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On de, back pepito y chabelo vs los monstruos douleur cervico bracchiale associazione consumatori energia elettrica e gas dieta! On de mantenimiento saludable wadham downing. Journalist Nelson George suggests that as long as producers were sampling black artists, everything was fine, but once more progressive acts like Public Enemy and De La Soul started sampling white music, the practice started to come under scrutiny.

In both cases, the creators of the original work sued the rap artists, arguing that use of the original constituted copyright infringement. Prior to the lawsuits, the relationship between copyright and sampling was murky at best: these rulings set important precedents that would alter the composition of rap music for years to come.

Record labels now employ people whose job it is to clear samples, while some producers continue to sample outside of the law, choosing obscure tracks and substantially altering more familiar ones to escape detection. In copyright law, fair use is determined by considering four basic criteria: 1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; 2.

The nature of the copyrighted work; 3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and 4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. In short, any use that would prevent the original authors or artists from earning revenue they rightly deserved for their work would not be considered fair use. His record label was also required to stop selling the album unless and until the song was removed.

The judge even referred the case to criminal court, arguing that Markie should be charged with theft, but that case never materialized.

Prior to recording the song, the group approached Acuff-Rose in an effort to obtain the rights legally, but they were denied. The group recorded and released the song anyway, arguing that their version was a parody of the original, which would fall under the provisions of fair use which is to say they had no obligation to pay for the rights in the first place. Acuff-Rosewhich ultimately ruled in favor of the rap group in It is two-dimensional but suggests several dynamic layers—three dimensions—in different ways.

The large black letters are slanted and lack straight lines, imbuing them with a sense of motion. The sides of the letters are painted gray, implying a third dimension, thickness, Figure 1. The streak also affirms the depth of the black letters and suggests space in front of and behind them. In music, as in graffiti, layering is an illusion—more accurately, a metaphor. When we talk about layering in music, we can visualize it in three dimensions: height which is dictated by pitchwidth which is dictated by pulse and rhythmand depth which is typically dictated by intensity or volume.

We can visualize musical layers in a few ways. Another way to visualize layering is by examining music-production software like ProTools or Logic. Each different shaded horizontal band represents a distinct layer of the musical texture and basically corresponds to an instrument, much like the musical notation example above. There are places where some layers drop out i.

The silence represents a rupture in the flow not only in that particular layer, but also in the track as a whole. This might have been intended to let the content of the text shine through with minimal distraction. Adam Krims says these densely layered, often very dissonant i. In all of these styles, the sampling reinforces the sense of beat and meter; the hip-hop sublime does not suggest a particular key, scale, or Figure 1.

The no-noise version leaves off the Malcolm X samples and starts immediately with the music. The mix on this version is slightly different from the album Rubin And Cherise - Various - Arista AOR Sampler (Vinyl the bass is more prominent throughout, and the drums sound a little brighter and softer. The alternate mix makes it a bit easier to hear the patchwork nature of the beat in the no-noise instrumental version. You can cut it off you can truncate it really tight, you can run a loop in it, you can cut off certain drum pads.

Inspired by Rakim, Chuck tried a varied flow characterized by rapid-fire bursts of lyrics punctuated by sudden stops. The first verse includes more simple divisions of the beat; the second verse relies on compound divisions of the beat. The compound divisions in his flow clash a bit with the prevailing simple divisions in the instrumental tracks.

Note that this a cappella track includes lyrics for only the first two verses. After Ice Cube parted ways with N. Dre, are as well-known as the artists they produce. The work of many high-profile DJs and producers can be identified solely on the basis of the distinct sounds that comprise their beats; Mark Gillespie refers to this as a sonic signature.

The sonic signatures reveal elements of regional style, era, available technology, and, of course, prevailing tastes. Every musical sound has four primary characteristics: pitch, intensity, duration, and sound color. Pitch refers to the relative highness or lowness of a sound.

Intensity deals with volume, and it applies not just to the relative softness or loudness, but also to things like attack, decay, and apparent placement in the mix i. Duration encompasses tempo, meter, and rhythm and can also refer to the articulation of a note—is it separated from the notes around it, or are they connected smoothly?

At the end of each section, there is a breakdown of the pitch Pintensity Iduration D and sound color S characteristics of each style. It is important to note that these are generalizations and might not apply equally well to all songs by a given producer.

