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Earth - Obsidian Kingdom - Matter (CD)


Most stages grant three upgrade points upon completion, with the exception of the following:. Upgrade Strategy. Kingdom Rush Wiki Explore. Wiki Content. Levels Adventures. Enemies Bosses. On the Crystal Skulls, I think that there may be technology missing that goes with it to access their stored information. Think of finding a CD disc from the past but with no machine to play it on.

Interesting and informative read about the healing properties of crystals. Never researched about this aspect of crystals, will check it out. Wow, that's awesome! I think my parents took me there as a child but I'm planning on visiting again. Actually I didn't know there was an organization. I just thought that was a name for the crystals which are being used to heal the Earth. I've seen many people claim this is the only way to truly bring the planet back into good health and harmony I've also seen people totally against it too who seem to think that negative ETs want to bring the crystals to the surface for nefarious purposes.

When you refer to "Earth keeper crystals" do you mean generic or to the organization that brought them to public attention? I've had some experience with them and they are legitimate. In fact, I will be attending one of their conferences here in November. Most of these crystals are on private property, and some are so huge they have to be broken up to be removed. In a way I find it a shame to disturb them. I found a white crystal stone about a 6 in.

There is a large solution quartz mine inactive on private property about a mile or two as the crow flies from my house. The owner will put a trespasser in the pokey, so we can't go there. I absolutely believe that the Atlanteans did indeed seed huge crystals which would be needed at a time in our future.

According to some, important information was retained in these crystals. Seems to tie in perfectly with everything that's going on at the moment. Earth keeper crystals? Central to SW Arkansas is an amazing place for crystals. You can dig your own or buy them at the many crystal shops. Arkansas and Brazil are famous for having the biggest amazing crystal deposits on earth. Believe this or take it for a grain of salt, but we are told that the Atlanteans seeded the huge crystals in Ark.

Of course, we are already famous for having a diamond mine where a person can go dig to try to find one. If you do, you get to keep it no matter its size or value.

Wow, that must be an amazing place to live! I would love to live somewhere like that. You're also lucky to get to have personal experience with "Max"! Yes, those vogel crystals are not that common and the genuine ones can be costly. I see a few about now and again but like you said, there are many fakes. Thanks for reading. There are a lot of counterfeits on the market, but the real ones are priced out of my range.

My yard abounds with beautiful white crystalline rocks that contain small perfectly clear crystal formations inside. I believe that is what has attracted me to live here.

So naturally I have an interest in crystals and also in the crystal skulls. Funny, because I had a little crystal radio when I was a kid, and I was not impressed at all. Anyway, I am more into the spiritual side of crystals than the scientific side, and I really enjoyed your article. I'm glad you found it interesting. This is a topic which, if became widely known, could potentially change the entire world around us for the better. You hit the nail on the head when you said that crystals are like living beings - that's because they ARE living beings!

They are a pure manifestation of primary life-force energy. These enzymes are produced in the small intestine as well as in the pancreas and liver.

After the enzymes break down the food, the resulting substances are then absorbed into the blood via capillaries in the small intestine walls. The acids produced by the pancreas contain several enzymes that aid in digestion. Lipase converts fat to glycerol and fatty acids.

Pancreatic amylase breaks down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars. Trypsin converts polypeptides the building blocks of protein into amino acids. The large intestine colon follows the small intestine and processes the physical waste produced by digestion, absorbing water and minerials that remain back into the body.

Solid waste is then stored in the rectum while liquid waste is stored in the bladder. Chemical waste like excess water, minerals, and salt are filtered from the blood by the kidneys and secreted into the urine. Urine Earth - Obsidian Kingdom - Matter (CD) transported from the kidneys to the bladder through ureters.

The nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system which is the network of nerve cells neurons that collect and distribute signals Earth - Obsidian Kingdom - Matter (CD) the central nervous system throughout the body.

The cerebrum is the major part of the brain and is responsible for the main senses thinking, hearing, seeing. The cerebellum is a large cluster of nerves at the base of the brain that's responsible for balance, movement, and muscle coordination. Part of the brainstem, the medulla is the connection between the brain and the spinal cord. It controls involuntary actions like breathing, swallowing, and heartbeat.

The spinal cord connects the brain to the body's network of nerves. It carries impulses between all organs and the brain and controls simple reflexes.

Part of the peripheral nervous system, the somatic nervous system is made up of nerve fibers that send sensory information to the central nervous system and control voluntary actions. Part of the peripheral nervous system, the autonomic nervous Earth - Obsidian Kingdom - Matter (CD) regulates involuntary activity in the heart, stomach, and intestines.

