The song, "Dyin' Crapshooter's Blues", has sometimes been described as a descendant of "The Unfortunate Rake", and thus related to "St.
This song was issued as a record four times inand attributed to pianist, arranger, and band-leader Porter Grainger. Gottlieb considered whether there were Jewish American influences through the use of the Ukrainian Dorian mode, but only found hints of this in a version published by Siegmeister and Downes.
As with many folk songs, there Garden Of Joy Blues much variation in the lyric from one version to another. These are the first two stanzas as sung by Louis Armstrong on a Odeon Records release:. I went down to St. James Infirmary, Saw my baby there, Stretched out on a long white table, So cold, so sweet, so fair. Let her go, let her go, God bless her, Wherever she may be, She can look this wide world over, But she'll never find a sweet man like me.
Some of the versions, such as the one published as "Gambler's Blues" and attributed to Carl Moore and Phil Baxterframe the story with an initial stanza or stanzas in which a separate narrator goes down to a saloon known as "Joe's barroom" and encounters a customer who then relates the incident about the woman in the infirmary. Later verses commonly include the speaker's request to be buried according to certain instructions, which vary according to the version.
When I die, want you to dress me, straight-lace shoes, Box-back coat and a Stetson hat. Put a twenty-dollar gold piece on my watch chain, So the boys'll know that I died standin' pat. The song was popular during the jazz era, and by at least eighteen different versions had been released. Keep a written or photographic record of these special visitors to your garden.
Creating your personal Eden is within your grasp. All rights reserved. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. Home Yard and garden Lawns and landscapes Landscape design Creating a butterfly garden. Quick facts Grow nectar-producing plants that will have flowers in bloom throughout the season.
Flowers with multiple florets that produce abundant nectar are ideal. Provide host plants for the caterpillar forms of butterflies. Avoid the use of broad spectrum pesticides sprayed all around the yard. Choosing host plants. Open all Close all. Common butterflies and their caterpillar food plants Butterfly caterpillars have a limited host range. Nectar plants for adult butterflies Shrubs Azalea, blueberries, butterfly bush, buttonbush, lilac, privets and sumacs Cultivated flowers: annuals Coneflowers, flowering tobacco, impatiens, marigolds, phlox, sunflower and verbena Cultivated flowers: perennials Asters, bee balm, Garden Of Joy Blues weed, chrysanthemums, daisies, live forever, purple coneflower, sedum and yarrow Wildflowers New England aster, bergamots or horsemints, black-eyed Susan, blazing stars, boneset, butterfly flower, coreopsis, ox-eye daisy and purple agertum Some weedy wildflowers are not appropriate for formal garden settings, but could be used in a wild patch: common milkweeds, dogbane, goldenrods, ironweeds, Joe-Pye weed, nettles and thistles.
Other Some butterflies, such as the Mourning Cloak Nymphalidae: Nymphalis antiopa and Hackberry Apaturidae: Asterocampa celtis feed on rotting fruit, sap that oozes from trees, and even dung.
Sample garden plan. Purple coneflower 2. Dill 3. Hollyhock 4. Joe-Pye weed 5. Globe centaurea 6. Peony 7. Turtlehead 8. Swamp milkweed 9. Bung in some penstemons or Federation daisies and you'll have flowers in a month or two. Every garden needs some English lavender plants to dry your underwear on, so they smell fresh and delicious after a day of flowers and sunshine.
English lavender grows extremely well in a pot on a sunny patio, too, though if you live in a high-rise you may prefer to drape your smalls on the side of the plant that passers-by can't see. And of course you have space for more flowers. Fill the gaps in paving with a white froth of alyssum. Stick sunflower seeds wherever you can find bare sunny soil. Plant out the space between the tyre tracks in the driveway with low-growing yarrow, scented clove pinks, ever-blooming erigeron or garlic chives, which look specular in flower.
Think hanging baskets, pots on the window sill look for a flowering cactus that will still survive and even bloom when you neglect it and remember a nude fence is an abomination, and needs to be garmented in something floriferous or edible, or both, like banana passionfruit with its gaudy pink blooms.
Hoik out the grass from any sunny bank and plant helichrysums everlastings instead, so you can pick them then let them dry in the vases to enjoy for years as their colour fades to parchment. You can also Garden Of Joy Blues indoor plants via mail order - I've been hunting for an indoor plant gift for a friend. Garden Of Joy Blues florists sell and deliver indoor plants, but so do specialist nurseries and non-specialist ones too.
Even someone with severely brown thumbs can grow an impressive bromeliad in a sunny spot, especially if they sit the pot on a saucer filled with pebbles and water to increase humidity. Lipstick plants need good light too to give their vivid flowers; and anthuriums flamingo lilies will give you glorious colour.
The more light and the better fed they are, the more flowers you'll get. Make sure soil is well drained and not too wet, and cosset with a high-phosphorous fertiliser every few months. Your online supplier should also be able to advise what high-phosphorus fertilisers they have to offer. Keep hunting. Keep planting. And give cuttings, even if they must be thrown in a bundle over the fence to be socially distanced. I've just posted a great bunch of salvia cuttings to a friend in Melbourne.
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