Barry Michael Cooper, a journalist and screenwriter for the film New Jack City, christened the style in a Village Voice cover story. Keyboard-wise, it was very busy and we would call it organized noise.

It was like chaos, but organized. It showcased the backbeat in music and a lot of the percussion shuffles. The percussion drives the tempo through a strong backbeat that is, beats 2 and 4. Sound color: The sound is very synth-driven, featuring both keyboard synthesizers and electronic drums.

For the most part, this style does not rely on samples. The production is generally polished and clean-sounding. Swing refers to an uneven division of the beat—a long-short feel—that results from grouping the first two subdivisions in a compound meter.

The label peaked with releases by Mary J. The label influenced not only music, but film, television, and fashion as well. High-top fade haircuts, designer clothes, and conspicuous jewelry provided the distinct look cultivated by these artists. After being dismissed from Uptown inhe struck out on his own and started Bad Boy Records, which came to embody its own unique style of East Coast hip hop.

Uptown struggled through the mids and ultimately dissolved by Despite their heaviness, his beats have the warmth of vinyl, no doubt a result of his background as a DJ. In addition, he has released a few of his own mixtapes: 19 and Boomin is the one that catapulted him to stardom. Metro Boomin composes his beats using a sequencing program called Fruity Loops Studio. This results in a wide space in the mid range, which is sometimes filled in with synth string or choir sounds.

Intensity: The bass and hi-hat frame the sound. Most of the mid-range sounds are pushed to the back of the mix. The bass line changes very slowly, in sharp contrast to the rapid articulation in the hi-hat. Overall, the production sounds very thick, full, and dark. As vanguards of new styles, each producer was also responsible for inspiring many imitators. The goal of this strategy is typically financial gain and, as such, can result in similar-sounding songs at the top of the sales charts.

J Dilla is one such artist. Compare and contrast DJing and turntablism. Others counter by saying the original artists deserve fair compensation for their work. Choose one side and defend your position. Find a rap song that you like and identify the producer. Find two or three other songs by the same producer and try to describe their sonic signature.

Does the producer use live instruments, turntables, samplers, or some combination thereof? The Art of 16 Bars. Scratch [documentary]. New York: Palm Pictures, See also Schloss, Making Beats, 37—8, and idem. Dimension Films brought charges against N. The Hip-Hop Studies Reader. The chapter begins with a summary of some common poetic techniques—devices like rhyme, alliteration, and metaphor.

The middle of the chapter examines questions of subjectivity and narrative in order to ask, who is telling the story and how are they telling it? Intertextuality is the belief that texts have no inherent meaning, but that their meaning emerges through comparisons with other texts. This is an important strategy for listening to rap, given its heavy reliance on borrowing. The chapter closes with an overview of how different languages—Spanish, Japanese, and American Sign Language—reflect the transformations that language undergoes in the process of crafting rhymes.

Not only does rhyme force us to compare the sound of the rhyming words, it also forces us to compare the possible meanings of the words. The combination of rhythm and rhyme is also a powerful memory aid and helps listeners predict what word or syllable is likely to come next. A good MC will avoid the obvious rhymes in favor of new and surprising pairings.

The desire to avoid perfect rhymes, coupled with the fact that there are many words that lack perfect rhymes, has led MCs to investigate the creative possibilities of slant rhyme. If the consonant sound appears within the words, the technique is called consonance. Both alliteration and internal rhyme often serve to blur the line breaks implied by end rhymes.

This technique is an example of what Adam Bradley calls transformative rhyme: words that do not rhyme at all are pronounced in such a way that they do.

The difficulty inherent in crafting multisyllabic rhymes often necessitates the use of slant rhyme. Homophones are related to homonyms: they are words that sound the same but are spelled differently and likely have different meanings. Taken together, the meanings of both imply that the other rapper writes watered-down lines as a result of his haste.

Figure 2. The numbers indicate where the musical beats fall: the underlined syllables are alliteration, and the italicized syllables are assonance. Rakim starts two syllables marked with asterisks near the end of each line slightly before the beat, so that the vowel sounds end up on the beat.

Perhaps the two most common ways to invite comparisons in poetry are simile and metaphor. Some artists employ extended metaphors through multiple songs, or even through an entire album. The Wu-Tang Clan is exemplary in this regard, having created an entire fantastic, metaphorical world to inhabit that is rooted in Shaolin kung fu and the teachings of the Five-Percent Nation see Chapter 8.