Approximately every 28 days during female ovulation an egg ovum is released from one of the ovaries and travels through the oviduct fallopian tube and into the uterus. At the same time, the endometrial lining of the uterus becomes prepared for implantation. During intercourse, the penis ejaculates spermproduced in the testesinto the vagina.

Some of the sperm makes their way to the uterus where, if they encounter an egg to fertilize, unite with the ovum to form a fertilized egg or zygote. The zygote then may implant in the uterus and eventually develop into a fetus.

If the ovum fails to become fertilized, the lining of the uterus sloughs off during menstruation. From puberty to menopause, this cycle of menstruation repeats monthly except during pregnancy.

Heredity is the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another. Heredity is made possible via large strings of chromosomes which carry information encoded in genes. Reproductive haploid cells known as gametes have half as many 23 pairs of chromosomes as normal diploid cells.

When the male gamete sperm combines with the female gamete ovum through meiosis to form a zygote, each gamete supplies half the chromosomes needed to form the normal diploid cells. Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is the molecule that contains genetic information. DNA is encoded through a combination of nucleotides that bind together in a specific double helix pattern.

The gene is the base unit of inheritance and is contained within DNA. A gene may come in several varieties alleles and there are a pair of alleles for every gene. If the alleles are alike, a person is homozygous for that gene. If the alleles are different, heterozygous. The traits represented by genes are inherited independently of each other one from the male and one from the female gamete and a trait can be dominant or recessive.

A dominant trait will be expressed when paired with a recessive trait while two copies of a recessive trait one from each parent must be present for the recessive trait to be expressed. A person's genotype is their genetic makeup and includes both dominant and recessive alleles. Phenotype is how the genes express themselves in physical characteristics.

Cells are classified into one of two groups based on whether or not they have a nucleus. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus and therefore have a less complex structure than eukaryotic cells. The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell contains the genetic material of the cell and is surrounded by cytoplasm which contains many organelles. These include:. Animal cells are surrounded by a semipermeable membrane which allows for the transfer of water and oxygen to and from the cell.

In plant cells, the cell membrane is surrounded by a somewhat rigid cell wall which provides the cell structure and support. Some plant cells produce their own energy through photosynthesis which is the process by which sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water react to make sugar and oxygen. Animal cells cannot produce their own energy and, instead, generate energy when mitochondria consume outside sugar and oxygen through aerobic respiration.

If no oxygen is present, cellular respiration is anaerobic and will result in fermentation where either lactic acid or alcohol is used instead of oxygen. Cell division is the process by which cells replicate Earth - Obsidian Kingdom - Matter (CD) material in the nucleus. Cell division consists of several phases:. The biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships.

This includes their interactions with the lithosphere the rigid outer part of the earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantlehydrosphere all surface waterand atmosphere the envelope of gases surrounding the planet. A biome is a large naturally occurring community of flora plants and fauna animals occupying a major habitat home or environment. An ecosystem is a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.

This includes both the biotic living and abiotic non-living. A population is a group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time. A community is a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area. Producers autotrophs serve as a food source for other organisms. Earth - Obsidian Kingdom - Matter (CD) producers are plants that can make their own food through photosynthesis and certain bacteria that are capable of converting inorganic substances into food through chemosynthesis.

Decomposers saprotrophs are organisms such as bacteria and fungi that break down the organic matter in the dead bodies of plants and animals into simple nutrients. Like decomposers, scavengers also break down the dead bodies of plants and animals into simple nutrients. The difference is that scavengers operate on much larger refuse and dead animals carrion.

Decomposers then consume the much smaller particles left over by the scavengers. Most animals consume other organisms to survive. Consumers heterotrophs are divided into three types, primarysecondaryand tertiarybased on their place in the food chain. Primary consumers herbivores subsist on producers like plants and fungus. Examples are grasshoppers, cows, and plankton.

Secondary consumers carnivores subsist mainly on primary consumers. Omnivores are secondary consumers that also eat producers. Examples are rats, fish, and chickens. Tertiary consumers eat primary consumers and secondary consumers and are typically carnivorous predators. Tertiary consumers may also be omnivores. Examples include wolves, sharks, and human beings.