The members of the group, many of whom have enjoyed solo careers as well, hail mostly from Staten Island, which they refer to as Shaolin. Kung fu and chess are both used as metaphors for lyrical skills, strategy, and discipline.

The hash symbol used on Twitter and other social-media platforms offers a way to categorize topics: including the hash symbol immediately before a word i. While Kanye claims to have invented hashtag rap, examples of it appear well before the interview referenced above.

Early rap relies predominantly on end rhymes with clear line breaks. Similes and metaphors evolved into increasingly clever and obscure punch lines, devices like personification gradually came into use, and hashtag rap represents a new way of suggesting comparisons. The answer to the second question, which will be addressed in the next section, deals with narrative.

The answer to the first question might seem obvious: the rapper is telling their story. The question quickly becomes problematic when we consider how many rappers have renamed themselves or—even more significantly—how many rappers employ several different personae in their performances.

When we listen to Eminem, are we actually hearing Marshall Mathers? Or are we hearing him speak through the personality of Eminem, or Slim Shady? Kool Keith of the Ultramagnetic MCs, who claims to be the inventor of the hip-hop persona, raps under 53 different names. In the case of these alter egos, is it possible to say that the stories they tell are true?

No matter how much we love our parents, African-American males throughout the twentieth century have been notably uncomfortable with the Christian-based names they were given.

And in hip hop, the renaming is not solely a male strategy: most female rappers also rhyme under different names. William Jelani Cobb suggests that the gangster evolved from the badman figure and the pimp from the trickster. One of the things that critics found most troubling about the rise of gangsta rap on the West Coast in the late s was the fact that many of these violent tales were told in the first person. Not only can rappers inhabit different identities, but they can tell stories from different points of view or from different vantage points in time.

In some cases, the perspective shifts happen within a single song. We get a sense of the close relationship he had with his mother, as well as the kind of discipline she imposed.

We could guess that he either escaped or was arrested and that this song—and his rap career generally—is evidence of redemption. If we ask who is telling the story, we can also ask who is listening to the story. Again, the answer might seem obvious at first: we are listening to the songs, and we are the audience to whom the lyrics are addressed. Individual listeners interpret a song in their own way, relating it to what they know about the artist, rap music in general, other media, and so on this kind of listening will be taken up in more detail below, in the section on intertextuality.

But every song also constructs a hypothetical idealized listening subject as well. The line indicates that someone is trying to interrupt him.

We get a sense of some of the conversations that the couple may have had previously—in a time before the conversation in the song starts—as we listen to the second verse.

Alternatively, we can imagine ourselves as eavesdroppers on the conversation between the couple, perhaps as we stand next to the narrator of the third verse, observing the scene from afar. The album achieved notoriety for going platinum and winning a number of awards in spite of the lack of features, leading many to speculate about future albums: would they, too, be feature-free?

Features are typically used to boost the career of one of the artists. A number of scholars have attempted to categorize these narrative strategies, and, despite their superficial differences, four basic narrative archetypes emerge: reality, auto biography, diss, and party.

As with any categories—especially at this level of generalization—some overlap is natural; we will see some cases of this below. Reality rap includes all the gritty tales of street life.

The main objective of this style is to convince the listener that the events depicted actually happened. Many feature some obstacle that must be overcome, such as poverty, a rival artist or gang, the record industry, or some other institution.

Auto biography relates the story of an individual or group: the subject of the song does not have to be the rapper himself or herself. Arguably, this narrative structure could be understood as a type of reality rap. While this archetype tends toward chronological narrative, boast raps are a common lyrical manifestation of this type.

In lyrical instances, a rapper may boast about verbal or sexual prowess, toughness, wealth, or success in the industry. Diss raps are the foundation of battle rapping. In a diss rap, the rapper hurls insults at an opponent. In a sense, it represents the opposite of the boastful lyric autobiography one could argue, perhaps, that it is a kind of lyrical biography, where boasting is lyrical autobiography. In this style, wordplay is typically more important than the beat: the lyrics critique the target s in an effort to damage their reputation.

It is not uncommon, though, for the dissing artist to rap over a track created by the target artist. Party raps tend to have lighter subject matter and are typically lyrical as opposed to narrative. These are songs that are meant for dancing, not contemplation: the beat is often more important than the words. The lyrics might be about sex, drugs, partying, or dancing. There are some songs that exist solely for the joy of wordplay or parody: songs by the Fat Boys, 2 Live Crew, and artists like Busdriver are more about the skill of rhyming than they are about communicating a specific message.

Greg Dimitriadis is one of the few authors who examines the impact of commercialization on musical form. Writing inhe observed that: The decentralized face-to-face social dynamic which marked early hip hop has thus given way to a different dynamic, one mediated by way of commodity forms such as vinyl, video, and CD. As rap has become more and more mainstream, it has been subjected to increasing pressure from market forces.

These forces have changed not only the stories of rap, but also the ways in which those stories are told. It is important, then, to take into account the interplay among musical form, narrative, and subjectivity. In the early days of rap, musical form had little impact on the overall structure of the lyrics. MCs would improvise over the beats the DJ was playing in order to move the crowd, and most of their material was improvised. Put another way, the MC was subservient to the DJ. At first glance, it might appear that musical forms like this would prove restrictive as artists try to manipulate their stories to fit into these standard song forms.

As it happens, many artists used these forms to their advantage. In lieu of a hook, the song features a variety of samples, sound effects, and spoken dialogue, all of which forestall the continuation of the drama in the second verse. The final verse consists of a letter written by the rapper to his fan, apologizing for not responding to the letters. Cole provides three different perspectives, one in each bar verse of the song.

He uses basically the same tone of voice for each verse: it is mainly his language choices—changes in pronouns, for instance—that alert us to a shift in perspective.

The third verse presents the viewpoint of an omniscient narrator, someone observing the conversation. This verse functions in a similar fashion to the chorus in Greek drama, commenting on what the characters cannot perceive while informing the audience of what is actually happening. In this way it differs from the first two verses, in which the speaker is addressing the other partner, not the audience. The hook of this song repeats three times, once after each verse. In each instance, the lyrics are practically identical, with one small change of pronoun.

That the two hooks share lyrics reveal that, beneath the anger, fear, and confusion that the two characters display in their respective verses, both share an underlying sadness. And many if not most of our listening experiences occur without any kind of extensive background about the artist and his or her life circumstances.

Imagine turning on the radio in the middle of an unfamiliar song. Intertextuality suggests that texts songs, lyrics, sounds have no inherent meaning; instead, they develop meaning through their relationships with other texts. Intertextuality suggests that each individual has a listening that is true for them. Furthermore, this perspective allows meanings to change over time, as old associations may be severed or reinforced, and new ones created.

Rap music and hip-hop culture generally is fundamentally intertextual as a result of its heavy reliance on borrowed material. Sampling is perhaps the most obvious manifestation of borrowing, and one of the most frequently asked questions about rap music gets at the distinction: do you have to know the source of a sample to understand the meaning of a song?

In most cases, samples are chosen purely on the basis of their sound and not with the intention of making a thematic or topical connection between two songs. An intertextual hearing would say no. Maybe the sample has been slowed down or sped up or sliced so thin as to make it unrecognizable. Because the process of making these intertextual webs is a personal one, creating an intertextual listening guide for a song is challenging.

Jay-Z indicates that the verse ends ambiguously: the listener is left to guess how the situation ends. In the pop world, songs like R.

And Jay, instead of talking about bitches, he talked about a dog searching his car—which was a bitch—which was kind of clever. It makes sense. The year before, Ice-T had announced that his hardcore band, Body Count, was back in the studio recording a fifth album.

Intertextuality also implies a comparison with other elements of culture that might not be immediately recognizable as texts. We compare the songs we hear to conventions of the genre in general: arguably, this is how we identify a rap song as opposed to, say, a country song or a jazz song Chapter 6 takes up this point in more detail with a discussion of generic codes.

We listen to it with reference to magazine articles, blog posts, and books like this one. We compare it to the prevailing cultural, political, and economic conditions of the time hence the focus on the conditions in the South Bronx in Chapter 5. Of course. Does recognizing all the points of reference in the song make listening to it more enjoyable? Not necessarily. The larger point is that, when we listen to music, we are constantly making comparisons to other things that we know in order to establish what a song means to us.

Rappers transform language and, as they do so, imbue it with power—nommo see Chapter 5. As rap spread around the country and around the world, it intersected with different languages and different cultures, shaping them as much as it was shaped by them. Rappers had to find ways to master and transform their own languages.