The broadest classification of life splits all organisms into three groups called domains. The three domains of life are bacteriaarchaea and eukaryota. Below domain, life is classified into six kingdoms: plantsanimalsarchaebacteriaeubacteriaand fungi. The last kingdom, protistsinclude all microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, animals, plants or fungi. Archaebacteria and eubacteria are sometimes combined into a single kingdom, monera.

Classifications of life are too numerous to enumerate, here's an overview of the classifications from broadest to narrowist:.

The narrowest classification of life, species, contains organisms that are so similar that they can only reproduce with others of the same species. The crust is the Earth's outermost layer and is divided into oceanic and continental types. Oceanic crust is 3 miles 5 km to 6 miles 10 km thick and is composed primarily of denser rock.

Continental crust is 20 to 30 miles 30 to 50 km thick and composed primarily of less dense rock. The crust makes up approximately one percent of the Earth's total volume. It is dense, hot, and primarily solid although in places it behaves more like a viscous fluid as the plates of the upper mantle and crust gradually "float" along its circumference. The Earth's core is divided into the liquid outer core 1, miles or 2, km radius and the solid inner core miles or 1, km radius.

The crust and the rigid lithosphere upper mantle is made up of approximately thirty separate plates. These plates more very slowly on the slightly more liquid mantle asthenosphere beneath them.

This movement has resulted in continental drift which is the gradual movement of land masses across Earth's surface. Continental drift is a very slow process, occurring over hundreds of millions of years. The Earth's rocks fall into three categories based on how they're formed. Igneous rock granite, basalt, obsidian is formed from the hardening of molten rock lavasedimentary rock shale, sandstone, coal is formed by the gradual despositing and cementing of rock and other debris, and metamorphic rock marble, slate, quartzite which is formed when existing rock is altered though pressure, temperature, or chemical processes.

The Earth is approximately 4. The largest graduation of time is the eon and each eon is subdivided into eraseras into periodsperiods into epochsand epochs into ages. The Cambrian period is one of the most significant geological time periods. Lasting about 53 million years, it marked a dramatic burst of changes in life on Earth known as the Cambrian Explosion. It is from this period that the majority of the history of life on Earth, as documented by fossils, is found.

Called the fossil recordthe layering of these mineralized imprints of organisms preserved in sedementary rock have allowed geologists to build a historical record of plant and animal life on Earth. The water hydrologic cycle describes the movement of water from Earth through the atmosphere and back to Earth. The cycle starts when water evaporates into a gas from bodies of water like rivers, lakes and oceans or transpirates from the leaves of plants. Rising into the atmosphere, the water condenses into clouds.

When the clouds become too saturated with water, the water is released as snow or ice precipitation which may warm as it falls to reach Earth as rain. The water then accumulates as runoff and eventually returns to bodies of water or is absorbed into the Earth infiltration and becomes part of the water table, an underground resevoir of fresh water.

The carbon cycle represents the ciruit of carbon through Earth's ecosystem. Carbon dioxide CO 2 in the atmosphere is absorbed by plants through photosynthesis. Plants then die and release carbon back into the atmosphere during decomposition or are eaten by animals who breathe respiration the carbon into the atmosphere they exhale and produce waste which also releases carbon as it decays.

The Earth's atmosphere has several layers starting with the troposphere which is closest in proximity to the surface. Containing most of the Earth's breathable air oxygen and nitrogenit's a region with warmer temperatures closer to the surface and cooler temperatures farther away which results in the rising and falling air that generates weather. The stratosphere is just above the troposphere and is stratified in temperature with warmer layers higher and cooler layers closer to Earth.

This increase in temperature is a result of absorption of the Sun's radiation by the ozone layer. However, the gas in this layer is highly diluted so even though the atoms of gas may be very high in temperature, there are too few of them to effectively transfer much heat. An air mass is a large body of air that has similar moisture density and temperature characteristics. A front is a transition zone between two air masses.

A cold front is a warm-cold air boundary with the colder air replacing the warmer. As a cold front moves into an area, the heavier cool air pushes under the lighter warm air that it is replacing. The warm air becomes cooler as it rises and, if the rising air is humid enough, the water vapor it contains will condense into clouds and precipitation may fall.

A warm front is the boundary between warm and cool or cold air when the warm air is replacing the cold air. Warm air at the surface pushes above the cool air mass creating clouds and storms. When two air masses meet and neither is displaced, a stationary front is created. Stationary fronts often cause persistent cloudy wet weather. Clouds are categorized based on their shape, size, and altitude.