Writing with respect to Japanese rap, Ian Condry points out the tension between globalization, in which rap overall becomes more homogenous due to the multitude of influences and mass-media disseminationand localization, where the genre adapts to fit the needs of a local community.

Lines 3 and 4 end with a slant rhyme in English. From their earliest efforts, Japanese artists had to figure out how to reconcile the American hip-hop aesthetic with elements of Japanese culture. American rap records first appeared in Japan in the early s; however, the movie Wild Style, which premiered in Japan inwas the impetus for hip-hop culture—break dancing, initially—to take root there.

As hip hop grew in popularity through the late s, prominent rap acts such as Afrika Bambaataa, Run-D. Pioneering Japanese rappers faced a dilemma: should they rap in English or Japanese? The choice has both cultural and poetic repercussions. Japanese rappers had to decide whether to write their raps in Japanese and risk alienating those who did not speak the language, or to rap in English, in which they were not as fluent.

Many early Japanese rappers started rapping in English, believing that Japanese was ill-suited for composing raps; however, they soon returned to their Japanese roots, believing that they could express themselves more authentically in their native tongue.

Furthermore, the subject matter of rap in Japan differs markedly from the subject matter of American rap. Cultural considerations aside, rapping in Japanese presents a unique set of linguistic challenges. Rap in English relies on rhyming and stress accents, two linguistic elements that have no equivalent in Japanese. Rhyme and stress accent are how we define many English poetic forms: for example, an Elizabethan sonnet comprises fourteen lines of iambic pentameter—the stress-accent pattern—and has a rhyme scheme of abab cdcd efef gg.

Instead of accent and rhyme, Japanese poems tend to rely on the number of syllables—more specifically, moras an even smaller linguistic unit —like the well-known pattern of haiku.

The trio formed in and released its debut album in The rhythmic similarities in this line and throughout the song are a result of the lack of stress accents and equal-length moras. In general, the first syllable of the text occurs on the first beat of the bar, and the last syllable of text in the line occurs on the last beat, with a longshort-short rhythm shi-ro-to, ku-rou-to, so-rou-to predominating. As rap evolved in Japan, both artists and listeners went in search of more sophisticated lyrical techniques.

Noriko Manabe outlines two strategies that Japanese rappers employ to create rhythm and rhymes: changing the syntax and borrowing from other languages. In Japanese, sentences must end with auxiliary verbs, and there is a limited number of these, which results in trivial end rhymes.

K Dub Shine was among the first to experiment with Japanese syntax: he realized that rap in English relied on pairing important words and that he could do something similar in Japanese by focusing on key words and ignoring syntax and, in some cases, grammatically correct suffixes.

Despite the emphasis on sound, there are those in the hip-hop community working to make rap music accessible to the deaf. The figurative meaning of the verbal lyrics is thus somewhat at odds with the literal meaning of what she is signing.

Furthermore, ASL has its own grammar, distinct from English. In the verse, Sharaya J signs along with what she is rapping, but she forces the signs into English grammar for a more direct correlation between sight and sound, a strategy similar to that of Japanese rappers. A provision of the Americans with Disabilities Act requires concert venues to provide an interpreter for the Deaf community when requested.

Translating lyrics into ASL can be challenging and requires more than just conventional hand signs to convey meaning. Many common words and expressions have their own unique signs, and other words can be spelled out using letters of the alphabet. Any sign in ASL relies on five parameters—hand shape, palm orientation, location, movement, and facial expression—and a change in any one of these alters the meaning of the sign.

Those who translate rap lyrics tend not to translate the material literally that is, word-for-word ; rather, they attempt to convey the general meaning of the lyrics. Facial expressions also take on an important role. In the cases described above, we can see the reciprocal relationship between rap and language: language influences rap, and rap in turn influences language. This reciprocal relationship is examined further in the next chapter.

Choose a song that you like and analyze it in terms of poetic devices, notions of subjectivity, and narrative. How important is it that we know the source of the samples either musical or lyrical, in the case of rappers quoting other rappers? Listen to one of the songs in the original English and then the same song in Spanish.

How does translating the song affect the poetry? The rhythm? Octagon, Dr. The Hip Hop Studies Reader. Manabe indicates that English is a required subject for Japanese students beginning in the seventh grade. Much as producers have their own sonic signature, each MC has a distinct voice.