Stratus clouds are low-altitude clouds characterized by horizontal layering with a broad flat base. When stratus clouds occur on the ground the result is fog. Cumulus clouds are large, puffy, mid-altitude clouds with a flat base and a rounded top. These clouds grow upward and can develop into a cumulonimbus or thunderstorm cloud. Cirrus clouds are thin, wispy high-altitude clouds composed of ice crystals that originate from the freezing of supercooled water droplets.

Cirrus clouds generally occur in fair weather and point in the direction of air movement at their elevation. The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star G2V but is informally known as a yellow dwarf star. It formed approximately 4.

The four planets closest to the Sun MercuryVenusEarthand Mars are called terrestrial Earth-like planets because, like the Earth, they're solid with inner metal cores covered by rocky surfaces.

In contrast to the solid terrestrial planets, the outer planets JupiterSaturnUranusand Neptune consist of hydrogen and helium gas and water. The solar system also contains over a million rocky fragments of at least 1km in diameter called asteroids as well as millions more with smaller diameters. Many of these asteroids are an asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. The Kuiper Belt is similar to the asteroid belt but much larger. Extending beyond the orbit of Neptune, it contains objects composed mostly of frozen methane, ammonia, and water.

Most notably, the Kuiper Belt is home to Plutoa dwarf planet that, until a reclassification, was considered the ninth planet of the solar system. A comet is a loose collection of ice, dust, and small rocky particles that, in contrast to an asteroid, has an extended atmosphere surrounding the center.

When passing close to the Sun, this atmosphere warms and begins to release gases forming a visible coma or tail. Smaller rocks shed by asteroids and comets are called meteoroids. When these rocks reach Earth's atmosphere, they burn up in the mesosphere and become meteors. If a meteor manages to reach the Earth, it is called a meteorite. The metric system is a number system that designates one base unit for each type of measurement. For example, the base unit for length is the meter and the base unit for mass is the gram.

A prefix is added to the base units of the metric system to indicate variations in size. Each prefix specifies a value relative to the base unit in a multiple of Common prefixes are:. Velocity is the rate at which an object changes position. Velocity and displacement are vector quantities which means each is fully described by both a magnitude and a direction.

In contrast, scalar quantities are quantities that are fully described by a magnitude only. Like velocity, momentum is a vector quantity as it expresses force applied in a specific direction. Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity per unit of time. Force is applied to change an object's speed or direction of motion. Weight is a force that describes the attraction of gravity on an object.

Mass is the amount of matter something has while weight is the force exerted on an object's mass by gravity. So, although a person's mass doesn't change when going from the Earth to the Moon, their weight will decrease because the force of the Moon's gravity is much less than that of Earth. Work is performed on an object when an applied force causes displacement along the same vector.

Kinetic energy is the energy posessed by a moving object. Potential energy is stored energy in a stationary object based on its location, position, shape, or state. The electromagnetic spectrum covers all possible wavelengths and frequencies of radiation. Simple magnets have two poles, north and south, and opposite poles attract each other N attracts S, S attracts N. Likewise, the same pole of two magnets repel N repels N, S repels S. The Earth has a magnetic field and North and South Poles which enables the use of a magnetic compass to determine direction.

Also known as the law of inertiaNewton's first law of motion states that An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

Newton's second law of motion states that The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

This law basically means that the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to overcome its inertia. Newton's second law of motion leads to the formula for acceleration which is a measure of the rate of change of velocity per unit time and, if you solve for positive acceleration, reveals how much net force is needed to overcome an object's mass.

Newton's third law of motion states that For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. When an object exerts a force on another object, the second object exerts a force of equal magnitude in the opposite direction on the first object. Newton's law of universal gravitation defines gravity : All objects in the universe attract each other with an equal force that varies directly as a product of their masses, and inversely as a square of their distance from each other.

A vibrating object produces a sound wave that travels outwardly from the object through a medium any liquid or solid matter. The vibration disturbs the particles in the surrounding medium, those particles disturb the particules next to them, and so on, as the sound propagates away from the vibration.

The speed of a sound wave will vary with the medium. Sound travels fastest through media that has particles that are very close together, like metal. Thus, it travels faster through water than through air and doesn't travel at all through a vacuum there are no particles in empty space to vibrate. The rate of vibration of sound is called frequency and is measured in hertz Hz. One hertz is one repetition per second and sounds with high frequency have a higher pitch than sounds with lower frequency.

Humans can hear sounds in the range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. The Doppler effect occurs when the source or listener or both of sound waves is moving. If they're moving closer together, the listener perceives the sound with a higher pitch and, when they're moving apart, the listener perceives the sound with a lower pitch.

Unlike mechanical sound waves that require a physical medium for propagation, light waves are electromagnetic and can travel through empty space. The speed of light varies based on the material that the waves are passing through.

The refractive index of a material indicates how easily light travels through it compared to how easily light travels through a vacuum. For example, the refractive index of water is 1. Because different materials have different refractive indices, light changes speed when passing from one material to another.

This causes the light to bend refraction at an angle that depends on the change in refractive index between the materials. The greater the difference, the higher the angle of refraction. The law of reflection specifies how waves, including light waves, bounce off of surfaces. A concave or converging mirror bulges inward and focuses reflected light on the mirror's focal point where the mirror's angles of incidence converge.

In contrast, a convex or diverging mirror bulges outward and diffuses the light waves that strike it. A common use of a concave mirror is in a reflecting telescope, a common use of a convex mirror is in the side view mirror of a car. Unlike curved mirrors that operate on the principle of reflection, lenses utilize refraction. A convex lens is thicker in the middle than on the edges and converges light while a concave lens is thicker on the edges than in the middle and diffuses light.

A common use for curved lenses is in eye glasses where a convex lens is used to correct farsightedness and a concave lens is used to correct nearsightedness. Heat is always transferred from warmer to cooler environments and conduction is the simplest way this transfer can occur.

It is accomplished through direct contact between materials and materials like metals that transfer heat efficiently are called conductors while those that conduct heat poorly, such as plastic, are called insulators. Convection is the transfer of heat by the circulation or movement of the heated parts of a liquid or gas.

Examples of heat transfer by convection include water coming to a boil on a stove, ice melting, and steam from a cup of coffee. Radiation occurs when electromagnetic waves transmit heat. An example is the heat from the Sun as it travels to Earth. An element is matter than cannot be separated into different types of matter by ordinary chemical methods. An atom is the smallest component of an element that still retains the properties of the element. A proton is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom.

It carries a positive electric charge. A neutron is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. It is neutral as it carries no electric charge. An electron is a subatomic particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom. It carries a negative electric charge. Generally, an atom has the same number of negative electrons orbiting the nucleus as it does positive protons inside. A compound is a substance containing two or more different chemical elements bound together by a chemical bond.

In covalent compounds, electrons are shared between atoms. In ionic compounds, one atom borrows an electron from another atom resulting in two ions electrically charged atoms of opposite polarities that then become bonded electrostatically. A molecule is the smallest multi-atom particle of an element or compound that can exist and still retain the characteristics of the element or compound. The molecules of elements consist of two or more similar atoms, the molecules of compounds consist of two or more different atoms.

A base alkaline gives up negatively charged hydroxide ions OH - when dissolved in water. Numbered from 0 to 14, solutions with a pH of 7 are neutral, less than 7 are acidic, more than 7 are alkaline. During a chemical reaction molecules and atoms reactants are rearranged into new combinations that result in new kinds of atoms or molecules products. The Periodic Table of the Elements categorizes elements primarily by the number of protons in their nucleus atomic number and secondarily by the characteristics they exhibit.

The rows of the Periodic Table are called periods and contain elements that have the same number of electron shells ordered from lower to higher atomic number. The columns of the Periodic Table are called groups and all elements in a group have the same number of electrons in their outer electron shell.

The group that an element occupies generally determines its chemical properties as the number of outer shell electrons establishes the way it reacts with other elements to form molecules. So, because each element has the same number of electrons in its outer shell, each has similar reactivity. The atomic mass of an element listed in the Periodic Table represents the average mass of a single atom of that element and is measured in atomic mass units amu.

This number is an average as some elements have isotopes with atoms that vary in their number of neturons and, therefore, differ in weight. An element in a solid state has atoms or molecules that are constricted and do not move freely. Solids maintain a constant volume and shape and exist at a lower temperature than liquids or gases. In the liquid state, molecules flow freely around each other and exist at a higher temperature range than the same substance in a solid state.

Liquids maintain a constant volume but their shape depends upon the shape of their container. FR Scene It? IT Scene It? Lights, Camera, Action Scene It? Shred Nebula Shred! WP Siegecraft Commander Sig. NULL Sig. Nekketsu New Records! X Tom Clancy's H. Capcom 3 Ultimate Marvel vs. What The Dub?! Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? Worms W. Legacy of the Duelist Yu-Gi-Oh! Windows Zombies!!!

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