We can talk about the biological component of flow using the same parameters that we used in our discussion of sonic signatures. Language choices are a powerful marker of race and class identity. In some cases, rappers inflect their voices differently within the same song: The Notorious B.

A voice with an accent can also connote location, as well as a sense of in- or out-group membership. We can use the same methodology here that we used to discuss sonic signatures in Chapter 1 and talk about voices in terms of pitch, intensity, duration, and sound color. For the most part, a change in one of these parameters signals emphasis on a word or syllable.

It is also worth mentioning that changes in one parameter are often accompanied by changes in another: the voice gets louder and higher-pitched, for instance. These parameters are also subject to technological manipulation as well, a subject that will be taken up later in this chapter.

Some rappers have higher-pitched voices Eazy-Eand some have lower-pitched voices like Rakim and Tyler the Creator. Women typically have higher-pitched voices than men. More specifically, it might not make sense to talk about whether a particular syllable is supposed to sound like C or Cand it might not even make sense to talk about whether a rapper is in tune or out of tune.

When we speak, our voices tend to descend in pitch over the course of a declarative statement, and they tend to rise in pitch toward the end of a question.

Some rappers have a rather wide, expressive pitch range; others are narrower. There are instances where rappers do sing, and it makes sense to talk about pitch in a more rigorous way; even here, though, there is a continuum, from the joyfully out-of-tune singing of Biz Markie, to the harmonies of Bone Thugs to more recent artists like Fetty Wap and Anderson. While singing in hooks is common—often, a different artist is hired just to sing the hook—singing in verses especially by the rapper is much less common.

When a rapper does sing, it attracts special attention from the listener: why has the artist chosen to sing rather than rap? Similarly, if an artist is singing and that singing is badly out of tune, we might wonder why, given the available methods to fix it, they left it out of tune.

Autotune is a technology that originally referred to a particular software program AutoTune, published by Antares but has come to be a metonym for any real-time pitch-correction software. Either way, many people consider pitch correction to be a form of cheating and use it to further their arguments about the inferiority of much contemporary pop music rap included.

Autotune features prominently in a lot of contemporary rap by artists like Future and Young Thug. Duration accounts for several parameters here. We can also use it to talk about the amount of separation or smoothness between syllables staccato vs.

Sound color is once again the trickiest to define. Some artists even have signature ad-libs—grunts, moans, yelps, or other noises that are easily identifiable. His injuries required his jaw to be wired shut in order to heal correctly.

He recorded the track with his jaw wired shut, resulting in the unusual sound of his voice on the song. Beat boxing is the skill of using the voice to imitate the sounds of drums, other percussion instruments, and turntable techniques.

In light of the poverty experienced by many early hip-hop artists, the story goes that beat boxing developed as a way to supply beats for rappers who could not afford turntables or a drum machine. In hip hop, the style was pioneered in the early s by Doug E. Beat boxing, like turntablism, has split off from mainstream hip hop and become an art form in itself, with artists like Beardyman, Rahzel formerly of The RootsEklips, Bellatrix, and Tom Thum among the most well-known and respected practitioners.

While there are many ways rappers can naturally change their voice, there are more ways that technology can alter its sound. Even the simple act of performing into a microphone and amplifying the voice changes it, denaturalizes it. Producers can add delay and reverb, both of which create a sense of space.

The main difference between delay and reverb is the amount of time it takes for the reflection of the original sound to hit your ear: with reverb, the original sound is still present, as if you were making the sound in a small room; with delay, the original sound has dissipated, as if you were making the sound in a canyon.

A posse cut is a song that features several artists, often from different labels, with each getting a verse. Songs by early rap groups are de facto posse cuts—the form certainly hearkens back to the cipher—they featured members of a particular crew or label. T-Pain is a fine singer without the software, but the program adds a unique sound color or timbre to his voice. Rather than there being smooth glides from syllable to syllable as happens naturally when we sing or talk, the software makes it sound as though there are many little discrete steps as T-Pain moves from one pitch to another.

Ludacris raps the first verse Most of his lines start off with very short, fast notes and end with slightly longer, slower notes that drag behind the beat. After a repetition of the hookRick Ross delivers the second verse On just about every other beat, the text in his verse is highlighted with an echo. His voice is the lowest-pitched of all the artists on the track and sounds more laid-back than the first two rappers: he works fewer syllables into each beat.

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